Are sage, rosemary and lemon balm effective interventions in dementia? A narrative review of the clinical evidence

Shinjyo, N. and Green, J. 2017. Are sage, rosemary and lemon balm effective interventions in dementia? A narrative review of the clinical evidence. European Journal of Integrative Medicine. 15, pp. 83-96. doi:10.1016/j.eujim.2017.08.013

TitleAre sage, rosemary and lemon balm effective interventions in dementia? A narrative review of the clinical evidence
AuthorsShinjyo, N. and Green, J.
Abstract

Introduction
Dementia is a common, progressive disorder impairing brain function and affecting sufferers and caregivers’ wellbeing. Numbers of dementia patients will increase as the population ages. Rosmarinic acid is a natural compound with choline esterase inhibitory potency found in members of the botanical family lamiaceae, including sage, rosemary, and lemon balm, suggesting potential efficacy in dementia intervention. This study aimed to evaluate effectiveness of these herbs based on a review of randomised controlled trials.

Methods
Database searches were conducted separately for each herb using PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and ScienceDirect for clinical evidence for sage (Salvia officinalis L. or S. lavandulaefolia Vahl), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.), administered individually.

Results
Database searching identified 235, 112, and 177 articles for sage, rosemary, and lemon balm, respectively. From these, eight for sage, five for rosemary and eight for lemon balm met inclusion criteria. Trials were analysed based on the study designs and summarized as narrative synthesis as data were heterogeneous in terms of the target populations, herbal preparations and administration methods.
Studies suggested sage spp. could improve cognitive performance and alertness. Rosemary could improve cognitive performance and alertness. Among eight articles identified on lemon balm, seven studies found it effective in improving mood or cognition. One study found no effect.
Conclusions
Some clinical evidence supports the benefit of these herbs in dementia intervention. However, methodological heterogeneity and variable trial quality made information synthesis difficult. Further research is required to determine dosage and intervention periods.

Keywordsdementia, Salvia spp, Rosmarinus officinalis, Melissa officinalis, rosmarinic acid, narrative review
Article numberEUJIM713
JournalEuropean Journal of Integrative Medicine
Journal citation15, pp. 83-96
ISSN1876-3820
Year2017
PublisherElsevier
Accepted author manuscriptShinjyo & Green 2017 accepted with figures.pdf
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)doi:10.1016/j.eujim.2017.08.013
Publication dates
Published online04 Sep 2017
Published04 Sep 2017
LicenseCC BY-NC-ND 4.0

Related outputs

Does the traditional medicinal use of Leonurus cardiaca L. as specified by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) monographs reflect documented historical use and current research? A content analysis.
Green, J. and Waterworth, J. 2019. Does the traditional medicinal use of Leonurus cardiaca L. as specified by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) monographs reflect documented historical use and current research? A content analysis. A Celebration of Herbal Medicine History: Researching Botanical Knowledge and Discovery . Bath Royal Literary and Scientific Institution, 16-18 Queen Square, Bath, UK, BA1 2HN 30 Oct 2019 Herbal History Research Network.

Plants with antimalarial properties: a systematic review of the current clinical evidence
Aracil, A. and Green, J. 2019. Plants with antimalarial properties: a systematic review of the current clinical evidence. European Journal of Integrative Medicine. 28, pp. 76-85. doi:10.1016/j.eujim.2019.04.005

Experience of Western Herbal Medicine practitioners in supporting brain health in mid-life and older patients: a qualitative research study
Hundal, S. and Green, J. 2018. Experience of Western Herbal Medicine practitioners in supporting brain health in mid-life and older patients: a qualitative research study. UCL Spices and Medicine Symposium. UCL School of Pharmacy, Brunswick Square, London 10 Oct 2018

Practice Based Evidence
Green, J. 2017. Practice Based Evidence. National Institute of Medical Herbalists 153rd Annual Conference. Stratford-upon-Avon 13 - 14 Oct 2017

Changing with Herbs: a pilot randomised controlled trial of Western herbal practice for the menopause
Green, J. 2017. Changing with Herbs: a pilot randomised controlled trial of Western herbal practice for the menopause. Treating Women's Health With Herbal Medicine. Chelsea Physic Garden, London 22 May 2017

