Cite as: Bradley N (2005) Robert Saudek’s Contribution to Graphology. The Graphologist (Spring), 23(1) Issue 86, 2-12.
Available at http://www.wmin.ac.uk/marketingresearch/graphology/saudek.htm
Robert Saudek (1880-1935) has had an undeniable influence on the content and standing of graphology worldwide. Gille-Maisini (1980:74 and 1984:69) described Saudek as one of the most copied writers, particularly for his work on speed, indices of dishonesty and the notions of secondary signs and counter dominants. We will see that Max Pulver (1931) based his dishonesty indicators on Saudek’s work.
In the 1920s a notable publisher, Stanley Unwin, met Robert Saudek. Here is an extract from the publisher’s autobiography (1960):
“One of the most interesting and best-informed journalists I ever met was a Czech, Robert Saudek. His hobby—I think he might have said profession—was graphology. He came to me with an enormous typescript on The Psychology of Handwriting, which I am afraid I received with much scepticism. I did not believe that it could be scientific.”
We know Saudek convinced Unwin that graphology was indeed a worthwhile discipline and through this publisher his work was introduced to the English-speaking world through two books, "both of which were destined to lay the foundation for a new graphology" (Roback 1942:195). As a result Saudek helped to advance graphology in both the United Kingdom and North America. From New York in 1945 Ruth Hampton wrote: “For English reading people some of the finest books have been written by Robert Saudek (Marcuse 1945:6); in 1952 Klara Roman said that he had "aroused at least a limited recognition (of graphology) in the United States". Considering the size of the country this is quite an achievement.
His impact was such that in the 1990s, more than half a century after his death, two of his books were still judged by British graphologists worthy of inclusion in the top ten preferred texts (Bradley 1992). Alfred Mendel's 'Personality in Handwriting' was judged to be the single-most important text; which is another credit to Saudek since this book is largely based on Saudek's thinking, and Mendel acknowledges this fact.
The influence of Saudek has been evident in many ways elsewhere. Beside his major graphology works, he wrote over ten fictional novels or plays. He also published numerous articles in many languages in periodicals as diverse as The Listener, Zeitschrift für Menschenkenntnis and the Journal of Social Psychology.
The professional graphology society in the Netherlands, still fully functioning, was founded by Saudek. He also started two academic periodicals: one in Dutch and the other in English. In recent years there have been reprints of his books in the USA and the UK; in France and Italy his books have appeared in translation. One Urbino pupil said “Saudek represents British graphology”. Effectively, the present day British Institute of Graphologists is dominated by members influenced by the work of Singer and Hilliger; these two graphologists both drew heavily on Saudek. Many graphologists worldwide today use Saudek’s work without knowing the origin.
Robert Saudek was born in Kolìn, Bohemia on 21 April 1880, the son of a man who was a manufacturer of feather beds; Robert had a brother and two sisters. He was a polyglot: by the end of his life he had mastered Czech, German, Dutch, French and English.
We know that Saudek’s interest in graphology began at 16 years of age (1896) and that at 19 years he read a book by Crepieux-Jamin (Saudek 1930:23). Furthermore he studied a correspondence course produced by the well known german graphologist Hans Busse (who incidentally translated Crepieux-Jamin’s work into German) and was very familiar with the work of Ludwig Klages, who was Busse’s assistant editor of a German graphological periodical (Backman 2002). Around 1900 he studied at the Universities of Prague, Leipzig and the Sorbonne.
From 1903-1909 he authored plays, essays, epigrams and novels, such as, A Child's conscience and Jewish Youths (1903), Eine gymnasisltragödie (1904) Und über uns leuchtende Sterne (1907) and Das Märchen des Meere (1909).
From 1914-1918 it is reported that he ran an intelligence bureau in The Hague during WW1. “For a time he engaged in business, and during the World War he maintained an intelligence bureau in the Hague.” (Roback: 1935:264)
He married Senta Mayer, a German citizen with whom he travelled widely in Europe, the Near-East and Far-East. A son, Avrid, was born in 1918. In 1918 Saudek entered the diplomatic service for the Czechoslovakian Government, in Holland and in England. The family settled in The Hague, Holland in that year. In 1918 he authored the novel Diplomats which was published in German, Czech, Dutch, French and Italian (1921), this was a novel with a graphological plot.
