High omega arachidonic acid/docosahexaenoic acid ratio induces mitochondrial dysfunction and altered lipid metabolism in human hepatoma cells

Ghazali, R., Mehta, K., Bligh, S.W.A., Tewfik, I., Clemens, D. and Patel, V. 2020. High omega arachidonic acid/docosahexaenoic acid ratio induces mitochondrial dysfunction and altered lipid metabolism in human hepatoma cells. World Journal of Hepatology. 12 (3), pp. 84-98. doi:10.4254/wjh.v12.i3.84

TitleHigh omega arachidonic acid/docosahexaenoic acid ratio induces mitochondrial dysfunction and altered lipid metabolism in human hepatoma cells
TypeJournal article
AuthorsGhazali, R., Mehta, K., Bligh, S.W.A., Tewfik, I., Clemens, D. and Patel, V.
Abstract

BACKGROUND
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common cause of liver disease worldwide and is a growing epidemic. A high ratio of omega-6 fatty acids to omega-3 fatty acids in the diet has been implicated in the development of NAFLD. However, the inflicted cellular pathology remains unknown. A high ratio may promote lipogenic pathways and contribute to reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated damage, perhaps leading to mitochondrial dysfunction. Therefore, these parameters were investigated to understand their contribution to NAFLD development.
AIM
To examine the effect of increasing ratios of omega-6:3 fatty acids onmitochondrial function and lipid metabolism mediators.
METHODS
HepG2-derived VL-17A cells were treated with normal (1:1, 4:1) and high (15:1,25:1) ratios of omega-6: omega-3 fatty acids [arachidonic acid (AA): docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] at various time points. Mitochondrial activity and function were examined via MTT assay and Seahorse XF24 analyzer, respectively. Triglyceride accumulation was determined by using EnzyChrom™ and levels of ROS were measured by fluorescence intensity. Protein expression of the mediators of lipogenic, lipolytic and endocannabinoid pathways was assessed by Western blotting.
RESULTS
High AA:DHA ratio decreased mitochondrial activity (P < 0.01; up to 80%) and promoted intracellular triglyceride accumulation (P < 0.05; 40%-70%). Mechanistically, it altered the mediators of lipid metabolism; increased the expression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (P < 0.05; 22%-35%), decreased the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (P < 0.05; 30%-40%) and increased the expression of cannabinoid receptor 1 (P < 0.05; 31%). Furthermore, the high ratio increased ROS production (P < 0.01; 74%-115%) and reduced mitochondrial respiratory functions such as basal and maximal respiration, ATP production, spare respiratory capacity and proton leak (P < 0.01; 35%-68%).
CONCLUSION
High AA:DHA ratio induced triglyceride accumulation, increased oxidative stress and disrupted mitochondrial functions. Stimulation of lipogenic and steroidal transcription factors may partly mediate these effects and contribute to NAFLD development.

KeywordsNon-alcoholic
fatty liver disease
Lipogenesis
Omega fatty acids
Mitochondrial dysfunction
Reactive oxygen species
Oxidative stress
JournalWorld Journal of Hepatology
Journal citation12 (3), pp. 84-98
ISSN1948-5182
Year2020
PublisherBaishideng Publishing Group
Publisher's version
License
CC BY-NC 4.0
File Access Level
Open (open metadata and files)
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)doi:10.4254/wjh.v12.i3.84
Publication dates
Published27 Mar 2020

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Evaluation of behavioural and gastrointestinal symptoms in autistic children after visceral osteopathic treatment
Castellarin, I.B., Drysdale, I. and Patel, V. 2013. Evaluation of behavioural and gastrointestinal symptoms in autistic children after visceral osteopathic treatment. International Journal of Osteopathy. 16, pp. e13-e14.

Flavonoids by HPLC
Bligh, S.W.A., Ogegbo, O. and Wang, Z. 2013. Flavonoids by HPLC. in: Ramawat, K.G. and Merillon, J.M. (ed.) Natural products: phytochemistry, botany and metabolism of alkaloids, phenolics and terpenes Berlin Springer. pp. 2107-2144

Hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction induced by fatty acids and ethanol
Gyamfi, D., Everitt, H.E., Tewfik, I., Clemens, D.L. and Patel, V. 2012. Hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction induced by fatty acids and ethanol. Free Radical Biology & Medicine. 53 (11), pp. 2131-2145. doi:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2012.09.024

Metabolic pathways of the psychotropic-carboline alkaloids, harmaline and harmine, by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy
Zhao, T., Zheng, S.S., Zhang, B.F., Li, Y.Y., Bligh, S.W.A., Wang, C.-H. and Wang, Z. 2012. Metabolic pathways of the psychotropic-carboline alkaloids, harmaline and harmine, by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. Food Chemistry. 134 (2), pp. 1096-1105. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.03.024

Chemotaxonomically significant roburic acid from section cruciata of gentiana
Wu, L.H., Bligh, S.W.A., Leon, C., Li, X.S., Wang, Z., Branford-White, C.J. and Simmonds, M.S.J. 2012. Chemotaxonomically significant roburic acid from section cruciata of gentiana. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 43, pp. 152-155. doi:10.1016/j.bse.2012.03.008

The use of Scutellaria lateriflora: a pilot survey amongst herbal medicine practitioners
Brock, C., Whitehouse, J., Tewfik, I. and Towell, A. 2012. The use of Scutellaria lateriflora: a pilot survey amongst herbal medicine practitioners. Journal of Herbal Medicine. 2 (2), pp. 34-41. doi:10.1016/j.hermed.2012.04.005,

Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the volatile oil of Angelica sinensis radix designed to preserve the synergistic effects of the mixture followed by identification of the active principles
Yeh, J.C., Garrard, I.J., Cho, C.W.C., Bligh, S.W.A., Lu, G.H., Fan, T.P. and Fisher, D. 2012. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the volatile oil of Angelica sinensis radix designed to preserve the synergistic effects of the mixture followed by identification of the active principles. Journal of Chromatography A. 1236, pp. 132-138. doi:10.1016/j.chroma.2012.03.013

Simultaneous determination of six alkaloids and one monoterpene in rat plasma by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry and pharmacokinetic study after oral administration of a Chinese medicine Wuji Pill
Yuan, J., Wang, Y., An, R., Wang, S., Li, S.J., Jia, J.Y., Bligh, S.W.A., Wang, X.H. and Ma, Y.M. 2012. Simultaneous determination of six alkaloids and one monoterpene in rat plasma by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry and pharmacokinetic study after oral administration of a Chinese medicine Wuji Pill. Journal of Chromatography B: Biomedical Sciences and Applications. 895-896, pp. 154-161. doi:10.1016/j.jchromb.2012.03.036

Evodiamine, a dual catalytic inhibitor of type I and II topoisomerases, exhibits enhanced inhibition against camptothecin resistant cells
Pan, X., Hartley, J.M., Hartley, J.A., White, K.N., Wang, Z. and Bligh, S.W.A. 2012. Evodiamine, a dual catalytic inhibitor of type I and II topoisomerases, exhibits enhanced inhibition against camptothecin resistant cells. Phytomedicine. 19 (7), pp. 618-624. doi:10.1016/j.phymed.2012.02.003

Synthesis, characterization and anticancer evaluation of novel tri-arm star shaped 1,3,5-triazine hydrazones
Machakanur, S.S., Patil, B.R., Badiger, D.S., Bakale, R.P., Gudasi, K.B. and Bligh, S.W.A. 2012. Synthesis, characterization and anticancer evaluation of novel tri-arm star shaped 1,3,5-triazine hydrazones. Journal of Molecular Structure. 1011, pp. 121-127. doi:10.1016/j.molstruc.2011.12.023

Coaxial electrospinning with sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate solution for high quality polyacrylonitrile nanofibers
Yu, D.G., Williams, G.R., Gao, L.D., Bligh, S.W.A., Yang, J.-H. and Wang, X. 2012. Coaxial electrospinning with sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate solution for high quality polyacrylonitrile nanofibers. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects. 396, pp. 161-168. doi:10.1016/j.colsurfa.2011.12.063

Increased transferrin-bound iron uptake in HepG2 cells is followed by an increase in expression of the iron hormone hepcidin pre-and post-translationally
Mehta, K., Patel, V., Busbridge Mark, Renshaw, D., Zariwala, M., Evans, R. and Farnaud, S. 2012. Increased transferrin-bound iron uptake in HepG2 cells is followed by an increase in expression of the iron hormone hepcidin pre-and post-translationally. European Iron Club Annual Meeting 2012. Rennes, France 29 - 31 Aug 2012