An investigation into the approaches used by western medical herbalists for the therapeutic management of osteoarthritis
Westlake, R. and Green, J. 2016. An investigation into the approaches used by western medical herbalists for the therapeutic management of osteoarthritis. National Institute of Medical Herbalists 152nd Annual Conference. Crewe 14 - 15 Oct 2016

Does historical documentation support the proposed traditional use of Chelidonium majus L. by the European Medicines Agency?
Martyna, A., Lawrence, N. and Green, J. 2015. Does historical documentation support the proposed traditional use of Chelidonium majus L. by the European Medicines Agency? Herbal History Research Network Conference: Trade, Discovery and Influences in the History of Herbal Medicine. . Wellcome Trust, London, UK 14 Oct 2015

The development of Eucalyptus as a medicine
Walker, K. and Green, J. 2014. The development of Eucalyptus as a medicine. National Institute of Medical Herbalists 150th Annual Conference. Nottingham 09 - 13 Oct 2014

‘I just went with hope, because I thought I’m doing something’: Women’s Experiences of Western Herbal Practice for Distress
Yates, A., Whitehouse, J., Ridge, Damien T. and Green, J. 2014. ‘I just went with hope, because I thought I’m doing something’: Women’s Experiences of Western Herbal Practice for Distress. College of Medicine Multi-Disciplinary Student Summer School. King's College School of Nursing and Midwifery 05 Sep 2014

How women experience distress, and western herbal practice for the treatment of distress: implications for health care and self-management approaches
Yates, A., Whitehouse, J., Ridge, Damien T. and Green, J. 2014. How women experience distress, and western herbal practice for the treatment of distress: implications for health care and self-management approaches. University of Westminster Post-Graduate Fair. Univeristy of Westminster 29 Apr 2014

“It felt like someone holding you up and lifting the pain away”: Women's experiences of western herbal practice for the treatment of distress
Yates, A.J., Green, J., Whitehouse, J. and Ridge, Damien T. 2014. “It felt like someone holding you up and lifting the pain away”: Women's experiences of western herbal practice for the treatment of distress. CAMSTRAND 2014. The Christie NHS Foundation Trust 18 Jun 2014 European Journal of Integrative Medicine.

Milk thistle (Silybum marianum)
Green, J. and Kalisch, A. 2013. Milk thistle (Silybum marianum). Concerted Action for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Assessment in the Cancer Field (CAM-Cancer).

Exploring therapeutic approaches of Western Medical Herbalists to Acne vulgaris using qualitative interviews
Aracil-Pujalte, A. and Green, J. 2013. Exploring therapeutic approaches of Western Medical Herbalists to Acne vulgaris using qualitative interviews. National Institute of Medical Herbalists 149th Annual Conference. Crewe 01 - 02 Nov 2013

Exploring the therapeutic approaches for the treatment of atopic eczema by western medical herbalists: a qualitative study
Maraki, Z. and Green, J. 2013. Exploring the therapeutic approaches for the treatment of atopic eczema by western medical herbalists: a qualitative study. National Institute of Medical Herbalists 149th Annual Conference. Crewe, UK 01 - 02 Nov 2013

How women use and experience western herbal practice for distress: implications for health care and self-management approaches.
Yates, A., Green, J., Whitehouse, J. and Ridge, Damien T. 2013. How women use and experience western herbal practice for distress: implications for health care and self-management approaches. CAMSTRAND 2013. University of Westminster 02 Jul 2013 Elsevier. doi:doi:10.1016/j.eujim.2013.08.019

What’s in the bottle? Prescriptions formulated by medical herbalists in a clinical trial of treatment during the menopause
Denham, A., Green, J. and Hawkey, S. 2011. What’s in the bottle? Prescriptions formulated by medical herbalists in a clinical trial of treatment during the menopause. Journal of Herbal Medicine. 1 (3-4), pp. 95-101. doi:10.1016/j.hermed.2011.07.002

The use of complementary and alternative medicine in pregnancy: data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC)
Bishop, J.L., Northstone, K., Green, J. and Thompson, E.A. 2011. The use of complementary and alternative medicine in pregnancy: data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Complementary Therapies in Medicine. 19 (6), pp. 303-310. doi:10.1016/j.ctim.2011.08.005