It was in the 1920s that he began the Bulletin of the Dutch Association for Scientific Graphology (Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Graphologie. Orgaan Van De Vereeniging Voor Wetenschappelijke Grafologie). In 1963 this became Acta Graphologica. A daughter, Raina, was born in 1921 and the family moved away from the Hague in 1922; they moved to Berlin until 1924.
In 1924 Saudek moved to London where he was correspondent to the Prague Presse Newspaper and established a profitable graphological practice. Much of this work was pre-employment checking for clients outside England, mainly in Europe. An assistant, Jan Meloun from Czechoslovakia was introduced to the practice.
In 1925 Unwin published Psychology of Handwriting; it also appeared in Dutch, German, Danish, and Swedish. Saudek supplemented his income by drawing rents from two large properties in Berlin. He also gave lectures, notably one was to the British Psychological Society, Medical section on 21 October 1926, which became an article (see Saudek 1927). He also made radio broadcasts with the BBC; one such broadcast took place on 7 September 1927.
His next book was Experimental Graphology which appeared in German, Czech and Dutch in 1926. Saudek lectured on experimental graphology at Berlin, Amsterdam, Brussels and Prague from 1926-1928.
Saudek was in contact with many graphologists worldwide. Lecerf (1935:9) gives an insight into the relationship between Crepieux-Jamin and Saudek. There is evidence that Saudek corresponded with Crépieux-Jamin in 1926; there were letters discussing translations of graphology books (see Bradley 2001: 45). In June 1928 Saudek went to the International Graphology Congress in Paris. Here he read a tribute to Crepieux-Jamin in honour of the French graphologist’s 70th birthday.
The book “Experiments in Handwriting” was published in London in 1928. Possibly related to the book and his lecture tour initiatives, Saudek was awarded a PhD in Brussels, Belgium in the same year. This now meant that he was able to use the title Dr Saudek.
Another book followed in 1932, this was What Your Handwriting Shows and was a shorter, more popular-style book than the others. Then in 1933 Anonymous Letters was published, this concentrated on the criminological aspects of handwriting analysis work.
|Year||Saudek’s Age, years|
|1880||Born Kolin, Bohemia (21/4/1880)|
|1902||22||Began graphological research|
|1918||38||In Holland, son born|
|1921||41||In Germany, daughter born|
|1925||45||Psychology book published|
|1926||46||British Psychological Society Lecture|
|1928||48||Experiments book published. Attended Paris 2nd International Symposium. Awarded PhD (Brussels)|
|1930||50||Brooks' book published. Saudek Founded Graphology Journal|
|1932||52||What Your Handwriting Shows book published. Character & Personality Journal started.|
|1933||53||Anonymous Letters published|
|1935||55||Died of duodenal ulcer haemorrhage in London (15/4/1935)|
Numerous graphological analyses have been made of Sigmund Freud and one report of the psycho-analyst was written by Robert Saudek on 29 April 1930, Freud was in his early seventies; we know that Freud "stigmatized it as a bad joke" (Jones 1957:150).
Eugenics is defined as "the study of human improvement by genetic means" (Encyclopedia Britannica). The term was coined by the English scientist Francis Galton in 1883 and ever since eugenists have proposed various controversial opinions. For example they suggest that arranged marriages help to produce a gifted race and that social class is justified since it clearly identifies different members of society. From the 1920s American Unionists supported restrictions on immigration and sterilisation of the mentally inferior. Such ideas were discredited after German Nazis were found to have used eugenics to justify its extermination of Jews, blacks, homosexuals and gypsies.
