|Chapter title||Trends in the competitiveness of selected industrial sectors in ETR countries|
|Authors||Salmons, R. and Miltner, A.|
|Editors||Andersen, M.S. and Ekins, P.|
The objective of this chapter is to assess whether the carbon-energy taxes introduced under the environmental tax reforms (ETRs) that were implemented in seven European Union countries between 1990 and 2001 have had any impact on the competitiveness of selected industrial sectors in those countries. By definition, if an ETR raises the production cost of a firm, or the average production cost for a sector, then it has a negative impact on competitiveness compared to the (hypothetical) situation if the ETR had not been implemented – all else being equal. However, from a policy perspective it is more relevant to consider whether there has been any deterioration in competitiveness compared to the (actual) situation before the ETR was implemented.
|Book title||Carbon taxation: lessons from Europe|
|Publisher||Oxford University Press|
|Place of publication||Oxford|