Metabolomics of four TCM herbal products: application of HPTLC analysis
Ogegbo, O., Eyob, S., Parmar, S., Wang, Z. and Bligh, S.W.A. 2012. Metabolomics of four TCM herbal products: application of HPTLC analysis. Analytical Methods. 4, pp. 2522-2527. doi:10.1039/C2AY25373A

Synthesis of novel tri-arm star shaped 1,3,5-triazine hydrazones from 2,4,6-tris(4-acetylphenoxy)-1,3,5-triazine core
Machakanur, S.S., Patil, B.R., Badiger, D.S., Pathan, A.H., Gudasi, K.B. and Bligh, S.W.A. 2012. Synthesis of novel tri-arm star shaped 1,3,5-triazine hydrazones from 2,4,6-tris(4-acetylphenoxy)-1,3,5-triazine core. Letters in Organic Chemistry. 9 (1), pp. 29-34. doi:10.2174/157017812799304051

N-Heterocyclic dronic acids: applications and synthesis
Hudson, H.R., Wardle, N.J., Bligh, S.W.A., Greiner, I., Grun, A. and Keglevich, G. 2012. N-Heterocyclic dronic acids: applications and synthesis. Minireviews in Medicinal Chemistry. 12, pp. 313-325.

Chinese herbal products in the prevention and treatment of liver disease
Gyamfi, D., Everitt, H.E. and Patel, V. 2012. Chinese herbal products in the prevention and treatment of liver disease. in: Watson, R.R. and Preedy, V.R. (ed.) Bioactive food as dietary interventions for liver and gastrointestinal disease Academic Press. pp. 537-550

Quantification of norisoboldine in Linderae Radix by ultra-performance liquid chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection
Chen, J.Z., Chou, G.-X., Yang, L., Bligh, S.W.A. and Wang, Z. 2012. Quantification of norisoboldine in Linderae Radix by ultra-performance liquid chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. Journal of Liquid Chromatography and Related Technologies. 35 (6), pp. 788-797. doi:10.1080/10826076.2011.608236

A chemically unlocked binary molecular switch
Chen, G., Sarris, J.L., Wardle, N.J., Bligh, S.W.A. and Chatterton, N.P. 2012. A chemically unlocked binary molecular switch. Chemical Communications. 48 (72), pp. 9026-9028. doi:10.1039/C2CC34425D

Dietary sugars: TLC screening of sugars in urine and blood samples
Alonso-Fernandez, J.R. and Patel, V. 2012. Dietary sugars: TLC screening of sugars in urine and blood samples. in: Preedy, V.R. (ed.) Dietary sugars: chemistry, analysis, function and effects Royal Society of Chemistry. pp. 186-205

Urinary 1H-NMR metabonomics study on intervention effects of soya milk in Africans
Ogegbo, O., Dissanyake, W., Crowder, J., Asekun, O., Familoni, O., Branford-White, C.J. and Bligh, S.W.A. 2012. Urinary 1H-NMR metabonomics study on intervention effects of soya milk in Africans. Phytotherapy Research. 26 (1), pp. 127-135. doi:10.1002/ptr.3547

Debrisoquine metabolism and CYP2D expression in marmoset liver microsomes
Cooke, B.R., Bligh, S.W.A., Cybulski, Z.R., Ioannides, C. and Hall, M. 2012. Debrisoquine metabolism and CYP2D expression in marmoset liver microsomes. Drug Metabolism and Disposition. 40 (1), pp. 70-75. doi:10.1124/dmd.111.041566

Identification of metabolites of geniposide in rat urine using ultra-performance liquid chromatography combined with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry
Han, H., Yang, L., Xu, Y., Ding, Y., Bligh, S.W.A., Zhang, T. and Wang, Z. 2011. Identification of metabolites of geniposide in rat urine using ultra-performance liquid chromatography combined with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry. 25 (21), pp. 3339-3350. doi:10.1002/rcm.5216

1H NMR study of monocrotaline and its metabolites in human blood
Yang, Y.C., Crowder, J., Wardle, N.J., Yang, L., White, K.N., Wang, Z. and Bligh, S.W.A. 2011. 1H NMR study of monocrotaline and its metabolites in human blood. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 49 (11), pp. 2793-2799. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2011.07.063

Hexa-arm star shaped hydrazone derivatives from hexakis(4-formylphenoxy)-cyclotriphosphazene core
Patil, B.R., Machakanur, S.S., Badiger, D.S., Hunoor, R.S., Gudasi, K.B., Nethaji, M. and Bligh, S.W.A. 2011. Hexa-arm star shaped hydrazone derivatives from hexakis(4-formylphenoxy)-cyclotriphosphazene core. Journal of Molecular Structure. 1003 (1-3), pp. 52-61. doi:10.1016/j.molstruc.2011.07.020

Synthesis and characterisation of a novel tubulin-directed DO3A–colchicine conjugate with potential theranostic features
Wardle, N.J., Kalber, T., Bell, J.D. and Bligh, S.W.A. 2011. Synthesis and characterisation of a novel tubulin-directed DO3A–colchicine conjugate with potential theranostic features. Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters. 21 (11), pp. 3346-3348. doi:10.1016/j.bmcl.2011.04.014

Improving polymer nanofiber quality using a modified co-axial electrospinning process
Yu, D.G., Branford-White, C.J., Bligh, S.W.A., White, K.N., Chatterton, N.P. and Zhu, L.M. 2011. Improving polymer nanofiber quality using a modified co-axial electrospinning process. Macromolecular Rapid Communications. 32 (9-10), pp. 744-750. doi:10.1002/marc.201100049

Obesity and low vision as a result of excessive internet use, and television viewing
Bener, A., Al-Mahdi, H.S., Ali, A.I., Al-Nufal, M., Vachhani, P.J. and Tewfik, I. 2011. Obesity and low vision as a result of excessive internet use, and television viewing. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition. 62 (1), pp. 60-62. doi:10.3109/09637486.2010.495711

Coaxial electrospinning with organic solvent for controlling the size of self-assembled nanoparticles
Yu, D.G., Zhu, L.M., Bligh, S.W.A., Branford-White, C.J. and White, K.N. 2011. Coaxial electrospinning with organic solvent for controlling the size of self-assembled nanoparticles. Chemical Communications. 47 (4), pp. 1216-1218. doi:10.1039/C0CC03521A

Self-assembled liposomes from amphiphilic electrospun nanofibers
Yu, D.G., Branford-White, C.J., Williams, G.R., Bligh, S.W.A., White, K.N., Zhu, L.M. and Chatterton, N.P. 2011. Self-assembled liposomes from amphiphilic electrospun nanofibers. Soft matter. 7, pp. 8239-8247. doi:10.1039/C1SM05961K

Globesity in action: systematic review and pilot intervention to assess the potential health benefit of moderate physical activity
Salah, M. and Tewfik, I. 2011. Globesity in action: systematic review and pilot intervention to assess the potential health benefit of moderate physical activity. in: Ahmed, A. and Busler, M. (ed.) World sustainable development outlook 2011. Sharing knowledge, making a difference: the role of international scientific cooperation World Association for Sustainable Development (WASD).

Synthesis and anti-cancer evaluation of cyclotriphosphazene hydrazone derivatives
Patil, B.R., Machakanur, S.S., Hunoor, R.S., Badiger, D.S., Gudasi, K.B. and Bligh, S.W.A. 2011. Synthesis and anti-cancer evaluation of cyclotriphosphazene hydrazone derivatives. Der Pharma Chemica. 3 (4), pp. 377-388.

Alterations to liver energy metabolism and cell death following alcohol exposure
Gyamfi, D., Clemens, D.L. and Patel, V. 2011. Alterations to liver energy metabolism and cell death following alcohol exposure. Alcohol & Alcoholism. 46, pp. p47-48.