Saudek had an interest in eugenics which is evident from his membership of the Eugenics Society (England). In 1932 Saudek was Eugenics Society Fellow (Source: Eugenics Review 1932 and Obituary in the Eugenics Review July 1935, p. 149). Many people now are extremely critical of this movement; as an anti-Eugenics group writes “When the British Empire fell, this secret army fought on in a hundred disguises for white supremacy.” (see http://www.eugenics-watch.com/briteugen/ )
The nature of his graphological work is also indicative of an interest in eugenics. Amongst his papers and published work there are working drafts on nationality, intelligence and hereditary factors. His unpublished research at Senate House covers ethnic origin in handwriting; this embraces American, Japanese and Chinese scripts in addition to the writings of Negroes. It looks at physical wellbeing: the heart, eyes, tuberculosis, and alcoholism. Additionally it examines mental and emotional wellbeing by: psychosis in puberty, pseudologia phantastica, schizophrenia, neuroses, electra-complex, paranoia and hysteria. This is done looking at homosexuals, twins, juvenile delinquents, and murderers.
In the 1930s Saudek was collaborating with the psychologist Abraham Aaron Roback (1890-1965) who was educated at McGill University in Canada and went on to Harvard in the USA. In 1932 Saudek formed the journal 'Character and Personality', described as 'An International Psychological Quarterly'. An English version, for the United Kingdom, was published by G. Allen & Unwin, London and a version for the USA by the Duke University Press in South Carolina. For German speakers the Journal was known as “Charakter: Eine Vierteljahresschrift fur Psychodiagnostik und verwandte Gebiete”, and was published by Pan Verlag, Berlin.
This journal included numerous articles on topics other than handwriting. It carried contributions from many psychologists of international repute. We know from papers at Senate House, London that Saudek corresponded with Allport, Bleuler, Leon Simsilevich and others. The journal attracted papers from over 40 prestigious collaborators. These included Jung, Adler and Spearman. The September 1944 issue (nine years after Saudek's death), featured two psychologists who are still well known today: - Hans Eysenck (then 28 years old) and Raymond Cattell (then 39 years old). Both Eysenck and Cattell were always open-minded to graphology, and we might surmise that this exposure to the topic may have been a contributory factor. The articles on graphology stopped after Spearman (now well known by statisticians) took over as editor. The journal continued to be published by Duke University under the name of Journal of Personality but with no emphasis on articles concerning handwriting. Blackwell became the publisher in 1997.
About 1931 Saudek appears to have initiated an outlet for his research, by collaboration with Ernest Seeman, based in the USA. There are still in existence 125 case studies of work carried out with Seeman between 1932 and1934.
For the public The Times of 16 April 1935 carried his obituary which read:
His son, Avrid, wrote to me "Throughout the period that I knew my father, he was plagued with a stomach complaint, which I know caused him a great deal of discomfort at times. The doctors finally diagnosed it as a duodenal ulcer, and it was this that brought his life to a premature end when he developed an acute haemorage".
A copy of his death certificate is also telling; it shows that he died at 20 Devonshire Place in London, which was probably a private hospital in 1935. The cause of death was shown as: (a) Septicaemia; (b) Haemorhage (c) Chronic duodenal Ulcer. The death was certified by H. Davidsohn LRCP (sic) and was registered by his sister in law. She recorded his occupation as Editor of the Psychological Quarterly Journal, this seems to be the way those closest to him wished him to be remembered.
Saudek did a great favour to graphology from a public relations viewpoint. In the UK alone Saudek brought handwriting analysis to the attention of some significant institutions: the British Broadcasting Corporation, the British Psychological Society and the world of publishers. He was clearly well-educated and able to communicate his views extremely effectively, meaning that he was a perfect ambassador for the subject.
During his lifetime, from a personal viewpoint, Saudek achieved international notoriety in the graphological field: the appearance of his books and articles in many different languages is testimony to this fact. Within the graphological community there is evidence that he was spreading both old and new methods. It also appears that his technical propositions were received well.
His role of creating a “bridge” was apparent between France and Germany: Lecerf (1935:29) said “His linguistic knowledge led him to arbitrate the different stances which separated the French school from the German school.”
Criticisms levelled at Saudek have often originated from continental Europe. It is said that he was simply regurgitating European graphology and introducing it to a new wider public, not yet exposed to those methods. In his defence Roman (1952) said that Saudek was purposefully introducing European graphology but was doing so “with objectivity” and relying “more heavily upon quantitative methods” in order to overcome the negative attitudes of academic psychology.
