Distribution, occurrence and biotoxin composition of the main shellfish toxin producing microalgae within European waters: A comparison of methods of analysis

McNamee, S.E., Medlin, L.K., Kegel, J., McCoy, G.R., Raine, R., Barra, L., Ruggiero, M.V., Kooistra, W.H.C.F., Montresor, M., Hagstrom, J., Pérez Blanco, E., Graneli, E., Rodríguez, F., Escalera, L., Reguera, B., Dittami, S., Edvardsen, B., Taylor, J., Lewis, J., Pazos, Y., Elliott, C.T. and Campbell, K. 2016. Distribution, occurrence and biotoxin composition of the main shellfish toxin producing microalgae within European waters: A comparison of methods of analysis. Harmful Algae. 55, pp. 112-120.

TitleDistribution, occurrence and biotoxin composition of the main shellfish toxin producing microalgae within European waters: A comparison of methods of analysis
AuthorsMcNamee, S.E., Medlin, L.K., Kegel, J., McCoy, G.R., Raine, R., Barra, L., Ruggiero, M.V., Kooistra, W.H.C.F., Montresor, M., Hagstrom, J., Pérez Blanco, E., Graneli, E., Rodríguez, F., Escalera, L., Reguera, B., Dittami, S., Edvardsen, B., Taylor, J., Lewis, J., Pazos, Y., Elliott, C.T. and Campbell, K.
Abstract

Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are a natural global phenomena emerging in severity and extent. Incidents have many economic, ecological and human health impacts. Monitoring and providing early warning of toxic HABs are critical for protecting public health. Current monitoring programmes include measuring the number of toxic phytoplankton cells in the water and biotoxin levels in shellfish tissue. As these efforts are demanding and labour intensive, methods which improve the efficiency are essential. This study compares the utilisation of a multitoxin surface plasmon resonance (multitoxin SPR) biosensor with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and analytical methods such as high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) for toxic HAB monitoring efforts in Europe. Seawater samples (n = 256) from European waters, collected 2009–2011, were analysed for biotoxins: saxitoxin and analogues, okadaic acid and dinophysistoxins 1/2 (DTX1/DTX2) and domoic acid responsible for paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP) and amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP), respectively. Biotoxins were detected mainly in samples from Spain and Ireland. France and Norway appeared to have the lowest number of toxic samples. Both the multitoxin SPR biosensor and the RNA microarray were more sensitive at detecting toxic HABs than standard light microscopy phytoplankton monitoring. Correlations between each of the detection methods were performed with the overall agreement, based on statistical 2 2 comparison tables, between each testing platform ranging between 32% and 74% for all three toxin families illustrating that one individual testing method may not be an ideal solution. An efficient early warning monitoring system for the detection of toxic HABs could therefore be achieved by combining both the multitoxin SPR biosensor and RNA microarray.

KeywordsHarmful algal bloom, Microarray, Biosensor, Saxitoxin, Okadaic acid, Domoic acid
JournalHarmful Algae
Journal citation55, pp. 112-120
ISSN1568-9883
Year2016
PublisherElsevier
Accepted author manuscriptFinal HA Manuscript Feb 16.pdf
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)doi:10.1016/j.hal.2016.02.008
Publication dates
Published online05 Mar 2016
Published in printMay 2016
Published05 Mar 2016

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