Conceptual framework of public health-nutrition intervention programme to attenuate the progression of HIV to AIDS among people living with HIV (PLWH) in Abuja, Nigeria
Amlogu, M.A., Tewfik, S., Wambebe, C., Godden, K. and Tewfik, I. 2011. Conceptual framework of public health-nutrition intervention programme to attenuate the progression of HIV to AIDS among people living with HIV (PLWH) in Abuja, Nigeria. in: Ahmed, A. and Busler, M. (ed.) World sustainable development outlook 2011. Sharing knowledge, making a difference: the role of international scientific cooperation World Association for Sustainable Development (WASD). pp. 11-20

Characterization of new metabolites from in vivo biotransformation of norisoboldine by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy
Chen, J.Z., Chou, G.-X., Wang, C.-H., Yang, L., Bligh, S.W.A. and Wang, Z. 2010. Characterization of new metabolites from in vivo biotransformation of norisoboldine by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis. 52 (5), pp. 687-693. doi:10.1016/j.jpba.2010.02.008

Separation and identification of three epimeric pairs of new C-glucosyl anthrones from Rumex dentatus by on-line high performance liquid chromatography–circular dichroism analysis
Zhu, J.-J., Zhang, C.-F., Zhang, M., Bligh, S.W.A., Yang, L., Wang, Z.-M. and Wang, Z. 2010. Separation and identification of three epimeric pairs of new C-glucosyl anthrones from Rumex dentatus by on-line high performance liquid chromatography–circular dichroism analysis. Journal of Chromatography A. 1217 (33), pp. 5384-5388. doi:10.1016/j.chroma.2010.05.039

American skullcap (Scutellaria lateriflora): an ancient remedy for today’s anxiety?
Brock, C., Whitehouse, J., Tewfik, I. and Towell, A. 2010. American skullcap (Scutellaria lateriflora): an ancient remedy for today’s anxiety? British Journal of Wellbeing. 1 (4), pp. 25-30.

O-phosphotyrosine analogues: aynthesis and therapeutic role in modulation of signal transduction
Wardle, N.J., Hudson, H.R. and Bligh, S.W.A. 2010. O-phosphotyrosine analogues: aynthesis and therapeutic role in modulation of signal transduction. Current Organic Chemistry. 14 (5), pp. 426-446. doi:10.2174/138527210790601189

Is Africa facing a nutrition transition under the double burden of disease?
Tewfik, I., Bener, A. and Tewfik, S. 2010. Is Africa facing a nutrition transition under the double burden of disease? in: Ahmed, A. and Nwankwo, S. (ed.) Achieving sustainable development in Africa: science, technology & innovation trajectory London World Association for Sustainable Development (WASD).

Apoptosis in alcoholic liver disease
Gyamfi, D., Everitt, H.E. and Patel, V. 2010. Apoptosis in alcoholic liver disease. in: Preedy, V.R. (ed.) Apoptosis: modern insights into disease from molecules to man Science Publishers. pp. 211-233

The effect of alcohol exposure on liver energy metabolism and cell death
Gyamfi, D., Clemens, D.L. and Patel, V. 2010. The effect of alcohol exposure on liver energy metabolism and cell death. Hepatology. 52, p. 455A.

Treatment with qing'e, a kidney-invigorating chinese herbal formula, antagonizes the estrogen decline in ovariectomized mice
Xu, Y., Zhang, Z.J., Geng, F., Su, S.B., White, K.N., Bligh, S.W.A., Branford-White, C.J. and Wang, Z. 2010. Treatment with qing'e, a kidney-invigorating chinese herbal formula, antagonizes the estrogen decline in ovariectomized mice. Rejuvenation Research. 13 (4), pp. 479-488. doi:10.1089/rej.2009.1000

Identification of metabolites of adonifoline, a hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloid, by liquid chromatography/tandem and high-resolution mass spectrometry
Xiong, A., Yang, L., He, Y.Q., Zhang, F., Wang, J., Han, H., Wang, C.-H., Bligh, S.W.A. and Wang, Z. 2009. Identification of metabolites of adonifoline, a hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloid, by liquid chromatography/tandem and high-resolution mass spectrometry. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry. 23 (24), pp. 3907-3916. doi:10.1002/rcm.4329

Comprehensive two-dimensional high-performance liquid chromatography system with immobilized liposome chromatography column and reversed-phase column for separation of complex traditional Chinese medicine Longdan Xiegan Decoction
Wang, Y., Kong, L., Lei, X., Hu, L., Zou, H., Welbeck, E., Bligh, S.W.A. and Wang, Z. 2009. Comprehensive two-dimensional high-performance liquid chromatography system with immobilized liposome chromatography column and reversed-phase column for separation of complex traditional Chinese medicine Longdan Xiegan Decoction. Journal of Chromatography A. 1216 (11), pp. 2185-2191. doi:10.1016/j.chroma.2008.05.074

S-Nitrosoglutathione inactivation of the mitochondrial and cytosolic BCAT proteins: S-Nitrosation and S-Thiolation
Coles, S.J., Easton, P., Sharrod, H., Hutson, S.M., Hancock, J., Patel, V. and Conway, M.E. 2009. S-Nitrosoglutathione inactivation of the mitochondrial and cytosolic BCAT proteins: S-Nitrosation and S-Thiolation. Biochemistry. 48 (3), pp. 645-656. doi:10.1021/bi801805h

Preparation and characterization of medicated PAN/PVP composite fibers for better drug release profiles
Yu, D.G., Shen, X.X., Zhu, L.M., Branford-White, C.J., Bligh, S.W.A. and Yang, Y.C. 2009. Preparation and characterization of medicated PAN/PVP composite fibers for better drug release profiles. in: ICBBE 2009: 3rd international conference on bioinformatics and biomedical engineering IEEE .

Oral fast-dissolving drug delivery membranes prepared from electrospun polyvinylpyrrolidone ultrafine fibers
Yu, D.G., Shen, X.X., Branford-White, C.J., White, K.N., Zhu, L.M. and Bligh, S.W.A. 2009. Oral fast-dissolving drug delivery membranes prepared from electrospun polyvinylpyrrolidone ultrafine fibers. Nanotechnology. 20 (5), p. 055104. doi:10.1088/0957-4484/20/5/055104

Presentation of the beta-carboxamidophosphonate arrangement in substrate structures targeting HIV-1 PR
Wardle, N.J., Hudson, H.R., Matthews, R.W., Nunn, C., Vella, C. and Bligh, S.W.A. 2009. Presentation of the beta-carboxamidophosphonate arrangement in substrate structures targeting HIV-1 PR. Letters in Drug Design and Discovery. 6, pp. 139-145.

Childhood obesity prevention in Emirates (COPE): a conceptual framework for pilot intervention
Tewfik, I., Mackenzie, J., Cunliffe, A., Al-Dhaheri, A., Ali, H., Washi, S. and Platat, C. 2009. Childhood obesity prevention in Emirates (COPE): a conceptual framework for pilot intervention. in: Ahmed, A. (ed.) World sustainable development outlook: the impact of the global financial crisis on the environment, energy and sustainable development 2009 London World Association for Sustainable Development (WASD).

Nutritional quality of deep fried street-vended foods: a public health concern
Tewfik, I., Ismail, H. and Tewfik, S. 2009. Nutritional quality of deep fried street-vended foods: a public health concern. in: Ahmed, A. (ed.) World sustainable development outlook: the impact of the global financial crisis on the environment, energy and sustainable development 2009 London World Association for Sustainable Development (WASD).

Liver metabolism: biochemical and molecular regulations
Gyamfi, D. and Patel, V. 2009. Liver metabolism: biochemical and molecular regulations. in: Preedy, V.R. (ed.) Nutrition, diet therapy, and the liver London CRC Press. pp. 3-15

Hepatic oxidative stress and apoptosis following acute alcohol
Everitt, H.E., Tewfik, I., Preedy, V.R. and Patel, V. 2009. Hepatic oxidative stress and apoptosis following acute alcohol. Alcohol & Alcoholism. 44, p. p85.