English-speaking graphologists often find Saudek’s style hard to read, to the extent that his work has been described as “intense, wordy” (Beck 1991) and “full of painstaking data (Jastrow 1935:121). As a result many resort to a book by Brooks (1930) as the best introduction to his work. It was indeed published in order to simplify his methods and make it more accessible to the layman. Saudek’s own book “What Your Handwriting Shows in 1932” indicates that the author himself was aware of the difficulties posed by his style: “I have often been asked to write a small, popular book on the experimental psychology of handwriting, omitting the poly-syllables, which make my works such heavy going to the general reader.”
Saudek made firm assertions about graphic gestures and many graphologists may disagree. By example, for Saudek the slant to the left or right was seen to be a matter of fashion rather than having any psychological significance. Indeed subsequent research (Piggott 1958; Patterson 1967,1970) show that the slant of writings does appear to move from left to right over the generations and does differ between occupational groups, which may be indicative of fashion. It is also apparent that a whole population is capable of change and our clearest example of this is the marked differences in handwritings from the German population before 1945 and afterwards.
Although the French school acknowledges Saudek, we may suggest that his influence on the French was less marked. Paradoxically it could be argued that Saudek himself was largely influenced by the French school, since, as we know, he first read one of Crepieux-Jamin’s works at the age of 19 years. However he judged the Jaminian method by Methode Pratique de Graphologie, a book Crepieux Jamin wanted to withdraw from sale. A counter-argument to this comes from an astute observation by Lecerf (1935:29) who said “his German training seems to have prevented him from capturing the subtlety and clarity of Crepieux-Jamin’s work.”
If Pulver is associated with symbolism and Klages with rhythm, Saudek is most widely associated with speed of writing. His assertions were based on observations, for example he said that no one maintains a single pace throughout one document. More angularity shows greater hesitation and therefore a slower speed. Then the words where this hesitation occurs may hold special significance. These are notions that can be subjected to inspection again and again. The validity and reliability can be investigated. There are many more issues that are examined in this way. See Rose Matousek’s article (1989) for more on this aspect.
In his Experiments book (1928) he gave a remarkably complete list of signs of dishonesty. Saudek identified ten features and said that at least four must be present for any suspicion of dishonesty. Slow writing is one of the features, which Saudek felt to be extremely important.
A battle has been raging in graphological quarters regarding the work of Pulver and Saudek. Their respective signs of dishonesty were published within five years of each other. Saudek has been accused of plagiarism: Huntingdon Hartford (1973:237) argued that Saudek copied Pulver’s signs of dishonesty: “it seems apparent that he must have been influenced by the Swiss graphologist in spite of the care he takes in avoiding the mention of his name”. Considering that Pulver wrote his major work on this subject in 1931 and that he even acknowledges Saudek in his book, the claim is unjustified. Pulver actually expands on the work of Saudek (also see Gille 1980:74). There is no easy answer to this, but we can be grateful to both authors for the energies that helped push the psychology of handwriting forward.
At the time the indicators were discussed in fine detail, a critical review by Rickman published in 1930 includes a response by Saudek. The usefulness of the signs was tested in a 1985 study by Betty Link. She took the handwritings of 32 workers who had confessed to stealing goods and inspected them for the occurrence of the “dishonesty features”. Indeed several of those identified by Saudek were apparent in the writings of these people. These signs are still of interest years later and are regularly discussed by graphologists.
Graphic maturity was another area that Saudek believed to be important to graphology. He defined this as the mastery of writing. When graphic maturity was achieved it meant that an individual is able to write spontaneously, without paying too much attention to the formation of letters, words or phrases. He suggested that people who have not reached graphic maturity should be treated as special cases in graphological analysis. Indeed foreigners writing a new language may not have reached graphic maturity in that language. Typically in his mother tongue an individual would reach graphic maturity around puberty.
