Turbidity dynamics during spring storm events in an urban headwater river system: the Upper Tame, West Midlands, UK

Lawler, D.M., Petts, G.E., Foster, I.D.L. and Harper, S. 2006. Turbidity dynamics during spring storm events in an urban headwater river system: the Upper Tame, West Midlands, UK. Science of the Total Environment. 360 (1-3), pp. 109-126.

TitleTurbidity dynamics during spring storm events in an urban headwater river system: the Upper Tame, West Midlands, UK
AuthorsLawler, D.M., Petts, G.E., Foster, I.D.L. and Harper, S.
Abstract

Turbidity is an important water quality variable, through its relation to light suppression, BOD impact, sediment-associated contaminant transport, and suspended sediment effects on organisms and habitats. Yet few published field investigations of wet-weather turbidity dynamics, through several individual and sequenced rainstorms in extremely urbanised headwater basins, have emerged. This paper aims to address this gap through a turbidity analysis of multiple storm events in spring 2001 in an urban headwater basin (57 km2) of the River Tame, central England, the most urbanised basin for its size in the UK ( 42%). Data were collected at 15-min frequency at automated monitoring stations for rainfall, streamflow and six water quality variables (turbidity, EC, temperature, DO, pH, ammonia). Disturbance experiments also allowed estimates of bed sediment storage to be obtained.

Six important and unusual features of the storm event turbidity response were apparent: (1) sluggish early turbidity response, followed by a turbidity ‘rush’; (2) quasi-coincident flow and turbidity peaks; (3) anti-clockwise hysteresis in the discharge–turbidity relationship on all but one event, resulting from Falling-LImb Turbidity Extensions (FLITEs); (4) increases in peak turbidity levels through storm sequences; (5) initial micro-pulses (IMP) in turbidity; and (6) secondary turbidity peaks (STP) or ‘turbidity shoulders’ (TS). These features provided very little evidence of a true ‘first-flush’ effect: instead, substantial suspended solids transport continued right through the flow recessions, and little storm-event sediment exhaustion was evident. A new, dimensionless, hysteresis index, HImid, is developed to quantify the magnitude and direction of hysteresis in a simple, clear, direct and intuitive manner. This allowed the degree of departure from the classic ‘first-flush’, clockwise hysteresis models to be assessed.

Of the 15 turbidity events considered, 10 coincided with ammonia spikes of up to 6.25 mg l− 1 at Water Orton (the downstream station): this suggests that spills from combined sewer overflows (CSO) or waste water treatment works (WwTWs) are significant in the throughput of turbid waters here. Substantial ammonia peaks related most strongly to total storm rainfall receipt, of four rainfall variables considered, and significant ammonia peaks were generated even from low-magnitude storms (rainfall totals < 4 mm), indicating that spills are a frequent occurrence. Local bed sediment stores appear to be limited, suggesting that other distal sediment sources, such as road networks and old mineworkings are possibly more important. Biofilms may also play a part in delaying sediment release until late in the hydrograph, and in suppressing late spring turbidity levels. Existing first-flush models appear to be an oversimplification here. Such urban headwater basin responses can provide useful insights into the generation of contaminant waves, and offer vital early-warning systems for pollution events propagating downstream.

JournalScience of the Total Environment
Journal citation360 (1-3), pp. 109-126
ISSN0048-9697
YearOct 2006
PublisherElsevier
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2005.08.032
Publication dates
PublishedOct 2006

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Gurnell, A.M. and Petts, G.E. 2002. Island-dominated landscapes of large floodplain rivers, a European perspective. Freshwater Biology. 47 (4), pp. 581-600.

Complex North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) Index signal of historic North Atlantic storm-track changes
Dawson, A.G., Hickey, K., Holt, T., Elliott, L., Dawson, S., Foster, I.D.L., Wadhams, P., Jonsdottir, I., Wilkinson, J., McKenna, J., Davis, N.R. and Smith, D.E. 2002. Complex North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) Index signal of historic North Atlantic storm-track changes. The Holocene. 12 (3), pp. 363-369.

Ecohydrology of riparian forests in the Orinoco River Basin
Rosales, J., Vispo, C., Dezzeo, N., Blanco-Belmonte, L., Knab-Vispo, C., Gonzalez, N., Daza, F., Petts, G.E., Bradley, C., Gilvear, D.J., Escalante, G. and Chacón, N. 2002. Ecohydrology of riparian forests in the Orinoco River Basin. in: McClain, M.E. (ed.) The ecohydrology of South American rivers and wetlands Wallingford International Association of Hydrological Sciences.