Assessment of shelf-life of irradiated frozen chicken
Alnasser, M.A., Park, S.F., Jenesson, P. and Tewfik, I. 2009. Assessment of shelf-life of irradiated frozen chicken. International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health. 2 (1), pp. 48-58. doi:10.1504/IJFSNPH.2009.026918

Would it still be possible to identify irradiated lipid-containing foods towards the end of their shelf-life?
Tewfik, I. and Tewfik, S. 2008. Would it still be possible to identify irradiated lipid-containing foods towards the end of their shelf-life? Food Science and Technology International. 14 (6), pp. 519-524. doi:10.1177/1082013208100465

Extraction and identification of cyclobutanones from irradiated cheese employing a rapid direct solvent extraction method
Tewfik, I. 2008. Extraction and identification of cyclobutanones from irradiated cheese employing a rapid direct solvent extraction method. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition. 59 (7 & 8), pp. 590-598. doi:10.1080/09637480701515450

Cytotoxic sesquiterpenes from Ligularia platyglossa
Liu, J.Q., Zhang, M., Zhang, C.-F., Qi, H.Y., Bashall, A., Bligh, S.W.A. and Wang, Z. 2008. Cytotoxic sesquiterpenes from Ligularia platyglossa. Phytochemistry. 69 (11), pp. 2231-2236. doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2008.05.018

Characterization of fifty-one flavonoids in a Chinese herbal prescription Longdan Xiegan Decoction by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and photodiode array detection
Wang, Y., Yang, L., He, Y.Q., Wang, C.-H., Welbeck, E., Bligh, S.W.A. and Wang, Z. 2008. Characterization of fifty-one flavonoids in a Chinese herbal prescription Longdan Xiegan Decoction by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and photodiode array detection. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry. 22 (12), pp. 1767-1778. doi:10.1002/rcm.3536

Inter-laboratory trial to validate the direct solvent extraction method for the identification of 2-dodecylcyclobutanone in irradiated chicken and whole liquid egg
Tewfik, I. 2008. Inter-laboratory trial to validate the direct solvent extraction method for the identification of 2-dodecylcyclobutanone in irradiated chicken and whole liquid egg. Food Science and Technology International. 14 (3), pp. 277-283. doi:10.1177/1082013208095689

Does prolonged breastfeeding reduce the risk for childhood leukemia and lymphomas?
Bener, A., Hoffmann, G.F., Afify, Z., Rasul, K., Mian, M., Guiter, G. and Tewfik, I. 2008. Does prolonged breastfeeding reduce the risk for childhood leukemia and lymphomas? Minerva Pediatrica. 60 (2), pp. 155-161.

Tomatoes: origin, cultivation techniques, and germplasm resources
da Silva, D.J.H., Abreu, F.B., Caliman, F.R.B., Antonio, A.C. and Patel, V. 2008. Tomatoes: origin, cultivation techniques, and germplasm resources. in: Preedy, V.R. and Watson, R.R. (ed.) Tomatoes and tomato products: nutritional, medicinal and therapeutic properties CRC Press. pp. 3-26

High performance liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometric analysis for metabolites of isoline in rat urine and bile
Zhang, F., Zhong, D.F., Wang, C.-H., Bligh, S.W.A. and Wang, Z. 2008. High performance liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometric analysis for metabolites of isoline in rat urine and bile. Drug Metabolism Reviews. 40, p. 216.

Quantitative analysis by HPLC-MS2 of the pyrrolizidine alkaloid adonifoline in Senecio scandens
Zhang, F., Wang, C.-H., Wang, W., Chen, L.X., Ma, H.Y., Zhang, C.-F., Zhang, M., Bligh, S.W.A. and Wang, Z. 2008. Quantitative analysis by HPLC-MS2 of the pyrrolizidine alkaloid adonifoline in Senecio scandens. Phytochemical Analysis. 19 (1), pp. 25-31. doi:10.1002/pca.1009

Organophosphorus compounds: intervention in mechanisms of signal transduction relevant to proliferative, immunological and circulatory disorders
Wardle, N.J., Bligh, S.W.A. and Hudson, H.R. 2008. Organophosphorus compounds: intervention in mechanisms of signal transduction relevant to proliferative, immunological and circulatory disorders. Current Medicinal Chemistry. 15, pp. 2230-2257.

Sulfated beta-glucan derived from oat bran with potent anti-HIV activity
Wang, S.C., Bligh, S.W.A., Zhu, C.L., Shi, S.S., Wang, Z., Hu, Z.B., Crowder, J., Branford-White, C.J. and Vella, C. 2008. Sulfated beta-glucan derived from oat bran with potent anti-HIV activity. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 56 (8), pp. 2624-2629. doi:10.1021/jf072888h

Nutraceuticals, functional foods and botanical dietary supplements; promote wellbeing and underpin public health
Tewfik, S. and Tewfik, I. 2008. Nutraceuticals, functional foods and botanical dietary supplements; promote wellbeing and underpin public health. World Review of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development. 5 (2), pp. 104-123. doi:10.1504/WRSTSD.2008.018552

Childhood obesity prevention (CHOP) programme: a conceptual framework for nutrition intervention
Tewfik, I. 2008. Childhood obesity prevention (CHOP) programme: a conceptual framework for nutrition intervention. International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health. 1 (1), pp. 16-32. doi:10.1504/IJFSNPH.2008.018853

Metabolic Syndrome and its components among Qatari population
Musallam, M., Bener, A., Zirie, M., Al-Gaud, Y.K., Al-Hamaq, A.A., Othman, M.A. and Tewfik, I. 2008. Metabolic Syndrome and its components among Qatari population. International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health. 1 (1), pp. 88-102. doi:10.1504/IJFSNPH.2008.018858

Impact of lifestyle and dietary habits on hypovitaminosis D in type 1 diabetes mellitus and healthy children from Qatar, a sun-rich country
Bener, A., Alsaied, A., Al-Ali, M., Hassan, A.S., Basha, B., Al-Kubaisi, A., Abraham, A., Mian, M., Guiter, G., Tewfik, I. and Agha, M. 2008. Impact of lifestyle and dietary habits on hypovitaminosis D in type 1 diabetes mellitus and healthy children from Qatar, a sun-rich country. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism. 53 (3-4), pp. 215-222. doi:10.1159/000184439

A rapid direct solvent extraction (DSE) method for the extraction of cyclobutanones from irradiated chicken and liquid whole egg
Tewfik, I. 2008. A rapid direct solvent extraction (DSE) method for the extraction of cyclobutanones from irradiated chicken and liquid whole egg. International Journal of Food Science and Technology. 43 (1), pp. 108-113. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.2006.01399.x

Quantitative analysis of total retronecine esters-type pyrrolizidine alkaloids in plant by high performance liquid chromatography
Zhang, F., Wang, C.-H., Xiong, A., Wang, W., Yang, L., Branford-White, C.J., Wang, Z. and Bligh, S.W.A. 2007. Quantitative analysis of total retronecine esters-type pyrrolizidine alkaloids in plant by high performance liquid chromatography. Analytica Chimica Acta. 605 (1), pp. 94-101. doi:10.1016/j.aca.2007.10.021

Biological fingerprinting analysis of the traditional Chinese prescription Longdan Xiegan Decoction by on/off-line comprehensive two-dimensional biochromatography
Wang, Y., Kong, L., Hu, L., Lei, X., Yang, L., Chou, G.-X., Zou, H., Wang, C.-H., Bligh, S.W.A. and Wang, Z. 2007. Biological fingerprinting analysis of the traditional Chinese prescription Longdan Xiegan Decoction by on/off-line comprehensive two-dimensional biochromatography. Journal of Chromatography B: Biomedical Sciences and Applications. 860 (2), pp. 185-194. doi:10.1016/j.jchromb.2007.10.027

Effects of 4-hydroxynonenal on mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3methylglutaryl (HMG-CoA) synthase
Patel, V., Spencer, C.H., Young, T.A., Lively, M.O. and Cunningham, C.C. 2007. Effects of 4-hydroxynonenal on mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3methylglutaryl (HMG-CoA) synthase. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 43 (11), pp. 1499-1507. doi:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2007.08.004

Structural features and anti-HIV-1 activity of novel polysaccharides from red algae Grateloupia longifolia and Grateloupia filicina
Wang, S.C., Bligh, S.W.A., Shi, S.S., Wang, Z., Hu, Z.B., Crowder, J., Branford-White, C.J. and Vella, C. 2007. Structural features and anti-HIV-1 activity of novel polysaccharides from red algae Grateloupia longifolia and Grateloupia filicina. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 41 (4), pp. 369-375. doi:10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2007.05.008

Pharmacokinetic behavior of gentiopicroside from decoction of radix gentianae, gentiana macrophylla after oral administration in rats: a pharmacokinetic comaprison with gentiopicroside after oral and intravenous administration alone
Wang, C.-H., Cheng, X.M., He, Y.Q., White, K.N., Bligh, S.W.A., Branford-White, C.J. and Wang, Z. 2007. Pharmacokinetic behavior of gentiopicroside from decoction of radix gentianae, gentiana macrophylla after oral administration in rats: a pharmacokinetic comaprison with gentiopicroside after oral and intravenous administration alone. Archives of pharmacal research. 30 (9), pp. 1149-1154. doi:10.1007/BF02980251

Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of gentiopicroside from decoctions of Gentianae and Longdan Xiegan Tang after oral administration in rats: comparison with gentiopicroside alone
Wang, C.-H., Cheng, X.M., Bligh, S.W.A., White, K.N., Branford-White, C.J. and Wang, Z. 2007. Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of gentiopicroside from decoctions of Gentianae and Longdan Xiegan Tang after oral administration in rats: comparison with gentiopicroside alone. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis. 44 (5), pp. 1113-1117. doi:10.1016/j.jpba.2007.04.036

Synthesis of a novel ‘smart’ bifunctional chelating agent 1-(2-[β,d-galactopyranosyloxy]ethyl)-7-(1-carboxy-3-[4-aminophenyl]propyl)-4,10-bis(carboxymethyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane (Gal-PA-DO3A-NH2) and its Gd(III) complex
Wardle, N.J., Herlihy, A.H., So, P.W., Bell, J.D. and Bligh, S.W.A. 2007. Synthesis of a novel ‘smart’ bifunctional chelating agent 1-(2-[β,d-galactopyranosyloxy]ethyl)-7-(1-carboxy-3-[4-aminophenyl]propyl)-4,10-bis(carboxymethyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane (Gal-PA-DO3A-NH2) and its Gd(III) complex. Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry. 15 (14), pp. 4714-4721. doi:10.1016/j.bmc.2007.05.004

High-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry for the simultaneous analysis of cis-, trans- and dihydro-2-glucosyloxycinnamic acid derivatives from Dendrobium medicinal plants
Yang, L., Nakamura, N., Hattori, M., Wang, Z., Bligh, S.W.A. and Xu, L. 2007. High-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry for the simultaneous analysis of cis-, trans- and dihydro-2-glucosyloxycinnamic acid derivatives from Dendrobium medicinal plants. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry. 21 (12), pp. 1833-1840. doi:10.1002/rcm.3025

Nutrition and alcoholic liver disease
Everitt, H.E., Patel, V. and Tewfik, I. 2007. Nutrition and alcoholic liver disease. Nutrition Bulletin. 32 (2), pp. 138-144. doi:10.1111/j.1467-3010.2007.00627.x

ω-Phosphinyl-α-amino acids: synthesis, and development towards use as therapeutic agents
Wardle, N.J., Bligh, S.W.A. and Hudson, H.R. 2007. ω-Phosphinyl-α-amino acids: synthesis, and development towards use as therapeutic agents. Current Organic Chemistry. 11 (18), pp. 1635-1651. doi:10.2174/138527207783221200

The public health advocate: food irradiation's offer to food security
Tewfik, I. and Tewfik, S. 2007. The public health advocate: food irradiation's offer to food security. in: Ahmed, A. (ed.) Science, technology and sustainability in the Middle East and North Africa Genève InderScience. pp. 197-209

Competitive food safety program: the case of Qatar
Al-Hamaq, A.A., Zeyadah, S.S., Ahmed, A., Amuna, P. and Tewfik, I. 2007. Competitive food safety program: the case of Qatar. in: Ahmed, A. (ed.) Science, technology and sustainability in the Middle East and North Africa Genève InderScience. pp. 210-228

Book review: B. Freire Wilma (editor). Nutrition and an Active Life: From Knowledge to Action. Scientific and Technical Publication No. 612. Washington DC: Pan American Health Organization 2005. US$ 36·00 (paperback) pp. 260. ISBN: 92 75 11612 1
Tewfik, I. 2006. Book review: B. Freire Wilma (editor). Nutrition and an Active Life: From Knowledge to Action. Scientific and Technical Publication No. 612. Washington DC: Pan American Health Organization 2005. US$ 36·00 (paperback) pp. 260. ISBN: 92 75 11612 1. British Journal of Nutrition. 96 (4), p. 793. doi:10.1079/BJN20061844

Synthesis and spectral investigation of manganese(II), cadmium(II) and oxovanadium(IV) complexes with 2,6-diacetylpyridine bis(2-aminobenzoylhydrazone): crystal structure of manganese(II) and cadmium(II) complexes
Gudasi, K.B., Patil, S., Vadavi, R.S., Shenoy, R.V., Nethaji, M. and Bligh, S.W.A. 2006. Synthesis and spectral investigation of manganese(II), cadmium(II) and oxovanadium(IV) complexes with 2,6-diacetylpyridine bis(2-aminobenzoylhydrazone): crystal structure of manganese(II) and cadmium(II) complexes. Inorganica Chimica Acta. 359 (10), pp. 3229-3236. doi:10.1016/j.ica.2006.03.009

A new phenanthrene with a spirolactone from Dendrobium chrysanthum and its anti-inflammatory activities
Yang, L., Qin, L.H., Bligh, S.W.A., Bashall, A., Zhang, C.-F., Zhang, M., Wang, Z. and Xu, L. 2006. A new phenanthrene with a spirolactone from Dendrobium chrysanthum and its anti-inflammatory activities. Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry. 14 (10), pp. 3496-3501. doi:10.1016/j.bmc.2006.01.004

Prevalence of overweight, obesity, and associated psychological problems in Qatari's female population
Bener, A. and Tewfik, I. 2006. Prevalence of overweight, obesity, and associated psychological problems in Qatari's female population. Obesity Reviews. 7 (2), pp. 139-145. doi:10.1111/j.1467-789X.2006.00209.x

Industrial and dietetic applications of the food multimix (FMM) concept in meeting the nutritional needs of vulnerable groups in South Africa
Zotor, F., Amuna, P., Oldewage-Theron, W.H., Adewuya, T., Prinsloo, G., Chinyanga, Y., Tewfik, I. and Amuna, N. 2006. Industrial and dietetic applications of the food multimix (FMM) concept in meeting the nutritional needs of vulnerable groups in South Africa. Academic Journal of Vaal University of Technology. 3, pp. 54-67.

Phytoestrogen levels in selected Jamaican food
Simon, G., McFarlane-Anderson, N., Fletcher, H., Golden, K., Wharfe, G., Ogegbo, O., Bligh, S.W.A. and Branford-White, C.J. 2006. Phytoestrogen levels in selected Jamaican food. West Indian Medical Journal. 55, p. 24.

CO2 photoassimilation, chlorophyll fluorescence, lipid peroxidation and yield in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv Giza 65) in response to O3
Hassan, I.A. and Tewfik, I. 2006. CO2 photoassimilation, chlorophyll fluorescence, lipid peroxidation and yield in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv Giza 65) in response to O3. World Review of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development. 3 (1), pp. 70-79. doi:10.1504/WRSTSD.2006.008764

Prevalence of dieting, overweight, body image satisfaction and associated psychological problems in adolescent boys
Bener, A., Kamal, A., Tewfik, I. and Sabuncuoglu, O. 2006. Prevalence of dieting, overweight, body image satisfaction and associated psychological problems in adolescent boys. Nutrition & Food Science. 36 (5), pp. 295-304. doi:10.1108/00346650610703144

Organophosphorus chemistry: therapeutic intervention in mechanisms of viral and cellular replication
Wardle, N.J., Bligh, S.W.A. and Hudson, H.R. 2005. Organophosphorus chemistry: therapeutic intervention in mechanisms of viral and cellular replication. Current Organic Chemistry. 9 (18), pp. 1803-1828. doi:10.2174/138527205774913123

Protein adduct species in muscle and liver of rats following acute ethanol administration
Patel, V., Worrall, S., Emery, P.W. and Preedy, V.R. 2005. Protein adduct species in muscle and liver of rats following acute ethanol administration. Alcohol & Alcoholism. 40 (6), pp. 485-493. doi:10.1093/alcalc/agh196

Multiflorane triterpene esters from the seeds of Trichosanthes kirilowii
Wu, T., Cheng, X.M., Bligh, S.W.A., Chou, G.-X., Wang, Z., Bashall, A. and Branford-White, C.J. 2005. Multiflorane triterpene esters from the seeds of Trichosanthes kirilowii. Helvetica Chimica Acta. 88 (10), pp. 2617-2623. doi:10.1002/hlca.200590202

