Assessment of the cortisol awakening response: Expert consensus guidelines

Stadler, T., Kirschbaum, C., Kudielka, B.M., Adam, E.K., Jens C. Pruessner, Wüst, S., Dockray, S., Smyth, N., Evans, P., Hellhammer, D.H., Miller, R., Wetherell, M.A., Lupien, S. and Clow, A. 2016. Assessment of the cortisol awakening response: Expert consensus guidelines. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 63, p. 414. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2015.10.010

TitleAssessment of the cortisol awakening response: Expert consensus guidelines
TypeJournal article
AuthorsStadler, T., Kirschbaum, C., Kudielka, B.M., Adam, E.K., Jens C. Pruessner, Wüst, S., Dockray, S., Smyth, N., Evans, P., Hellhammer, D.H., Miller, R., Wetherell, M.A., Lupien, S. and Clow, A.
Abstract

The cortisol awakening response (CAR), the marked increase in cortisol secretion over the first 30–45 min after morning awakening, has been related to a wide range of psychosocial, physical and mental health parameters, making it a key variable for psychoneuroendocrinological research. The CAR is typically assessed from self-collection of saliva samples within the domestic setting. While this confers ecological validity, it lacks direct researcher oversight which can be problematic as the validity of CAR measurement critically relies on participants closely following a timed sampling schedule, beginning with the moment of awakening. Researchers assessing the CAR thus need to take important steps to maximize and monitor saliva sampling accuracy as well as consider a range of other relevant methodological factors. To promote best practice of future research in this field, the International Society of Psychoneuroendocrinology initiated an expert panel charged with (i) summarizing relevant evidence and collective experience on methodological factors affecting CAR assessment and (ii) formulating clear consensus guidelines for future research. The present report summarizes the results of this undertaking. Consensus guidelines are presented on central aspects of CAR assessment, including objective control of sampling accuracy/adherence, participant instructions, covariate accounting, sampling protocols, quantification strategies as well as reporting and interpreting of CAR data. Meeting these methodological standards in future research will create more powerful research designs, thus yielding more reliable and reproducible results and helping to further advance understanding in this evolving field of research.

KeywordsCAR Measurement Saliva Adherence Covariates Guidelines
JournalPsychoneuroendocrinology
Journal citation63, p. 414
ISSN0306-4530
Year2016
PublisherElsevier
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2015.10.010
Web address (URL)https://ac-els-cdn-com.ezproxy.westminster.ac.uk/S0306453015009580/1-s2.0-S0306453015009580-main.pdf?_tid=cf9b4f1c-8165-40ed-9bd6-e6c87a4b7fca&acdnat=1540389887_a54a62b57fc463665dd965d6b0acc9d4
Publication dates
Published online20 Oct 2015
Published in printJan 2016

Related outputs

Endurance exercise reduces cortisol in Parkinson's disease with mild cognitive impairment
Smyth, N., Skender, E., David, F.J., Munoz, M.J., Fantozzi, G., Clow, A., Goldman, J.G. and Corcos, D.M. 2019. Endurance exercise reduces cortisol in Parkinson's disease with mild cognitive impairment. Movement Disorders. 34 (8), pp. 1238-1239. doi:10.1002/mds.27719

The health impact of nature exposure and green exercise across the life course: a pilot study
Wood, C. and Smyth, N. 2019. The health impact of nature exposure and green exercise across the life course: a pilot study. International Journal of Environmental Health Research. pp. 1-10. Advanced online publication. doi:10.1080/09603123.2019.1593327

Attenuated cortisol reactivity to psychosocial stress is associated with greater visual dependency in postural control
Smyth, N., Flynn, M., Rajcani, J., Hucklebridge, F., Thorn, L., Wood, C., Golding, J.F., Evans, P. and Clow, A. 2019. Attenuated cortisol reactivity to psychosocial stress is associated with greater visual dependency in postural control. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 104, pp. 185-190. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2019.02.028