The possible role of agricultural land drains in sediment delivery to a small reservoir, Wocestershire, UK: a multiparameter tracing study
Foster, I.D.L., Lees, J.A., Jones, A.R., Chapman, A.S., Turner, S.E. and Hodgkinson, R.A. 2002. The possible role of agricultural land drains in sediment delivery to a small reservoir, Wocestershire, UK: a multiparameter tracing study. in: Dyer, F.J., Thoms, M.C. and Olley, J.M. (ed.) The structure, function and management implications of fluvial sedimentary systems (IAHS Symposium, Alice Springs, Sept 2002) IAHS Press.

Land degredation and sediment dynamics in the South African Karoo
Foster, I.D.L., Boardman, J., Keay-Bright, J. and Meadows, M.E. 2002. Land degredation and sediment dynamics in the South African Karoo. in: Harowitz, A.J. and Walling, D.E. (ed.) Sediment budgets 2 (IAHS Symposium, Foz do Iguacu, Brazil, April 2005) IAHS Press.

Sustaining water-related ecosystems: the role of instream bedform design in river channel rehabilitation
Clifford, N.J., Soar, P.J., Emery, J.C., Gurnell, A.M. and Petts, G.E. 2002. Sustaining water-related ecosystems: the role of instream bedform design in river channel rehabilitation. in: Van Lanen, H.A.J. and Demuth, S. (ed.) FRIEND 2002: regional hydrology: bridging the gap between research and practice Wallingford IAHS.

Modelling water flow and quality: an evaluation of the ISIS model in the River Avon, United Kingdom
Baban, S.M.J. and Foster, I.D.L. 2002. Modelling water flow and quality: an evaluation of the ISIS model in the River Avon, United Kingdom. West Indian Journal of Engineering. 24 (2), pp. 1-15.

A hydrogeomorphological context for ecological research on alpine glacial rivers
Smith, B.P.G., Hannah, D.M., Gurnell, A.M. and Petts, G.E. 2001. A hydrogeomorphological context for ecological research on alpine glacial rivers. Freshwater Biology. 46 (12), pp. 1579-1596.

Trends of macroinvertebrate community structure in glacier-fed rivers in relation to environmental conditions: a synthesis
Milner, A.M., Brittain, J.E., Castella, E. and Petts, G.E. 2001. Trends of macroinvertebrate community structure in glacier-fed rivers in relation to environmental conditions: a synthesis. Freshwater Biology. 46 (12), pp. 1833-1847.

Sediment deposition along the channel margins of a reach of the middle River Severn, UK
Steiger, J., Gurnell, A.M. and Petts, G.E. 2001. Sediment deposition along the channel margins of a reach of the middle River Severn, UK. Regulated Rivers: Research & Management. 17 (4-5), pp. 443-460.

Scales of hydroecological variability within a groundwater-dominated stream
Wood, P.J., Hannah, D.M., Agnew, M.D. and Petts, G.E. 2001. Scales of hydroecological variability within a groundwater-dominated stream. Regulated Rivers: Research & Management. 17 (4-5), pp. 347-367.

Development, flood risk and the urban environment: experiences from the River Tame
Webster, P., West, J.R., Gurnell, A.M., Petts, G.E., Sadler, J.P. and Forster, C.F. 2001. Development, flood risk and the urban environment: experiences from the River Tame. Journal of the Chartered Institution of Water and Environmental Management. 15 (3), pp. 167-173.

Assessing adult Trichoptera communities of small streams: a case study from Charnwood Forest, Leicestershire, UK
Greenwood, M.T., Bickerton, M.A. and Petts, G.E. 2001. Assessing adult Trichoptera communities of small streams: a case study from Charnwood Forest, Leicestershire, UK. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems. 11 (2), pp. 93-107.

Hydro-ecological variability within a groundwater-dominated stream
Wood, P.J., Agnew, M.D. and Petts, G.E. 2001. Hydro-ecological variability within a groundwater-dominated stream. in: Acreman, M.C. (ed.) Hydro-ecology: linking hydrology and aquatic ecology Wallingford International Association of Hydrological Sciences.

Sustaining our rivers in crisis: setting the international agenda for action
Petts, G.E. 2001. Sustaining our rivers in crisis: setting the international agenda for action. Water Science and Technology. 43 (9), pp. 3-16.

Ecological gradients within the riparian forests of the lower Caura River, Venezuela
Rosales, J., Petts, G.E. and Knab-Vispo, C. 2001. Ecological gradients within the riparian forests of the lower Caura River, Venezuela. Plant Ecology. 152 (1), pp. 101-118.

