The development of highly accurate, quantitative automatic medical image segmentation techniques, in comparison to manual techniques, remains a constant challenge for medical image analysis. In particular, segmenting the pancreas from an abdominal scan presents additional difficulties: this particular organ has very high anatomical variability, and a full inspection is problematic due to the location of the pancreas behind the stomach. Therefore, accurate, automatic pancreas segmentation can consequently yield quantitative morphological measures such as volume and curvature, supporting biomedical research to establish the severity and progression of a condition, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus. Furthermore, it can also guide subject stratification after diagnosis or before clinical trials, and help shed additional light on detecting early signs of pancreatic cancer. This PhD thesis delivers a novel approach for automatic, accurate quantitative pancreas segmentation in mostly but not exclusively Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), by harnessing the advantages of machine learning and classical image processing in computer vision. The proposed approach is evaluated on two MRI datasets containing 216 and 132 image volumes, achieving a mean Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) of 84:1 4:6% and 85:7 2:3% respectively. In order to demonstrate the universality of the approach, a dataset containing 82 Computer Tomography (CT) image volumes is also evaluated and achieves mean DSC of 83:1 5:3%. The proposed approach delivers a contribution to computer science (computer vision) in medical image analysis, reporting better quantitative pancreas segmentation results in comparison to other state-of-the-art techniques, and also captures detailed pancreas boundaries as verified by two independent experts in radiology and radiography. The contributions’ impact can support the usage of computational methods in biomedical research with a clinical translation; for example, the pancreas volume provides a prognostic biomarker about the severity of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Furthermore, a generalisation of the proposed segmentation approach successfully extends to other anatomical structures, including the kidneys, liver and iliopsoas muscles using different MRI sequences. Thus, the proposed approach can incorporate into the development of a computational tool to support radiological interpretations of MRI scans obtained using different sequences by providing a “second opinion”, help reduce possible misdiagnosis, and consequently, provide enhanced guidance towards targeted treatment planning.