Attenuated cortisol reactivity to psychosocial stress is associated with greater visual dependency in postural control
Smyth, N., Flynn, M., Rajcani, J., Hucklebridge, F., Thorn, L., Wood, C., Golding, J., Evans, P. and Clow, A. 2019. Attenuated cortisol reactivity to psychosocial stress is associated with greater visual dependency in postural control . Psychoneuroendocrinology. 104, pp. 185-190. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2019.02.028

Salience versus magnitude in the measurement of the cortisol awakening response
Evans, P., Smyth, N., Thorn, L., Hucklebridge, F. and Clow, A. 2019. Salience versus magnitude in the measurement of the cortisol awakening response. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 103, pp. 249-258. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2019.01.023

Repressors exhibit lower cortisol reactivity to group psychosocial stress
Oskis, A., Smyth, N., Flynn, M. and Clow, A. 2019. Repressors exhibit lower cortisol reactivity to group psychosocial stress. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 103, pp. 33-40. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2018.12.220

Physical fitness and prior physical activity are both associated with less cortisol secretion during psychosocial stress
Wood, C., Clow, A., Hucklebridge, F., Law, R. and Smyth, N. 2018. Physical fitness and prior physical activity are both associated with less cortisol secretion during psychosocial stress. Anxiety, Stress and Coping. 31 (2), pp. 135-145. doi:10.1080/10615806.2017.1390083

Hormonal measurement in psychobiological research
Clow, A., Hucklebridge, F. and Smyth, N. 2018. Hormonal measurement in psychobiological research. in: Murphy, P.N. (ed.) The Routledge International Handbook of Psychobiology London Routledge. pp. 95-108

Enhancing well-being and resilience in people living with cancer. Part 1
Booth, S., Ryan, R., Clow, A., Smyth, N., Sharpe, S. and Spathis, A. 2018. Enhancing well-being and resilience in people living with cancer. Part 1. Cancer Nursing Practice. 17 (5). doi:10.7748/cnp.2018.e1484

Salivary diurnal cortisol profiles in patients suffering from chronic breathlessness receiving supportive and palliative care services: a cross-sectional study
Ryan, R., Clow, A., Spathis, A., Smyth, N., Barclay, S., Fallon, M. and Booth, S. 2017. Salivary diurnal cortisol profiles in patients suffering from chronic breathlessness receiving supportive and palliative care services: a cross-sectional study. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 79, pp. 134-145. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2017.01.025

Putting the stress on conspiracy theories: examing associations between psychosocial stress, anxiety, and belief in conspiracy theories
Swami, V., Furnham, A., Smyth, N., Weis, L., Ley, A. and Clow, A. 2016. Putting the stress on conspiracy theories: examing associations between psychosocial stress, anxiety, and belief in conspiracy theories. Personality and Individual Differences . 99, pp. 72-76. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2016.04.084

Assessment of the cortisol awakening response: Real-time analysis and curvilinear effects of sample timing inaccuracy
Smyth, N., Thorn, L., Hucklebridge, F., Clow, A. and Evans, P. 2016. Assessment of the cortisol awakening response: Real-time analysis and curvilinear effects of sample timing inaccuracy. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 74, pp. 380-386. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2016.09.026

Relationship between post-awakening salivary cortisol and melatonin secretion in healthy participants
Ramachandran, N., Smyth, N., Thorn, L., Eardley, A.F., Evans, P. and Clow, A. 2016. Relationship between post-awakening salivary cortisol and melatonin secretion in healthy participants. Stress. 19 (2), pp. 260-263. doi:10.3109/10253890.2016.1146671

Hair cortisol concentrations in relation to ill-being and well-being in healthy young and old females
Smyth, N., Bianchin, M., Thorn, L., Hucklebridge, F., Kirschbaum, C., Stalder, T. and Clow, A. 2016. Hair cortisol concentrations in relation to ill-being and well-being in healthy young and old females. International Journal of Psychophysiology. 102, pp. 12-17. doi:10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2016.03.001

The effect of progressive muscle relaxation on daily cortisol secretion
Chellew, K., Evans, P., Fornes-Vives, J., Pérez, G. and Garcia-Banda, G. 2015. The effect of progressive muscle relaxation on daily cortisol secretion. Stress. 18 (5), pp. 538-544. doi:10.3109/10253890.2015.1053454