Bi-bicyclic and bi-tricyclic compounds from Dendrobium thyrsiflorum
Zhang, G.N., Zhong, L.Y., Bligh, S.W.A., Guo, Y.L., Zhang, C.-F., Zhang, M., Wang, Z. and Xu, L. 2005. Bi-bicyclic and bi-tricyclic compounds from Dendrobium thyrsiflorum. Phytochemistry. 66 (10), pp. 1113-1120. doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2005.04.001

Simultaneous determination of six isoflavonoids in commercial Radix Astragali by HPLC-UV
Wu, T., Bligh, S.W.A., Gu, L.-H., Wang, Z., Liu, H.P., Cheng, X.M., Branford-White, C.J. and Hu, Z.B. 2005. Simultaneous determination of six isoflavonoids in commercial Radix Astragali by HPLC-UV. Fitoterapia. 76 (2), pp. 157-165. doi:10.1016/j.fitote.2004.11.006

Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of gentiopicroside following oral and intravenous administration in mice
Wang, C.-H., Wang, Z., Bligh, S.W.A., White, K.N. and Branford-White, C.J. 2004. Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of gentiopicroside following oral and intravenous administration in mice. European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics. 29 (3), pp. 199-203. doi:10.1007/BF03190598

Liver dysfunction induced by bile duct ligation and galactosamine injection alters cardiac protein synthesis
Hunter, R.V., Patel, V., Baker, A.J. and Preedy, V.R. 2004. Liver dysfunction induced by bile duct ligation and galactosamine injection alters cardiac protein synthesis. Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental. 53 (8), pp. 964-968. doi:10.1016/j.metabol.2003.11.015

Would food irradiation as a means of technology transfer assist food productivity and security in Africa and sustain its development?
Tewfik, I., Amuna, P. and Zotor, F. 2004. Would food irradiation as a means of technology transfer assist food productivity and security in Africa and sustain its development? International Journal of Technology Policy and Management. 4 (1), pp. 44-52.

Taraxer-14-en-3β-ol, an anti-inflammatory compound from Sterculia foetida L.
Naik, D.G., Mujumdar, A.M., Waghole, R.J., Misar, A.V., Bligh, S.W.A., Bashall, A. and Crowder, J. 2004. Taraxer-14-en-3β-ol, an anti-inflammatory compound from Sterculia foetida L. Planta Medica. 70 (1), pp. 68-69. doi:10.1055/s-2004-815459

cis-Eudesmane Sesquiterpene Glycosides from Liriope muscari and Ophiopogon japonicus
Cheng, Z.H., Wu, T., Bligh, S.W.A., Bashall, A. and Yu, B.Y. 2004. cis-Eudesmane Sesquiterpene Glycosides from Liriope muscari and Ophiopogon japonicus. Journal of Natural Products. 67 (10), pp. 1761-1763. doi:10.1021/np049864e

Human and economic development in developing countries: a public health dimension employing the food multimix concept
Amuna, P., Zotor, F. and Tewfik, I. 2004. Human and economic development in developing countries: a public health dimension employing the food multimix concept. World Review of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development. 1 (2), pp. 129-137.

Fluorescence properties of green fluorescent protein FRET pairs concatenated with the small G protein, Rac, and its interacting domain of the kinase, p21-activated kinase
Collinson, A.D., Bligh, S.W.A., Graham, D.L., Mott, H.R., Chalk, P.A., Korniotis, N. and Lowe, P.N. 2004. Fluorescence properties of green fluorescent protein FRET pairs concatenated with the small G protein, Rac, and its interacting domain of the kinase, p21-activated kinase. Assay and Drug Development Technologies. 2 (6), pp. 659-673. doi:10.1089/adt.2004.2.659

Protein metabolism in alcohol misuse and toxicity
Preedy, V.R., Koll, M., Adachi, J., Mantle, D., Patel, V. and Peters, T. 2003. Protein metabolism in alcohol misuse and toxicity. in: Watson, R.R. and Preedy, V.R. (ed.) Nutrition and alcohol: linking nutrient interactions and dietary intake London CRC Press. pp. 261-300

Chronic ethanol consumption increases the concentration of a 4-hydroxynonenal adduct with the mitochondrial hydroxy methyl glutaryl CoA synthase in liver
Patel, V., Spencer, C. and Cunningham, C.C. 2003. Chronic ethanol consumption increases the concentration of a 4-hydroxynonenal adduct with the mitochondrial hydroxy methyl glutaryl CoA synthase in liver. Hepatology. 38, p. p393.

Emerging techniques in biomedical research and their application to alcohol toxicity
Patel, V., Chaurand, P., Caprioli, R., Austen, B., Frears, E., Manca, F., Davies, H., Vrana, K., Wheeler, M. and Preedy, V.R. 2003. Emerging techniques in biomedical research and their application to alcohol toxicity. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research. 27 (2), pp. 348-353.

Measurement of dissociation constants of inhibitors binding to Src SH2 domain protein by non-covalent electrospray ionization mass spectrometry
Bligh, S.W.A., Haley, T. and Lowe, P.N. 2003. Measurement of dissociation constants of inhibitors binding to Src SH2 domain protein by non-covalent electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Journal of Molecular Recognition. 16 (3), pp. 139-148. doi:10.1002/jmr.622

Reaction of (C-(6-aminomethyl-pyridin-2-yl)methylamine)chloroplatinum(II) with nucleosides and its biological activity
Bligh, S.W.A., Bashall, A., Garrud, C., McPartlin, M., Wardle, N.J., White, K.N., Padhye, S., Barve, V. and Kundu, G. 2003. Reaction of (C-(6-aminomethyl-pyridin-2-yl)methylamine)chloroplatinum(II) with nucleosides and its biological activity. Dalton Transactions. 2003 (2), pp. 184-188. doi:10.1039/B208790A

How chemistry brought me to the life-sciences interface
Bligh, S.W.A. 2003. How chemistry brought me to the life-sciences interface. Science.

Altered hepatic mitochondrial ribosome structure following chronic ethanol consumption
Patel, V. and Cunningham, C.C. 2002. Altered hepatic mitochondrial ribosome structure following chronic ethanol consumption. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. 398 (1), pp. 41-50. doi:10.1006/abbi.2001.2701

Chronic ethanol consumption increases the formation of an aldehyde-protein adduct in hepatic mitochondria
Patel, V., Young, T.A. and Cunningham, C.C. 2002. Chronic ethanol consumption increases the formation of an aldehyde-protein adduct in hepatic mitochondria. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research.

IUPAC-NIST solubility data series. 76. Solubility of ethyne in liquids
Fogg, P.G.T., Bligh, S.W.A., Derrick, M.E., Yampol’skii, Y.P., Clever, H.L., Skrzecz, A. and Young, C.L. 2001. IUPAC-NIST solubility data series. 76. Solubility of ethyne in liquids. Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data. 30 (6), pp. 1693-1875. doi:10.1063/1.1397768

Cardioprotective effect of propranolol from alcohol-induced heart muscle damage as assessed by plasma cardiac troponin-T.
Patel, V., Ajmal, R., Sherwood, R., Sullivan, A., Richardson, P. and Preedy, V.R. 2001. Cardioprotective effect of propranolol from alcohol-induced heart muscle damage as assessed by plasma cardiac troponin-T. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research. 25 (6), pp. 882-889. doi:10.1111/j.1530-0277.2001.tb02294.x

Diarrhea reduces the rates of cardiac protein synthesis in myofibrillar protein fractions in rats in vivo
Hunter, R.V., Patel, V., Miell, J., Wong, H.J., Marway, J., Richardson, P. and Preedy, V.R. 2001. Diarrhea reduces the rates of cardiac protein synthesis in myofibrillar protein fractions in rats in vivo. Journal of Nutrition. 131 (5), pp. 1513-1519.

