Carbon emission inventories are the foundations of climate change mitigation and adaptation in cities. In this study, we estimated production-based CO2 emissions from fossil energy combustion and industrial processes for eleven cities in China in 2012 and used input-output theory to measure their consumption-based CO2 emissions. By comprehensively comparing production- and consumption-based emissions, six developed cities were consumption-based cities with import-depended trade pattern, while the other five were production-based cities which were mostly in medium size and might transform into consumption-based cities with socioeconomic development. Emissions from imports accounted for over 50% in consumption-based emissions in most cities, which shows the significance of interregional cooperation in tackling climate change. From the perspective of final use, emissions caused by fixed capital formation occupied first in most cities, which was determined by their economic development models.