Reduced memory skills and increased hair cortisol levels in recent Ecstasy/MDMA users: significant but independent neurocognitive and neurohormonal deficits
Downey, L.A., Sands, H., Jones, L., Clow, A., Evans, P., Stalder, T. and Parrott, A.C. 2015. Reduced memory skills and increased hair cortisol levels in recent Ecstasy/MDMA users: significant but independent neurocognitive and neurohormonal deficits. Human Psychopharmacology. 30 (3), pp. 199-207. doi:10.1002/hup.2474

Assessment of the cortisol awakening response: expert consensus guidelines
Stalder, T., Kirschbaum, C., Kudielka, B.M., Adam, E.K., Pruessner, J.C., Wüst, S., Dockray, S., Smyth, N., Evans, P., Hellhammer, D.H., Miller, R., Wetherell, M.A., Lupien, S., Clow, A. and Jens C. Pruessner 2015. Assessment of the cortisol awakening response: expert consensus guidelines. Psychoneuroendocrinology. PNEC (63), pp. 414-432. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2015.10.010

Detailed time course of the cortisol awakening response in healthy participants
Smyth, N., Thorn, L., Hucklebridge, F., Evans, P. and Clow, A. 2015. Detailed time course of the cortisol awakening response in healthy participants. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 62, pp. 200-203. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2015.08.011

Post awakening salivary cortisol secretion and trait well-being: The importance of sample timing accuracy
Smyth, N., Thorn, L., Hucklebridge, F., Evans, P. and Clow, A. 2015. Post awakening salivary cortisol secretion and trait well-being: The importance of sample timing accuracy. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 58, pp. 141-151. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2015.04.019

Anxious attachment style predicts an enhanced cortisol response to group psychosocial stress
Smyth, N., Thorn, L., Oskis, A., Hucklebridge, F., Evans, P. and Clow, A. 2015. Anxious attachment style predicts an enhanced cortisol response to group psychosocial stress. Stress. 18 (2), pp. 143-148. doi:10.3109/10253890.2015.1021676

The cortisol awakening response predicts same morning executive function: results from a 50-day case study
Law, R., Evans, P., Thorn, L., Hucklebridge, F. and Clow, A. 2015. The cortisol awakening response predicts same morning executive function: results from a 50-day case study. Stress: The International Journal on the Biology of Stress. 18 (6), pp. 616-621. doi:10.3109/10253890.2015.1076789

Day differences in the cortisol awakening response predict day differences in synaptic plasticity in the brain
Clow, A., Law, R., Evans, P., Vallence, A.M., Hodyl, N.A., Goldsworthy, M.R., Rothwell, J.R. and Ridding, M.C. 2014. Day differences in the cortisol awakening response predict day differences in synaptic plasticity in the brain. Stress. 17 (3), pp. 219-223. doi:10.3109/10253890.2014.905533

Salivary cortisol as a biomarker in social science research
Thorn, L., Smyth, N., Hucklebridge, F., Evans, P. and Clow, A. 2013. Salivary cortisol as a biomarker in social science research. Social and Personality Psychology Compass. 7 (9), pp. 605-625. doi:10.1111/spc3.12057

Delays of 5–15 min between awakening and the start of saliva sampling matter in assessment of the cortisol awakening response
Smyth, N., Clow, A., Thorn, L., Hucklebridge, F. and Evans, P. 2013. Delays of 5–15 min between awakening and the start of saliva sampling matter in assessment of the cortisol awakening response. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 38 (9), pp. 1476-1483. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2012.12.013

State variation in the cortisol awakening response
Law, R., Hucklebridge, F., Thorn, L., Evans, P. and Clow, A. 2013. State variation in the cortisol awakening response. Stress. 16 (5), pp. 483-492. doi:10.3109/10253890.2013.817552

Cortisol secretion in saliva and hair: methodological considerations and relationships with state and trait well-being
Smyth, N. 2013. Cortisol secretion in saliva and hair: methodological considerations and relationships with state and trait well-being. PhD thesis University of Westminster School of Social Sciences, Humanities and Languages