Riparian vegetation and island formation along the gravel-bed Fiume Tagliamento, Italy
Gurnell, A.M., Petts, G.E., Hannah, D.M., Smith, B.P.G., Edwards, P.J., Kollmann, J., Ward, J.V. and Tockner, K. 2001. Riparian vegetation and island formation along the gravel-bed Fiume Tagliamento, Italy. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms. 26 (1), pp. 31-62.

Flow variations and macroinvertebrate community responses in a small groundwater-dominated stream in south-east England
Wood, P.J., Agnew, M.D. and Petts, G.E. 2000. Flow variations and macroinvertebrate community responses in a small groundwater-dominated stream in south-east England. Hydrological Processes. 14 (16-17), pp. 3133-3147.

Regional variations in the sediment structure of trout streams in southern England: benchmark data for siltation assessment and restoration
Milan, D.J., Petts, G.E. and Sambrook, H. 2000. Regional variations in the sediment structure of trout streams in southern England: benchmark data for siltation assessment and restoration. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems. 10 (6), pp. 407-420.

Classification of river regimes: a context for hydroecology
Harris, N.M., Gurnell, A.M., Hannah, D.M. and Petts, G.E. 2000. Classification of river regimes: a context for hydroecology. Hydrological Processes. 14 (16-17), pp. 2831-2846.

Wood storage within the active zone of a large European gravel-bed river
Gurnell, A.M., Petts, G.E., Hannah, D.M., Smith, B.P.G., Edwards, P.J., Kollmann, J., Ward, J.V. and Tockner, K. 2000. Wood storage within the active zone of a large European gravel-bed river. Geomorphology. 34 (1-2), pp. 55-72.

Longitudinal variations in exposed riverine sediments: a context for the ecology of the Fiume Tagliamento, Italy
Petts, G.E., Gurnell, A.M., Gerrard, A.J., Hannah, D.M., Hansford, B., Morrissey, I.P., Edwards, P.J., Kollmann, J., Ward, J.V., Tockner, K. and Smith, B.P.G. 2000. Longitudinal variations in exposed riverine sediments: a context for the ecology of the Fiume Tagliamento, Italy. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems. 10 (4), pp. 249-266.

A perspective on the abiotic processes sustaining the ecological integrity of running waters
Petts, G.E. 2000. A perspective on the abiotic processes sustaining the ecological integrity of running waters. Hydrobiologia. 422-423, pp. 15-27.

Large wood retention in river channels: the case of the Fiume Tagliamento, Italy
Gurnell, A.M., Petts, G.E., Harris, N.M., Ward, J.V., Tockner, K., Edwards, P.J. and Kollmann, J. 2000. Large wood retention in river channels: the case of the Fiume Tagliamento, Italy. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms. 25 (3), pp. 255-275.

Potential role of island dynamis in river ecosystems
Ward, J.V., Tockner, K., Edwards, P.J., Kollmann, J., Gurnell, A.M., Petts, G.E., Bretschko, G. and Rossaro, B. 2000. Potential role of island dynamis in river ecosystems. International Association of Theoretical and Applied Limnology. Proceedings. 27, pp. 2582-2585.

River restoration: policy and practice
Petts, G.E., Sparks, R. and Campbell, I. 2000. River restoration: policy and practice. in: Boon, P.J., Davies, B.R. and Petts, G.E. (ed.) Global perspectives on river conservation Chichester Wiley. pp. 493-508

Russian and Eastern European rivers
Khaiter, P., Nikanorov, A.M., Yereschukova, M.G., Prach, K., Vadineanu, A., Oldfield, J. and Petts, G.E. 2000. Russian and Eastern European rivers. in: Boon, P.J., Davies, B.R. and Petts, G.E. (ed.) Global perspectives on river conservation Chichester Wiley. pp. 105-126

Instream mesohabitat biodiversity in three groundwater streams under base-flow conditions
Wood, P.J., Armitage, P.D., Cannan, C.E. and Petts, G.E. 1999. Instream mesohabitat biodiversity in three groundwater streams under base-flow conditions. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems. 9 (3), pp. 265-278.

Riparian flooded forests of the Orinoco and Amazon basins: a comparative review
Rosales, J., Petts, G.E. and Salo, J. 1999. Riparian flooded forests of the Orinoco and Amazon basins: a comparative review. Biodiversity and Conservation. 8 (4), pp. 551-586.

The influence of drought on chalk stream macroinvertebrates
Wood, P.J. and Petts, G.E. 1999. The influence of drought on chalk stream macroinvertebrates. Hydrological Processes. 13 (3), pp. 387-399.