Herbal treatment in the menopause: reflecting on tools, strategies and outcomes
Green, J., Denham, A., Greenwood, R. and Hawkey, S. 2010. Herbal treatment in the menopause: reflecting on tools, strategies and outcomes. Complementary and Alternative Strategies and New Developments (CAMSTRAND) Annual Conference 2010. University of Bristol 21 - 22 April 2010

Trials and tribulations: is herbal practice effective in treating menopausal symptoms?
Green, J. 2009. Trials and tribulations: is herbal practice effective in treating menopausal symptoms? College of Practitioners of Phytotherapy Conference. London 2009

Changing with herbs: treatment of menopausal symptoms by qualified herbal practitioners: a prospective, randomized controlled trial
Green, J. 2008. Changing with herbs: treatment of menopausal symptoms by qualified herbal practitioners: a prospective, randomized controlled trial. 144th Conference of the National Institute of Medical Herbalists. Chester 2008

Treatment of menopausal symptoms by qualified herbal practitioners: a prospective, randomized controlled trial
Green, J., Denham, A., Ingram, J., Hawkey, S. and Greenwood, R. 2007. Treatment of menopausal symptoms by qualified herbal practitioners: a prospective, randomized controlled trial. Family Practice. 24 (5), pp. 468-474. doi:10.1093/fampra/cmm048

Not on my own: women's experience of herbal practice as participants in a randomised controlled trial
Green, J., Hawkey, S., Ingram, J. and Denham, A. 2007. Not on my own: women's experience of herbal practice as participants in a randomised controlled trial. Power and Autonomy in Alternative and Complementary Medicine: The Alternative and Complementary Health Research Network (ACHRN) 4th international academic & experiential conference for researchers & practitioners. Nottingham University 04 - 06 Jul 2007

"Not on my own": women's experience of herbal practice as participants in a randomised controlled trial
Green, J., Hawkey, S., Ingram, J. and Denham, A. 2007. "Not on my own": women's experience of herbal practice as participants in a randomised controlled trial. International Congress on Complementary Medicine Research. Munich 11 - 13 May 2007

"Not on my own": women's experience of herbal practice as particiapnts in a randomised controlled trial
Green, J., Hawkey, S., Ingram, J. and Denham, A. 2007. "Not on my own": women's experience of herbal practice as particiapnts in a randomised controlled trial. Celebrating Primary Care Research Conference. Avon Primary Care Research Collaborative, Bristol 15 Mar 2007

Changing with herbs: treatment of menopausal symptoms by qualified herbal practitioners
Green, J., Denham, A., Ingram, J., Hawkey, S. and Greenwood, R. 2007. Changing with herbs: treatment of menopausal symptoms by qualified herbal practitioners. International Congress on Complementary Medicine Research. Munich 11 - 13 May 2007

Investigating complex systems in herbal medicine: reflections on the black box (Abstract from the Developing Research Strategies Conference 28 April 2005)
Green, J. 2005. Investigating complex systems in herbal medicine: reflections on the black box (Abstract from the Developing Research Strategies Conference 28 April 2005). Complementary Therapies in Medicine. 13 (3), pp. 217-225. doi:10.1016/j.ctim.2005.06.006

Kaurenoids and Gibberellins, including the newly characterized Gibberellin A88, in developing apple seeds
Hedden, P., Hoad, G.V., Gaskin, P., Lewis, M.J., Green, J., Furber, M. and Mander, L.N. 1993. Kaurenoids and Gibberellins, including the newly characterized Gibberellin A88, in developing apple seeds. Phytochemistry. 32 (2), pp. 231-237. doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(00)94973-2

The control of biennial bearing in cider apples
Green, J. 1988. The control of biennial bearing in cider apples. PhD thesis University of Bristol Department of Agricultural Sciences, Long Ashton Research Station

Permalink - https://westminsterresearch.westminster.ac.uk/item/q24yw/are-sage-rosemary-and-lemon-balm-effective-interventions-in-dementia-a-narrative-review-of-the-clinical-evidence


Share this
Tweet
Email