Knowledge of lung cancer symptoms and risk factors in the UK: development of a measure and results from a population-based survey
Simon, A.E., Juszczyk, D., Smyth, N., Power, E., Hiom, S., Peake, M.D. and Wardle, J. 2012. Knowledge of lung cancer symptoms and risk factors in the UK: development of a measure and results from a population-based survey. Thorax. 67 (5), pp. 426-432. doi:10.1136/thoraxjnl-2011-200898

Seasonal differences in the diurnal pattern of cortisol secretion in healthy participants and those with self-assessed seasonal affective disorder
Thorn, L., Evans, P., Cannon, A., Hucklebridge, F. and Clow, A. 2011. Seasonal differences in the diurnal pattern of cortisol secretion in healthy participants and those with self-assessed seasonal affective disorder. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 36 (6), pp. 816-823. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2010.11.003

A randomised placebo-controlled trial of oral hydrocortisone for treating tobacco withdrawal symptoms
Ussher, M., Aveyard, P., Reid, F., West, R., Evans, P., Clow, A., Hucklebridge, F., Fuller, J., Ibison, J. and Steptoe, A. 2011. A randomised placebo-controlled trial of oral hydrocortisone for treating tobacco withdrawal symptoms. Psychopharmacology. 216 (1), pp. 43-51. doi:10.1007/s00213-011-2191-x

Associations between the cortisol awakening response and heart rate variability
Stalder, T., Evans, P., Hucklebridge, F. and Clow, A. 2011. Associations between the cortisol awakening response and heart rate variability. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 36 (4), pp. 454-462. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2010.07.020

The diurnal cortisol cycle and cognitive performance in the healthy old
Evans, P., Fredhoi, C., Loveday, C., Hucklebridge, F., Aitchison, E., Forte, D. and Clow, A. 2011. The diurnal cortisol cycle and cognitive performance in the healthy old. International Journal of Psychophysiology. 79 (3), pp. 371-377. doi:10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2010.12.006

The diurnal cortisol cycle and cognitive performance in the healthy old
Evans, P., Fredhoi, C., Loveday, C., Hucklebridge, F., Aitchison, E., Forte, D. and Clow, A. 2011. The diurnal cortisol cycle and cognitive performance in the healthy old. International Journal of Psychophysiology. 79 (3), pp. 371-377. doi:10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2010.12.006

State associations with the cortisol awakening response in healthy females
Stalder, T., Evans, P., Hucklebridge, F. and Clow, A. 2010. State associations with the cortisol awakening response in healthy females. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 35 (8), pp. 1245-1252. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2010.02.014

The cortisol awakening response: more than a measure of HPA axis function
Clow, A., Hucklebridge, F., Stalder, T., Evans, P. and Thorn, L. 2010. The cortisol awakening response: more than a measure of HPA axis function. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews. 35 (1), pp. 97-103. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2009.12.011

Humor attenuates the cortisol awakening response in healthy older men
Lai, J.C.L., Chong, A.M.L., Siu, O.T., Evans, P., Chan, C.L.W. and Ho, R.T.H. 2010. Humor attenuates the cortisol awakening response in healthy older men. Biological Psychology. 84 (2), pp. 375-380. doi:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2010.03.012

Associations between psychosocial state variables and the cortisol awakening response in a single case study
Stalder, T., Evans, P., Hucklebridge, F. and Clow, A. 2010. Associations between psychosocial state variables and the cortisol awakening response in a single case study. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 35 (2), pp. 209-214. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2009.06.006

Use of a single case study design to examine state variation in the cortisol awakening response: relationship with time of awakening
Stalder, T., Hucklebridge, F., Evans, P. and Clow, A. 2009. Use of a single case study design to examine state variation in the cortisol awakening response: relationship with time of awakening. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 34 (4), pp. 607-614. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2008.10.023

The cortisol awakening response, seasonality, stress and arousal: a study of trait and state influences
Thorn, L., Hucklebridge, F., Evans, P. and Clow, A. 2009. The cortisol awakening response, seasonality, stress and arousal: a study of trait and state influences. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 34 (3), pp. 299-306. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2008.11.005