For graphologists his work lives on. Many graphologists today use the findings of Saudek without knowing the origins or the context; for example counter dominants and secondary width. Mendel tells that his chapter on pressure is mostly based on Saudek. The Saudek archives at Senate House, not yet open for public view, suggest that there is much more to learn. Saudek left several tabular grids where he plotted handwriting characteristics against different writers, a sort of primitive accountant spreadsheet. This research protocol is crying out to be adapted to computer spreadsheets and databases. He left unpublished articles, research ideas, correspondence with psychologists and graphologists; case files. Easily available to us there are numerous articles and books in many different languages, most of which have been searched out and itemised below. These are full of concepts that are waiting to be discovered, researched and used by graphologists today.
Backman, Robert (2002) Correspondence with Nigel Bradley
Beck, J (1991) Conversations with Nigel Bradley
Bradley N (1992) The British Graphology Bookshelf in 1991-1992. The Graphologist, summer, 10(2), Issue 35, 90-91
Bradley N (2001) Graphodigest 2000. The First Virtual Conference for Graphology. NRB, Chesterfield.
Gille-Maisani J-Ch (1978) Les Contre Dominants de Saudek. La Graphologie No 152, Oct, pg48
Gille-Maisani J-Ch (1980) A propos de Saudek. La Graphologie No 157 Janvier 73-74
Gille-Maisani J-Ch (1984) Book Review of Saudek’s Psychology of Handwriting. La Graphologie No 174 Avril, 68-70
Gille-Maisani J-Ch (1992) Psychology of Handwriting. Scriptor books, London
Hartford, Huntington (1973) You are What you Write: Comprehensive Guide to Handwriting Analysis. Macmillan Publishing Co., New York, 1973; Peter Owen , London, 1975.
Jastrow, Joseph (1935) Sanity First: the art of sensible living, New York, Greenberg
Jones, Ernest (1957) Sigmund Freud: Life and Work Vol.III. London: Hogarth Press
Lecerf, André (1935) Robert Saudek et la Graphologie, Pt I. Graphologie (1)4 Oct 29-31
Lecerf, André (1936) Robert Saudek et la Graphologie, Pt II. Graphologie (2)5 Jan 27-37
Link, Betty (1985) 30 Handwritten Confessions. The Graphological Forum (HAI) 4(2) Sept 1-6.
Marcuse, Irene (1945) Applied Graphology. Anatolia Press, New York.
Matousek, Rose (1989) Speedy Saudek. AAHA Dialogue 24(5) Sept-Oct 7-12
Mendel, Alfred O. (1947) Personality in Handwriting; a Handbook of American Graphology. Stephen Daye Press, New York
Murphy, Gillian (2003) Saudek R. Biographical history. Available at http://www.aim25.ac.uk/cats/14/7152.htm
Patterson, J. (1967) Handwriting Survey Intelligence, No. 97, March, p.9.
Patterson, J. (1970) A View of Mensa. Mensa Journal, No 134. May, p.4
Piggott, R. (1958) Handwriting. A National Survey George Allen and Unwin, London.
Pulver M (1931) Symbolik der Handschrift. Orell, Zurich
Rickman J. (1930) Review of Saudek’s Experiments with Handwriting. British Journal of Medical Psychology 10, pg 94
Roback A.A. (1935) Obituary to Saudek. 'Character and Personality' vol. 3 no. 4 (June 1935), 263-269
Roback, A.A.(1942) A Psychorama: : A Mental Outlook and Analysis. Cambridge, MA: Sci-Art Publishers,
Roman. K (1952) Handwriting: A Key to Personality. New York, Pantheon
University of London. Senate House Library, Mixed Dates 1908; 1920s-1934 Collection at 12 archive boxes. Reference code(s): GB 0096 MS1004 See http://www.aim25.ac.uk/cats/14/7152.htm
McGill University, Manuscripts, Rare Books and Special Collections Division, Montreal, Quebec,Canada. The papers of Abraham Aaron Roback (1890-1965) include correspondence with Robert Saudek and others. http://www.library.mcgill.ca/rarebook/hisideas.htm
Library of Congress, Washington DC. Container B45 of the Sigmund Freud Collection has a graphological analysis of Freud dated 1930. http://www.loc.gov
A Child's conscience and Jewish Youths. 1903
Drei Bühnendichtungen der Kinderseele. Berlin, Deutsche Bühne, 1903. 117pp
Drama detske duse Divadelni knihovna Maje, sv. 9,1903. Played in National Theatre, Prague opening, 21.9. 1903 direction Jaroslav Kvapil (one of the most outstanding Czech directors of the time)
Eine Gymnasten-Tragödie Concordia Deutsche Verlag, H. Ehbock – Berlin 1904
Revoluce na gymnaziu, tragedy in 4 acts Divadelni knihovna maje, No date: probably 1904.