Flow management to sustain groundwater-dominated stream ecosystems
Petts, G.E., Bickerton, M.A., Crawford, C., Lerner, D.N. and Evans, D. 1999. Flow management to sustain groundwater-dominated stream ecosystems. Hydrological Processes. 13 (3), pp. 497-513.

Bench development along the regulated, lower River Dee, UK
Changxing, S., Petts, G.E. and Gurnell, A.M. 1999. Bench development along the regulated, lower River Dee, UK. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms. 24 (2), pp. 135-149.

Causes of catchment scale hydrological change
Gurnell, A.M. and Petts, G.E. 1999. Causes of catchment scale hydrological change. in: Acreman, M.C. (ed.) The hydrology of the UK: a study of change London Routledge. pp. 82-98

A reference river system for the Alps: the Fiume Tagliamento
Ward, J.V., Tockner, K., Edwards, P.J., Kollmann, J., Bretschko, G., Gurnell, A.M., Petts, G.E. and Rossaro, B. 1999. A reference river system for the Alps: the Fiume Tagliamento. Regulated Rivers: Research & Management. 15 (1-3), pp. 63-75.

A conceptual model for alpine proglacial river channel evolution under changing climatic conditions
Gurnell, A.M., Edwards, P.J., Petts, G.E. and Ward, J.V. 1999. A conceptual model for alpine proglacial river channel evolution under changing climatic conditions. Catena. 38 (3), pp. 223-242.

Channel changes and invertebrate faunas below Nant-Y-Môch Dam, River Rheidol, Wales, UK: 35 years on
Greenwood, M.T., Gurnell, A.M., Bickerton, M.A. and Petts, G.E. 1999. Channel changes and invertebrate faunas below Nant-Y-Môch Dam, River Rheidol, Wales, UK: 35 years on. Regulated Rivers: Research & Management. 15 (1-3), pp. 99-112.

The distribution of spiders in the wooded riparian zone of three rivers in Western Europe
Bell, D., Petts, G.E. and Sadler, J.P. 1999. The distribution of spiders in the wooded riparian zone of three rivers in Western Europe. Regulated Rivers: Research & Management. 15 (1-3), pp. 141-158.

Morphological and ecological change on a meander bend: the role of hydrological processes and the application of GIS
Gurnell, A.M., Bickerton, M.A., Angold, P., Bell, D., Morrissey, I.P., Petts, G.E. and Sadler, J.P. 1998. Morphological and ecological change on a meander bend: the role of hydrological processes and the application of GIS. Hydrological Processes. 12 (6), pp. 981-993.

River energy budgets with special reference to river bed processes
Evans, E.C., McGregor, G.R. and Petts, G.E. 1998. River energy budgets with special reference to river bed processes. Hydrological Processes. 12 (4), pp. 575-595.

Floodplain rivers and their restoration: a European perspective
Petts, G.E. 1998. Floodplain rivers and their restoration: a European perspective. in: Bailey, R.G., José, P.V. and Sherwood, B.R. (ed.) United Kingdom Floodplains Ottley Westbury. pp. 29-41

Addressing the effects of siltation in a trout stream experiencing exceptional low flows: River Glen, UK
Milan, D.J. and Petts, G.E. 1998. Addressing the effects of siltation in a trout stream experiencing exceptional low flows: River Glen, UK. in: Bretschko, G. and Helešic, J. (ed.) Advances in river bottom ecology Leiden Backhuys. pp. 279-291

Hyporheic temperature patterns within riffles
Evans, E.C. and Petts, G.E. 1997. Hyporheic temperature patterns within riffles. Hydrological Sciences Journal. 42 (2), pp. 199-213.

Case studies in the application of geomorphology to river management
Newson, M.D., Hey, R.D., Bathurst, J.C., Brookes, A., Carling, P.A., Petts, G.E. and Sear, D.A. 1997. Case studies in the application of geomorphology to river management. in: Thorne, C.R., Hey, R.D. and Newson, M.D. (ed.) Applied fluvial geomorphology Chichester Wiley. pp. 311-365

Hydrological and ecological interactions within river corridors
Bradley, C. and Petts, G.E. 1997. Hydrological and ecological interactions within river corridors. in: Wilby, R.L. (ed.) Contemporary hydrology Chichester Wiley. pp. 241-272

Water allocation to protect river ecosystems
Petts, G.E. 1996. Water allocation to protect river ecosystems. Regulated Rivers: Research & Management. 12 (4-5), pp. 353-365.