Practice Nurses' views of their role in the management of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalagic Encephalitis: a qualitative study
Chew-Graham, C., Dixon, R., Shaw, J.W., Smyth, N., Lovell, K. and Peters, S. 2009. Practice Nurses' views of their role in the management of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalagic Encephalitis: a qualitative study. BMC Nursing. 8 (2). doi:10.1186/1472-6955-8-2

Caregiving is associated with low secretion rates of immunoglobulin A in saliva
Gallagher, S., Phillips, A.C., Evans, P., Der, G., Hunt, K. and Carroll, D. 2008. Caregiving is associated with low secretion rates of immunoglobulin A in saliva. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity. 22 (4), pp. 565-572. doi:10.1016/j.bbi.2007.11.007

Cortisol secretory activity in older people in relation to positive and negative well-being
Evans, P., Forte, D., Jacobs, C., Fredhoi, C., Aitchison, E., Hucklebridge, F. and Clow, A. 2007. Cortisol secretory activity in older people in relation to positive and negative well-being. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 32 (8-10), pp. 922-930. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2007.06.017

Suspected non-adherence and weekend versus week day differences in the awakening cortisol response
Thorn, L., Hucklebridge, F., Evans, P. and Clow, A. 2006. Suspected non-adherence and weekend versus week day differences in the awakening cortisol response. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 31 (8), pp. 1009-1018. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2006.05.012

Reduction in cortisol after smoking cessation among users of nicotine patches
Ussher, M., West, R., Evans, P., Steptoe, A., McEwen, A., Clow, A. and Hucklebridge, F. 2006. Reduction in cortisol after smoking cessation among users of nicotine patches. Psychosomatic Medicine. 68 (2), pp. 299-306. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2004.04.007

'I think that it's a pain in the ass that I have to stand outside in the cold and have a cigarette': representations of smoking and experiences of disapproval in UK and Greek smokers
Louka, P., Maguire, M., Evans, P. and Worrell, M. 2006. 'I think that it's a pain in the ass that I have to stand outside in the cold and have a cigarette': representations of smoking and experiences of disapproval in UK and Greek smokers. Journal of Health Psychology. 11 (3), pp. 441-451. doi:10.1177/1359105306063317

Post-awakening cortisol secretion during basic military training
Clow, A., Edwards, S., Owen, G., Evans, G., Evans, P., Hucklebridge, F. and Casey, A. 2006. Post-awakening cortisol secretion during basic military training. International Journal of Psychophysiology. 60 (1), pp. 88-94. doi:10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2005.05.007

Stressful life events are associated with low secretion rates of immunoglobulin A in saliva in the middle aged and elderly
Phillips, A.C., Carroll, D., Evans, P., Bosch, J.A., Clow, A., Hucklebridge, F. and Der, G. 2006. Stressful life events are associated with low secretion rates of immunoglobulin A in saliva in the middle aged and elderly. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity. 20 (2), pp. 191-197. doi:10.1016/j.bbi.2005.06.006

Salivary cortisol, stress and arousal following five weeks training in kinesthetic meditation to undergraduate students
Bullen, V., Fredhoi, C., Bloom, W., Povey, J., Hucklebridge, F., Evans, P. and Clow, A. 2006. Salivary cortisol, stress and arousal following five weeks training in kinesthetic meditation to undergraduate students. Journal of Holistic Healthcare. 3 (3), pp. 34-38.

Optimism, positive affectivity, and salivary cortisol
Lai, J.C.L., Evans, P., Ng, S.H., Chong, A.M.L., Siu, O.T., Chan, C.L.W., Ho, S.M.Y., Ho, R.T.H., Chan, P. and Chan, C.C. 2005. Optimism, positive affectivity, and salivary cortisol. British Journal of Health Psychology. 10 (4), pp. 467-484. doi:10.1348/135910705X26083

The diurnal patterns of the adrenal steroids cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in relation to awakening
Hucklebridge, F., Hussain, T., Evans, P. and Clow, A. 2005. The diurnal patterns of the adrenal steroids cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in relation to awakening. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 30 (1), pp. 51-57. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2004.04.007