Und über uns leuchtende Sterne. 1907
With Weininger, Otto. Gedanken über Geschlechtsprobleme. Bln, Concordia o. J. (1907 Vorw.). 98pp
Der Mikado Ein Seeroman (roman) Concordia Deutsche Verlag. Anstalt H. Ehbock Berlin 372pp 1909
Das Märchen des Meere.1909
Die Spielerin Verlag Von C. Reissuer, Dresden, 1910
Der entfenelte Riese (roman), Schuster-Loeffler - Berlin. Leipzig. 1910
With Alfred Halm. Das Märchen vom Heiligenwald. Lustspiel in drei Akten. Dresden, Reißner, 173 pp 1912.
Eine Heilige und zwei Sünder. Reissner Dresden 1912 Leinen 460pp
Diplomaten: Drei Masken: München. 425pp. 1918/1921
Damon (roman) Concordia Deutsche Verlag. Anstalt Hermann Ehbock. Berlin.
Dramen der Kinderseele (in 1 acte)
With Rudolph Lothar: Kavaliere (Play in 3 acts)
De Distel.-Pietje de Landlooper-.Blijspel in 3 bedrijven ... vertaald door Jan Fabricius. Tweede druk. pp. 91. Antwerpen, 1924.
Osud (Pátá Symfonie), play in 3 acts, E. J. Rosendorf, Prague, probably after 1926)
Vìdecká grafologie písma, Orbis Praha, 285 pp,1925 (Scientific Graphology – Psychology of Handwriting in Czech)
Wetenchappelijke Graphologie. De psychologie van het Schrift. The Hague: Leopold.
The Psychology of Handwriting. London: George Allen & Unwin, 394pp.; George H. Doran Co., New York 1954, 288pp. Books for Professionals, 1978
Wissenschaftliche Graphologie. Munich: Drei Maskan Verlag. 347pp.
Ein Vorschlag zur Schaffung einer internationalen graphologischen Terminologie. In: Schneickert, Hans: Zweiter Kongress des Deutschen Bundes der gerichtlichen Schriftsachverstandigen und Berufsgraphologen (Sitz Berlin) am 3., 4. und 5. September 1926 in Berlin. Offizieller Bericht. Berlin: A. W. Hayn's Erben, 33-38.
Eine Stunde Graphologie. Schünemann—Monat, März, 266- 275.
The Methods of Graphology. British Journal of Medical Psychology, July, 7(2), 221-259
Reading, writing and guessing. Psyche, 30, (8),2. 34-42
Wissenschaftliche Graphologie. In: Funk —Stunde (Hrsg.): Das Wissen im Rundfunk. Eine Auswahl von Rundfunkvorträgen. Berlin, 228-235.
Preface: Crépieux-Jamin Die Grundlagen der Graphologie und der Schrift-expertise. Heidelberg 1927.
La vitesse et la tension. Bulletins de Graphologie. Societe d’Etudes du Caractere Humain. Lyon 1/1927 (British Library shelfmark PP.1254ea)
How to detect Forged Signatures: General Press. London
Experimenteele graphologie. Den Haag, Leopold, 345p + 64p
Experimentelle graphologie. Berliner illustr. Zeitung No 19
Kinderhandschriften. Berliner illustr. Zeitung No 19
Ehrlichkeit und Unehrlichkeit in der Handschrift. Eine graphologische
Studie. Velhagen und Klasings Monatshefte, 42. Jg., Heft 7, 49-56.
Lesen, Schreiben und Erraten. Schriftpsychologie rev. Zentralbl für d. ges. Neur u. Psychiatr. 49 pg 36
Experimentelle graphologie. Archiv für Kriminologie, (Sep), 83(2), 103-195
Experiments with Handwriting. New York: Doubleday/William Morrow.1929. London: George Allen & Unwin.1928 395pp. Books for Professionals 1978.