Acute doxorubicin (adriamycin) dosage does not reduce cardiac protein synthesis in vivo, but decreases diaminopeptidase I and proline endopeptidase activities
Zima, T., Tesar, V., Mantle, D., Koll, M., Patel, V., Richardson, P. and Preedy, V.R. 2001. Acute doxorubicin (adriamycin) dosage does not reduce cardiac protein synthesis in vivo, but decreases diaminopeptidase I and proline endopeptidase activities. Experimental and Molecular Pathology. 70 (2), pp. 154-161. doi:10.1006/exmp.2000.2353

Physiochemical properties of rat liver mitochondrial ribosomes
Patel, V., Cunningham, C.C. and Hantgan, R. 2001. Physiochemical properties of rat liver mitochondrial ribosomes. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 276 (9), pp. 6739-6746. doi:10.1074/jbc.M005781200

In vivo protein synthetic rates of atrial, ventricular, and pulmonary tissue proteins in aortic constriction, goldblatt, and bromoethylamine models of hypertension
Siddiq, T., Patel, V., Sherwood, R., Richardson, P. and Preedy, V.R. 2001. In vivo protein synthetic rates of atrial, ventricular, and pulmonary tissue proteins in aortic constriction, goldblatt, and bromoethylamine models of hypertension. Experimental and Molecular Pathology. 70 (1), pp. 19-30. doi:10.1006/exmp.2000.2333

Ethanol and oxidative stress
Sun, A., Ingelman-Sundberg, M., Neve, E., Matsumoto, H., Nishitani, Y., Minowa, Y., Fukui, Y., Bailey, S., Patel, V., Cunningham, C.C., Zima, T., Fialova, L., Mikulikova, L., Popov, P., Malbohan, I., Janebova, M., Nespor, K. and Sun, G. 2001. Ethanol and oxidative stress. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research. 25 (5 Suppl.), pp. 237S-243S.

Alpha-Tocopherol supplementation does not prevent acute alcohol-induced heart muscle damage
Koll, M., Patel, V., Sherwood, R.A., Seitz, H.K., Simanowski, U.A., Richardson, P.J., Peters, T.J. and Preedy, V.R. 2001. Alpha-Tocopherol supplementation does not prevent acute alcohol-induced heart muscle damage. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. 60, p. P125A.

Ethanol and protein metabolism
Cunningham, C.C., Preedy, V.R., Paice, A., Hesketh, J., Peters, T., Patel, V., Volpi, E., Mawatari, K., Masaki, H., Mori, H. and Torii, K. 2001. Ethanol and protein metabolism. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research. 25 (5 Suppl.), pp. 262S-268S.

Dimeric yttrium(III) and neodymium(III) macrocyclic complexes: potential catalysts for hydrolysis of double-stranded DNA
Bligh, S.W.A., Choi, N., Evagorou, E.G., McPartlin, M. and White, K.N. 2001. Dimeric yttrium(III) and neodymium(III) macrocyclic complexes: potential catalysts for hydrolysis of double-stranded DNA. Journal of the Chemical Society, Dalton Transactions. 2001 (21), pp. 3169-3172. doi:10.1039/B102533N

Chronic ethanol consumption alters the glutathione/glutathione peroxidase-1 system and protein oxidation status in rat liver
Bailey, S., Patel, V., Young, T.A., Asayama, K. and Cunningham, C.C. 2001. Chronic ethanol consumption alters the glutathione/glutathione peroxidase-1 system and protein oxidation status in rat liver. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research. 25 (5), pp. 726-733.

Characterization of 111In3+ complexes of DTPA amide derivatives: biodistribution and clearance studied by gamma imaging
Prata, M.I.M., Santos, A.C., Bligh, S.W.A., Chowdhury, A.H.M.S., Geraldes, C.F.G.C. and de Lima, J.J.P. 2000. Characterization of 111In3+ complexes of DTPA amide derivatives: biodistribution and clearance studied by gamma imaging. Nuclear Medicine and Biology. 27 (6), pp. 605-610. doi:10.1016/S0969-8051(00)00127-X

Synthesis and structural properties of metal complexes of dialkyl α-hydroxyiminophosphonates
Bligh, S.W.A., Choi, N., McGrath, C.M., McPartlin, M. and Woodroffe, T.M. 2000. Synthesis and structural properties of metal complexes of dialkyl α-hydroxyiminophosphonates. Journal of the Chemical Society, Dalton Transactions. 2000 (15), pp. 2587-2594. doi:10.1039/B003241G

Non-ionic bulky Gd(III) DTPA-bisamide complexes as potential contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging
Bligh, S.W.A., Chowdhury, A.H.M.S., Kennedy, D., Luchinat, C. and Parigi, G. 1999. Non-ionic bulky Gd(III) DTPA-bisamide complexes as potential contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. 41 (4), pp. 767-773. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1522-2594(199904)41:4<767::AID-MRM16>3.0.CO;2-G

The effect of intermittent heating on some chemical parameters of refined oils used in Egypt. A public health nutrition concern
Tewfik, I., Ismail, H. and Sumar, S. 1998. The effect of intermittent heating on some chemical parameters of refined oils used in Egypt. A public health nutrition concern. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition. 49 (5), pp. 339-342. doi:10.3109/09637489809089408

A rapid supercritical fluid extraction method for the detection of 2-alkylcyclobutanones in gamma irradiated beef and chicken
Tewfik, I., Ismail, H. and Sumar, S. 1998. A rapid supercritical fluid extraction method for the detection of 2-alkylcyclobutanones in gamma irradiated beef and chicken. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und-Technologie = Journal of Food Sciences and Technology. 31 (4), pp. 366-370. doi:10.1006/fstl.1998.0371

A rapid direct solvent extraction method (DSE-GC-MS) used to detect irradiated minced beef
Tewfik, I., Ismail, H. and Sumar, S. 1998. A rapid direct solvent extraction method (DSE-GC-MS) used to detect irradiated minced beef. Bulletin of High Institute of Public Health. 28 (3), pp. 85-92.

A rapid supercritical fluid extraction method for the qualitative detection of 2-alkylcyclobutanones in gamma-irradiated fresh and sea water fish
Tewfik, I. 1998. A rapid supercritical fluid extraction method for the qualitative detection of 2-alkylcyclobutanones in gamma-irradiated fresh and sea water fish. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition. 50 (1), pp. 51-56. doi:10.1080/096374899101418

Synthesis of novel α-functionalized phosphinic acid derivatives of thiophene and the first crystal structure of an α-hydroxyalkylphosphinate
Bligh, S.W.A., McPartlin, M., Sanganee, M.J., Woodroffe, T.M. and Geraldes, C.F.G.C. 1998. Synthesis of novel α-functionalized phosphinic acid derivatives of thiophene and the first crystal structure of an α-hydroxyalkylphosphinate. Chemical Communications. 1998 (19), pp. 2073-2074. doi:10.1039/A805189E

A gadolinium cryptate with two coordinated water molecules
Bligh, S.W.A., Drew, M.G.B., Martin, N., Maubert, B. and Nelson, J. 1998. A gadolinium cryptate with two coordinated water molecules. Journal of the Chemical Society, Dalton Transactions. 1998 (22), pp. 3711-3714. doi:10.1039/A805859H

A novel hexaaza macrocycle with methylenephosphonate pendant arms: a potential useful chelate for biomedical applications
Bligh, S.W.A., Choi, N., Geraldes, C.F.G.C., Knoke, S., McPartlin, M., Sanganee, M.J. and Woodroffe, T.M. 1997. A novel hexaaza macrocycle with methylenephosphonate pendant arms: a potential useful chelate for biomedical applications. Journal of the Chemical Society, Dalton Transactions. 1997 (21), pp. 4119-4126. doi:10.1039/A703678G

Hexaaza and octaaza macrocycles with 2-hydroxy 3,5-dimethylbenzyl pendant arms
Bligh, S.W.A., Choi, N., Evagorou, E.G. and McPartlin, M. 1997. Hexaaza and octaaza macrocycles with 2-hydroxy 3,5-dimethylbenzyl pendant arms. Journal of the Chemical Society, Perkin Transactions. 1997 (21), pp. 3151-3156. doi:10.1039/A704835A

A rapid method (SFE-GC-MS) used to detect irradiated minced beef
Tewfik, I., Ismail, H., Amine, E. and Rady, A. 1996. A rapid method (SFE-GC-MS) used to detect irradiated minced beef. Arab Journal of Nuclear Sciences and Applications. 29 (4), pp. 345-353.