Acute reduction in secretory immunoglobulin A following smoking cessation
Ussher, M., West, R., Evans, P., Steptoe, A., McEwen, A., Clow, A. and Hucklebridge, F. 2004. Acute reduction in secretory immunoglobulin A following smoking cessation. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 29 (10), pp. 1335-1340. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2004.04.004

The effect of dawn simulation on the cortisol response to awakening in healthy participants
Thorn, L., Hucklebridge, F., Esgate, A., Evans, P. and Clow, A. 2004. The effect of dawn simulation on the cortisol response to awakening in healthy participants. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 29 (7), pp. 925-930. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2003.08.005

The awakening cortisol response: methodological issues and significance
Clow, A., Thorn, L., Evans, P. and Hucklebridge, F. 2004. The awakening cortisol response: methodological issues and significance. Stress. 7 (1), pp. 29-37. doi:10.1080/10253890410001667205

Components of the diurnal cortisol cycle in relation to upper respiratory symptoms and perceived stress
Edwards, S., Hucklebridge, F., Clow, A. and Evans, P. 2003. Components of the diurnal cortisol cycle in relation to upper respiratory symptoms and perceived stress. Psychosomatic Medicine. 65 (2), pp. 320-327. doi:10.1097/01.PSY.0000033123.70631.8E

An investigation into asymmetrical cortical regulation of salivary S-IgA in conscious man using transcranial magnetic stimulation
Clow, A., Lambert, S., Evans, P., Hucklebridge, F. and Higuchi, K. 2003. An investigation into asymmetrical cortical regulation of salivary S-IgA in conscious man using transcranial magnetic stimulation. International Journal of Psychophysiology. 47 (1), pp. 57-64. doi:10.1016/S0167-8760(02)00093-4

The awakening cortisol response: no evidence for an influence of body posture
Hucklebridge, F., Mellins, J., Evans, P. and Clow, A. 2002. The awakening cortisol response: no evidence for an influence of body posture. Life Sciences. 71 (6), pp. 639-646. doi:10.1016/S0024-3205(02)01726-5

Ultrasound measures of bone and the diurnal free cortisol cycle: a positive association with the awakening cortisol response in healthy premenopausal women
Brooke-Wavell, K., Clow, A., Ghazi-Noori, S., Evans, P. and Hucklebridge, F. 2002. Ultrasound measures of bone and the diurnal free cortisol cycle: a positive association with the awakening cortisol response in healthy premenopausal women. Calcified Tissue International. 70 (6), pp. 463-468. doi:10.1007/s00223-001-2085-8

Low frequency noise enhances cortisol among noise sensitive subjects during work performance
Persson Waye, K., Bengtsson, J., Rylander, R., Hucklebridge, F., Evans, P. and Clow, A. 2002. Low frequency noise enhances cortisol among noise sensitive subjects during work performance. Life Sciences. 70 (7), pp. 745-758. doi:10.1016/S0024-3205(01)01450-3

Association between time of awakening and diurnal cortisol secretory activity
Edwards, S., Evans, P., Hucklebridge, F. and Clow, A. 2001. Association between time of awakening and diurnal cortisol secretory activity. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 26 (6), pp. 613-622. doi:10.1016/S0306-4530(01)00015-4

Exploration of the awakening cortisol response in relation to diurnal cortisol secretory activity
Edwards, S., Clow, A., Evans, P. and Hucklebridge, F. 2001. Exploration of the awakening cortisol response in relation to diurnal cortisol secretory activity. Life Sciences. 68 (18), pp. 2093-2103. doi:10.1016/S0024-3205(01)00996-1

Modulation of secretory immunoglobulin A in saliva; response to manipulation of mood
Hucklebridge, F., Lambert, S., Clow, A., Warburton, D.M., Evans, P. and Sherwood, N. 2000. Modulation of secretory immunoglobulin A in saliva; response to manipulation of mood. Biological Psychology. 53 (1), pp. 25-35. doi:10.1016/S0301-0511(00)00040-5

The cortisol response to normal and nocturnal awakening
Hucklebridge, F., Clow, A., Rahman, H. and Evans, P. 2000. The cortisol response to normal and nocturnal awakening. Journal of Psychophysiology. 14 (1), pp. 24-28. doi:10.1027//0269-8803.14.1.24

Mind, immunity and health: the science of psychoneuroimmunology
Evans, P., Hucklebridge, F. and Clow, A. 2000. Mind, immunity and health: the science of psychoneuroimmunology. London Free Association.

