In modern societies languages are used to further the cause of political, economic, educational, social, and psychological objectives. Thus language planning is viewed as that, which is done through the co-operative efforts of political, economic, and linguistic authorities. Put succinctly, language plans put national and official languages into effect, encourage or discourage certain trade languages, or determine the role of mother tongues versus second languages. To this end, this paper aims to explore Nigeria’s historical and political background; its linguistic context; the question of choosing national language(s), and Nigeria’s language policy objectives. It will also highlight some of the reasons adduced in support of mother tongue medium of instruction in education, the implementation of the mother tongue policy in Nigeria, the problems inherent in the implementation of this policy and suggestions as to how these problems can be ameliorated.