α-aminophosphonate monoesters in one step
Bligh, S.W.A., McGrath, C.M., Failla, S. and Finocchiaro, P. 1996. α-aminophosphonate monoesters in one step. Phosphorus, Sulfur, and Silicon and the Related Elements. 118 (1), pp. 189-194. doi:10.1080/10426509608038811

Lanthanide and transition metal complexes of dialkyl alpha-hydroxyiminophosphonates
Bligh, S.W.A., Choi, N., Green, D.S.C., Hudson, H.R., McGrath, C.M., McPartlin, M. and Pianka, M. 1996. Lanthanide and transition metal complexes of dialkyl alpha-hydroxyiminophosphonates. Phosphorus, Sulfur, and Silicon and the Related Elements. 111 (1-4), p. 49. doi:10.1080/10426509608054678

Neutral gadolinium(III) complexes of bulky octadentate dtpa derivatives as potential contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging
Bligh, S.W.A., Chowdhury, A.H.M.S., McPartlin, M. and Scowen, I.J. 1995. Neutral gadolinium(III) complexes of bulky octadentate dtpa derivatives as potential contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging. Polyhedron. 14 (4), pp. 567-569. doi:10.1016/0277-5387(94)00318-9

Teaching techniques in inorganic chemistry
Bligh, S.W.A., Conole, G. and McPartlin, M. 1995. Teaching techniques in inorganic chemistry. in: Variety in Chemistry Proceedings UK Physical Sciences Centre.

Synthesis, characterization and comparative study of aminophosphonate chelates of gadolinium(III) ions as magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents
Bligh, S.W.A., Harding, C.T., McEwen, A.B. and Sadler, P.J. 1994. Synthesis, characterization and comparative study of aminophosphonate chelates of gadolinium(III) ions as magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents. Polyhedron. 13 (12), pp. 1937-1943. doi:10.1016/0277-5387(94)80018-9

Synthesis of the first lanthanide complexes of dialkyl α-hydroxyiminophosphonates; ambivalent ligand bonding in the PrIII and NdIII complexes of diisopropyl α-hydroxyiminopropylphosphonate (L1), [PrL13Cl3] and [NdL12(NO3)3(H2O)]
Bligh, S.W.A., Choi, N., Hudson, H.R., McGrath, C.M. and McPartlin, M. 1994. Synthesis of the first lanthanide complexes of dialkyl α-hydroxyiminophosphonates; ambivalent ligand bonding in the PrIII and NdIII complexes of diisopropyl α-hydroxyiminopropylphosphonate (L1), [PrL13Cl3] and [NdL12(NO3)3(H2O)]. Journal of the Chemical Society, Dalton Transactions. 1994 (15), pp. 2335-2337. doi:10.1039/DT9940002335

First structural characterisation of an amino phosphonate monoester metal complex
Bligh, S.W.A., Choi, N., Failla, S., Finocchiaro, P., Il'yasov, A., Libertini, M., McGrath, C.M., McPartlin, M. and Woodroffe, T.M. 1994. First structural characterisation of an amino phosphonate monoester metal complex. Journal of the Chemical Society, Dalton Transactions. 1994 (22), pp. 3333-3334. doi:10.1039/DT9940003333

Metal-ion controlled helicity of an 18-membered hexaaza tetraamine macrocycle
Bligh, S.W.A., Choi, N., Evagorou, E.G., Li, W.S. and McPartlin, M. 1994. Metal-ion controlled helicity of an 18-membered hexaaza tetraamine macrocycle. Journal of the Chemical Society, Chemical Communications. 1994 (20), pp. 2399-2400. doi:10.1039/C39940002399

Yttrium(III) and lanthanide(III) metal complexes of an 18-membered hexaaza tetraimine macrocycle. Crystal structure of the gadolinium(III) complex
Bligh, S.W.A., Choi, N., Cummins, W.J., Evagorou, E.G., Kelly, J.D. and McPartlin, M. 1994. Yttrium(III) and lanthanide(III) metal complexes of an 18-membered hexaaza tetraimine macrocycle. Crystal structure of the gadolinium(III) complex. Journal of the Chemical Society, Dalton Transactions. 1994 (23), pp. 3369-3376. doi:10.1039/DT9940003369

Transition metal complexes of dialkyl α-hydroxyiminophosphonates, a novel class of metal complexes
Bligh, S.W.A., Choi, N., Green, D.S.C., Hudson, H.R., McGrath, C.M., McPartlin, M. and Pianka, M. 1993. Transition metal complexes of dialkyl α-hydroxyiminophosphonates, a novel class of metal complexes. Polyhedron. 12 (23), pp. 2887-2890. doi:10.1016/S0277-5387(00)80073-X

Macrocyclic lanthanide complexes as potential contrast agents for NMR imaging
Bligh, S.W.A., Choi, N., Cummins, W.J., Evagorou, E.G., Kelly, J.D., McPartlin, M. and Parkes, H.G. 1993. Macrocyclic lanthanide complexes as potential contrast agents for NMR imaging. Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry. 51 (1-2), p. 438. doi:10.1016/0162-0134(93)85467-M

Synthesis and crystal structure of a novel hexaaza macrocyclic ligand with 2-hydroxy-3,5-dimethylbenzyl pendant arms and its gadolinium(III) complex
Bligh, S.W.A., Choi, N., Cummins, W.J., Evagorou, E.G., Kelly, J.D. and McPartlin, M. 1993. Synthesis and crystal structure of a novel hexaaza macrocyclic ligand with 2-hydroxy-3,5-dimethylbenzyl pendant arms and its gadolinium(III) complex. Journal of the Chemical Society, Dalton Transactions. 1993 (24), pp. 3829-3831. doi:10.1039/DT9930003829

Distortional isomerism in oxomolybdenum systems: the evidence re-evaluated
Bashall, A., Bligh, S.W.A., Edwards, A.J., McPartlin, M., Gibson, V.C. and Robinson, O.B. 1992. Distortional isomerism in oxomolybdenum systems: the evidence re-evaluated. Angewandte Chemie: International Edition in English. 31 (12), pp. 1607-1609. doi:10.1002/anie.199216071

Synthesis and crystal structure of a gadolinium(III) complex of a tetraimine schiff-base macrocycle: a potential contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging
Bligh, S.W.A., Choi, N., Evagorou, E.G., McPartlin, M., Cummins, W.J. and Kelly, J.D. 1992. Synthesis and crystal structure of a gadolinium(III) complex of a tetraimine schiff-base macrocycle: a potential contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging. Polyhedron. 11 (19), pp. 2571-2573. doi:10.1016/S0277-5387(00)83580-9

H-1-Nmr studies of reactions of copper complexes with human blood plasma and urine
Bligh, S.W.A., Boyle, H.A., McEwen, A.B., Sadler, P.J. and Woodham, R.H. 1992. H-1-Nmr studies of reactions of copper complexes with human blood plasma and urine. Biochemical Pharmacology. 43 (2), pp. 137-145. doi:10.1016/0006-2952(92)90270-S

Use of paramagnetic chelated metal derivatives of polysaccharides and spin-labeled polysaccharides as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging
Bligh, S.W.A., Harding, C.T., Sadler, P.J., Bulman, R.A., Bydder, G.M., Pennock, J.M., Kelly, J.D., Clatham, I.A. and Marriott, J.A. 1991. Use of paramagnetic chelated metal derivatives of polysaccharides and spin-labeled polysaccharides as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. 17 (2), pp. 516-532. doi:10.1002/mrm.1910170222

Nuclear magnetic resonance and circular dichroism spectroscopic studies of copper complexation in blood plasma
Bligh, S.W.A., Drake, A.F. and Sadler, P.J. 1990. Nuclear magnetic resonance and circular dichroism spectroscopic studies of copper complexation in blood plasma. Biochemical Society Transactions. 18, pp. 999-1000. doi:10.1042/bst0180999

Ultraviolet and magnetic-circular-diochroic spectroscopic studies of Gd(III) complexed with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid
Bligh, S.W.A., Drake, A.F. and Sadler, P.J. 1989. Ultraviolet and magnetic-circular-diochroic spectroscopic studies of Gd(III) complexed with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid. European Journal of Biochemistry. 181 (1), pp. 223-224. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1989.tb14714.x

Characterization and invivo distribution of Tc-99m-labeled and In-111-labelled magnetite
Bligh, S.W.A., Sadler, P.J., Marriott, J.A., Latham, I.A. and Kelly, J.D. 1989. Characterization and invivo distribution of Tc-99m-labeled and In-111-labelled magnetite. Applied Radiation and Isotopes. 40, pp. 751-757.

Labels and contrast agents in biomedical magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging
Bligh, S.W.A. and Sadler, P.J. 1989. Labels and contrast agents in biomedical magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging. in: Dykes, J. and Delpy, D.T. (ed.) Clinical NMR spectroscopy York, England The Institute of Physical Sciences in Medicine. pp. 77-81

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