Endogenous monoamine oxidase inhibitory activity and HPA activation in the pig
Clow, A., Vellucci, S.V., Parrott, R.F., Hucklebridge, F., Sen, S. and Evans, P. 1999. Endogenous monoamine oxidase inhibitory activity and HPA activation in the pig. Life Sciences. 66 (1), pp. 35-41. doi:10.1016/S0024-3205(99)00559-7

The awakening cortisol response and blood glucose levels
Hucklebridge, F., Clow, A., Abeyguneratne, T., Huezo-Diaz, P. and Evans, P. 1999. The awakening cortisol response and blood glucose levels. Life Sciences. 64 (11), pp. 931-937. doi:10.1016/S0024-3205(99)00019-3

The relationship between salivary secretory immunoglobulin A and cortisol: neuroendocrine response to awakening and the diurnal cycle
Hucklebridge, F., Clow, A. and Evans, P. 1998. The relationship between salivary secretory immunoglobulin A and cortisol: neuroendocrine response to awakening and the diurnal cycle. International Journal of Psychophysiology. 31 (1), pp. 69-76. doi:10.1016/S0167-8760(98)00042-7

Mind-body influences on immunity: lateralised control, stress, individual differences, and prophylaxis
Gruzelier, J., Clow, A., Evans, P., Lazar, I. and Walker, L. 1998. Mind-body influences on immunity: lateralised control, stress, individual differences, and prophylaxis. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 851, pp. 487-494. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1998.tb09027.x

The relationship between circadian patterns of salivary cortisol and endogenous inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A
Hucklebridge, F., Sen, S., Evans, P. and Clow, A. 1998. The relationship between circadian patterns of salivary cortisol and endogenous inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A. Life Sciences. 62 (25), pp. 2321-2328. doi:10.1016/S0024-3205(98)00213-6

Secretory immunoglobulin A and cardiovascular responses to mental arithmetic and cold pressor
Willemsen, G., Ring, C., Evans, P. and Clow, A. 1998. Secretory immunoglobulin A and cardiovascular responses to mental arithmetic and cold pressor. Psychophysiology. 35 (3), pp. 252-259. doi:10.1111/1469-8986.3530252

Regional and molecular separation of the four bioactivities of ‘tribulin’
Hucklebridge, F., Doyle, A., Pang, F.Y., Adlard, M., Evans, P. and Clow, A. 1998. Regional and molecular separation of the four bioactivities of ‘tribulin’. Neuroscience Letters. 240 (1), pp. 29-32. doi:10.1016/S0304-3940(97)00916-6

The role and regulation of monoamines in stress
Clow, A., Hucklebridge, F. and Evans, P. 1998. The role and regulation of monoamines in stress. in: Levi, A., Grauer, E., Ben-Nathan, D. and de Kloet, E.R. (ed.) New frontiers in stress research: modulation of brain function Amsterdam Harwood Academic. pp. 21-31

The cortisol response to psychological challenge is preceded by a rise in endogenous inhibitor of monoamine oxidase.
Clow, A., Patel, S., Najafi, M., Evans, P. and Hucklebridge, F. 1997. The cortisol response to psychological challenge is preceded by a rise in endogenous inhibitor of monoamine oxidase. Life Sciences. 61 (5), pp. 567-575. doi:10.1016/S0024-3205(97)00416-5

Endogenous monoamine oxidase A inhibitory activity (tribulin), measured in saliva, is related to cardiovascular reactivity in normal individuals
Clow, A., Doyle, A., Hucklebridge, F., Carroll, D., Ring, C., Shrimpton, J., Willemsen, G. and Evans, P. 1997. Endogenous monoamine oxidase A inhibitory activity (tribulin), measured in saliva, is related to cardiovascular reactivity in normal individuals. Journal of Neural Transmission (supplement). 52, pp. 77-83.