Experimentalni grafologie (Experimental Graphology), 430 pp, Aventinium, Prague/ Experimentální grafologie, Knihovna 12,(in Czech)
Zentralnervensystem und Schreiben. Ztsch. Cas. lek ceste 1928. v.2, p.1224-1235; 1262-1268
Ústřední nervový systém a výkon psací ... Zvláštní otisk z “Časopisu lékařů českých,” etc. p. 18. v Praze, 1928.
Verbundene und unverbundene Schrift. Schrift und Schreiben, 1929/30, 1. Jg., Heft 5, 131-135
Experimentelle Graphologie. Berlin: Pan. 348pp.
Experimentelle Graphologie. HPL Uitgevers, The Hague
Das zentrale Nervensystem und der Schreibakt [Central nervous system and character of handwriting]. Jahrbuch der Charakterologie, 6, 275-303. Berlin: Pan.
Die Pathologischen Merkmale in der Handschrift. Soziale Medizin 2(12) 587-598
Anonime Briefschreiber. Berliner Illustrierte. Zeitung No 30. 28. Juli 1929
Les indices de Malhonnêteté dans l‘écriture. Graphologie Scientifique 29: 185-191
Ztsch. f.d.ges. Neur. u. Psychiatr. 1929, v 52, p.293
Experimental graphology: Sci. Pro. 1929 v.23, pp.468-486
Zur experimentellen Graphologie: Psychol. und Med. Stuttg. 1929, a.4, pp.229-243; 1931, a.6, pp.229-244.
On Crepieux-Jamin. Tribute by Saudek. Papers of the 2nd International Congress on Graphology, Paris 9-11 June 1928 pp 23-24. English translation by Nigel Bradley in the Graphologist 21(1) No 78 Spring 2003 pg 22.
Les indices de Malhonnêteté dans l‘écriture. Graphologie Scientifique 33: 233-237
Ce que le cinéma nous enseigne sur les mouvements d‘écriture. Société de Graphologie. Papers of the 2nd International Congress on Graphology, Paris 9-11 June 1928 pp 223-272
Betonung und Unterbetonung von Wortanfängen und Wortenden als charakterologische und psychopathologische Merkmale der Schrift. Zeitschrift für angewandte Psychologie, 37, 99-134
Graphological Analysis of Freud's Handwriting (Sigmund Freud Archive
Container B45, Library of Congress, Washington DC.)
Report dated 29 April
Entgegnung. (zu: Dr. A. Ackermann: Neuere graphologische Literatur.
Zeitschrift für Menschenkunde, 1930, 5. Jg., Heft 5, 314-320.)
Zentralblatt für Graphologie, 1930, 1. Jg., Heft 1, 70-73. Zeitschrift für
Menschenkunde, 6. Jg.
Die Handschrift erfolgreicher Menschen . (Abb. der Handschriften u.a. von albert Ballin, Walther Rathenau, Karl Marx, Immanuel Kant, Maximilian Harden, Bismarck). Westermanns Monatshefte. September Heft 889
Einige Bemerkungen zur Frage: Ist die Graphologie zuverlässig? Zeitschrift für gerichtiiche Schriftuntersuchungen, Nr. 21, 5pp.
Preface to Your Character from your handwriting by Brooks. Allen und Unwin Ltd London 1930
Preface: Brooks: Praktisches Lehrbuch der Graphologie. Nach der Methode Robert Saudek. Leipzig
Damen-Handschriften. Die Dame. Jahrg. 57. Hft. 10. pp. 12, 14, 40.
Schreibgelaufigkeit von österreichischen Kindern und Erwachsenen. Zentralblatt für Graphologie, 1. Jg., Heft 6, S. 477. Zeitschrift für Menschenkunde, 6. Jg.