Modulation of secretory immunoglobulin A in saliva in relation to an acute episode of stress and arousal
Bristow, M., Hucklebridge, F., Clow, A. and Evans, P. 1997. Modulation of secretory immunoglobulin A in saliva in relation to an acute episode of stress and arousal. Journal of Psychophysiology. 11 (3), pp. 248-255.

Positive but not negative life events predict vulnerability to upper respiratory illness
Evans, P., Doyle, A., Hucklebridge, F. and Clow, A. 1996. Positive but not negative life events predict vulnerability to upper respiratory illness. British Journal of Health Psychology. 1 (4), pp. 339-348. doi:10.1111/j.2044-8287.1996.tb00514.x

Salivary monoamine oxidase A and B inhibitory activities correlate with stress
Doyle, A., Hucklebridge, F., Evans, P. and Clow, A. 1996. Salivary monoamine oxidase A and B inhibitory activities correlate with stress. Life Sciences. 59 (16), pp. 1357-1362. doi:10.1016/0024-3205(96)00461-4

Urinary output of endogenous monoamine oxidase inhibitory activity is related to everyday stress
Doyle, A., Hucklebridge, F., Evans, P. and Clow, A. 1996. Urinary output of endogenous monoamine oxidase inhibitory activity is related to everyday stress. Life Sciences. 58 (20), pp. 1723-1730. doi:10.1016/0024-3205(96)00153-1

Tribulin and stress in normal individuals
Doyle, A., Pang, F.Y., Hucklebridge, F., Evans, P. and Clow, A. 1996. Tribulin and stress in normal individuals. in: McCarty, R., Aguilera, G., Sabban, E. and Kvetnansky, R. (ed.) Stress: molecular genetic and neurobiological advances Amsterdam Harwood Academic.

Urinary cortisol and endogenous monoamine oxidase inhibitor(s), but not isatin, are raised in anticipation of stress and/or arousal in normal individuals
Doyle, A., Pang, F.Y., Bristow, M., Hucklebridge, F., Evans, P. and Clow, A. 1996. Urinary cortisol and endogenous monoamine oxidase inhibitor(s), but not isatin, are raised in anticipation of stress and/or arousal in normal individuals. Stress Medicine. 12 (1), pp. 43-49. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-1700(199601)12:1<43::AID-SMI677>3.0.CO;2-4

Secretory immunoglobulin A as convenient biomarker in health survey work
Evans, P., Hucklebridge, F., Clow, A. and Doyle, A. 1995. Secretory immunoglobulin A as convenient biomarker in health survey work. in: Rodriguez-Martin, J. (ed.) Health psychology and quality of life research: Proceedings of the 8th Annual Conference of the European Health Psychology Society Alicante University of Alicante.

Stress, arousal, Cortisol and secretory immunoglobulin A in students undergoing assessment
Evans, P., Bristow, M., Hucklebridge, F., Clow, A. and Pang, F.Y. 1994. Stress, arousal, Cortisol and secretory immunoglobulin A in students undergoing assessment. British Journal of Clinical Psychology. 33 (4), pp. 575-576. doi:10.1111/j.2044-8260.1994.tb01154.x

Dysphoria and immune status in postpartum women
Hucklebridge, F., Smith, M.D., Clow, A., Evans, P., Glover, V., Taylor, A., Adams, D. and Lydyard, P.M. 1994. Dysphoria and immune status in postpartum women. Biological Psychology. 37 (3), pp. 199-206. doi:10.1016/0301-0511(94)90002-7

The relationship between secretory immunity, mood and life-events
Evans, P., Bristow, M., Hucklebridge, F., Clow, A. and Walters, N. 1993. The relationship between secretory immunity, mood and life-events. British Journal of Clinical Psychology. 32 (2), pp. 227-236. doi:10.1111/j.2044-8260.1993.tb01050.x

Permalink - https://westminsterresearch.westminster.ac.uk/item/q9359/assessment-of-the-cortisol-awakening-response-expert-consensus-guidelines


Share this
Tweet
Email