Writing movements as indications of the writer's social behaviour. Journal of Social Psychology, 2, (3) 337-373
Zur psychodiagnostischen Ausdeutung des Schreibdrucks [Psychodiagnostic value of pen pressure]. Zeitschrift für angewandte Psychologie, July, 39(6), 443-449
Zur experimentellen Graphologie [Experimental graphology]. Psychologie und Medizin, (May), 4(7) 229-243
Zur Psychologie der amerikanischen Handschrift. [Psychology of American handwriting]. Zentralblatt für Graphologie, 1931, 1. Jg., Heft 5, 361-396. Zeitschrift fiir Menschenkunde, 1931, 6. Jg.
Zur Psychologie der amerikanischen Handschrift [Psychology of American handwriting]. Zeitschrift für Menschenkentnis 6 pp239-274
Mahtma Gandhi, eine graphologische.Unterhaltungoblatt n.27, 1-2-1931
Moderne graphologische Untersuchungsmethoden: Berlin illustr. Ztg. n.44 (c 1931)
with Seeman, Ernest. Handschriften und
Zeichnungen eineiiger Zwillinge.
Charakter, 1932, 1. Band, Heft 4, 193-230.
Pubertätsjahre im englischen Internat. Charakter, 1932, 1. Band, 12-26 .Sonderdruck: Berlin, Pan, 1932, 17pp)
Zur Psychologie des Bewerbungsschreibesn. Charakter 1. 137-147
The years of puberty in a public school. Character and Personality, 1(1), 17-34
What your Handwriting Shows. London: T.Werner Laurie. 180pp.
With Seeman, Ernest. The Self expression of Identical Twins in Handwriting and Drawing. Character and Personality 1(2) December 91-128
Identische, getrennt erzogene Zwillinge.
Eine vergleichende Studie ver-
schiedener Methoden zur Ermittelung ihrer intellektuellen und gefühls-
mafligen Reaktionen. Charakter, 1933, 2. Band, 132-146.
Zlocin v pisme – Grafologie v soudni sini (Crime in Handwriting – Graphology in Court), 101 pp, Orbis, Prague
Zloèin v písmì v soudní síni, Orbis, Praha 1933(in Czech)
Anonymous Letters. A Study in Crime and Handwriting. London: Methuen. 142pp. New York AMS Press, 1976
With Seeman, Ernest. Handschriften und Zeichnungen eineiiger Zwillinge. 40pp. Berlin, Pan Verlages
With Seeman, Ernest. Die Handschrift eineiiger, getrennt erzogener Zwillinge. Charakter 2. 66-81
With Seeman, Ernest. The Handwriting of Identical twins reared apart. Character and Personality, 1(4) June 268-285
Identical twins reared apart: a comparative study of various tests of their intellectual, emotional and social attitudes. Character and Personality, 2(1), 22-40
Können verschiedene Schreiber gleiche
Schriften schreiben? Charakter, 1933, 2. Band, 191-203.
Zw.: Vierteljahresschrift für ange-
wandte Kriminalistik, 1935, 7. Jg., Nr. 1, 35—50.
with Seeman, Ernest. Handschriften und Zeichnungen
Berlin: Pan, 40 pages with ills; Reihe: Schriftenreihe zur graphologischen Zwillingsforschung, Heft 1.
Handschrift en misdaad, de graphologie in de rechtszaal. Den Haag, Leopold, 1933, 128p met ill, linnen
Hvad Deres Haandskrift røber. Illustreret. Jespersen og Pios Forlag, København/Oslo 1933. 120pp. Tape i ryggen indvendigt.
Ein britisches Paar erbgleicher, getrennt erzogener Zwillinge. Charakter, 1934/35, 3. Band, Heft 3/4, 118-146.
A British pair of identical twins reared apart. Character and Personality, 3(1), 17-39
Can different writers produce identical handwritings? Character and Personality 2(3), 231-245
Bestimmung persoenlicher Interessen durch Testpsychologie und graphologische Methoden. Charakter 1, 19-26
Can different writers write with identical handwriting. Vierteljahreszeitschrift für angewandte Kriminalistik, 1935, 35-50
Die Handschrift von gleicherbigen Zwillingen. CIBA-Zeitschrift, 2, 789-
Psicologia della Scrittura. Messaggero, Padova
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