Historical channel-floodplain dynamics along the River Trent: implications for river rehabilitation
Large, A.R.G. and Petts, G.E. 1996. Historical channel-floodplain dynamics along the River Trent: implications for river rehabilitation. Applied Geography. 16 (3), pp. 191-209.

Rivers and their catchments
Petts, G.E. and Calow, P. 1996. Rivers and their catchments. in: Petts, G.E. and Calow, P. (ed.) River restoration: selected extracts from the Rivers handbook Oxford Blackwell Science. pp. 1-5

Fluvial hydrosystems: the physical basis
Petts, G.E. and Calow, P. 1996. Fluvial hydrosystems: the physical basis. in: Petts, G.E. and Calow, P. (ed.) River flows and channel forms: selected extracts from the rivers handbook Oxford Blackwell Science. pp. 1-6

The drainage basin perspective
Petts, G.E. and Bravard, J.P. 1996. The drainage basin perspective. in: Petts, G.E. and Amoros, C. (ed.) Fluvial hydrosystems London Chapman & Hall. pp. 21-41

The scientific basis of managing biodiversity along river margins
Petts, G.E. 1996. The scientific basis of managing biodiversity along river margins. in: Lachavanne, J.B. and Juge, R. (ed.) Biodiversity in land-inland water ecotones Paris UNESCO.

Sustaining the ecological integrity of large floodplain rivers
Petts, G.E. 1996. Sustaining the ecological integrity of large floodplain rivers. in: Anderson, M.G., Walling, D.E. and Bates, P.D. (ed.) Floodplain processes Chichester Wiley. pp. 535-551

Inter-basin water transfers: issues affecting the West Midlands in the 21st century
Petts, G.E. 1996. Inter-basin water transfers: issues affecting the West Midlands in the 21st century. in: Slater, A.J. and Gerrard, T.R. (ed.) Managing a conurbation: Birmingham and its region Studley Brewin. pp. 28-45

The nature of river habitats
Calow, P. and Petts, G.E. 1996. The nature of river habitats. in: Petts, G.E. and Calow, P. (ed.) River biota: diversity and dynamics: selected extracts from the Rivers handbook Oxford Blackwell Science. pp. 1-6

Human impacts on fluvial systems
Bravard, J.P. and Petts, G.E. 1996. Human impacts on fluvial systems. in: Petts, G.E. and Amoros, C. (ed.) Fluvial hydrosystems London Chapman & Hall. pp. 233-256

The hydrosystem concept in river management
Amoros, C. and Petts, G.E. 1996. The hydrosystem concept in river management. in: Petts, G.E. and Amoros, C. (ed.) Fluvial hydrosystems London Chapman & Hall. pp. 257-297

The conceptual basis
Amoros, C. and Petts, G.E. 1996. The conceptual basis. in: Petts, G.E. and Amoros, C. (ed.) Fluvial hydrosystems London Chapman & Hall. pp. 3-17

Local variability of gold in active stream sediments
Hughes, N., Coats, S.T. and Petts, G.E. 1995. Local variability of gold in active stream sediments. Journal of Geochemical Exploration. 54 (2), pp. 137-148.

Sensitivity of alpine stream ecosystems to climate change and human impacts
McGregor, G.R., Petts, G.E., Gurnell, A.M. and Milner, A.M. 1995. Sensitivity of alpine stream ecosystems to climate change and human impacts. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems. 5 (3), pp. 233-247.

Patial distribution of spiders on the floodplain of the river trent, UK: the role of hydrological setting
Greenwood, M.T., Bickerton, M.A. and Petts, G.E. 1995. Patial distribution of spiders on the floodplain of the river trent, UK: the role of hydrological setting. Regulated Rivers: Research & Management. 10 (2-4), pp. 303-313.

The effects of water abstractions on invertebrate communities in U.K. streams
Castella, E., Armitage, P.D., Bickerton, M.A. and Petts, G.E. 1995. The effects of water abstractions on invertebrate communities in U.K. streams. Hydrobiologia. 308 (3), pp. 167-182.

The role of coarse woody debris in forest aquatic habitats: Implications for management
Gurnell, A.M., Gregory, K.J. and Petts, G.E. 1995. The role of coarse woody debris in forest aquatic habitats: Implications for management. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems. 5 (2), pp. 143-166.

The scientific basis for setting minimum ecological flows
Petts, G.E., Maddock, I.P., Bickerton, M.A. and Ferguson, A. 1995. The scientific basis for setting minimum ecological flows. in: Harper, D.M. and Ferguson, A. (ed.) The ecological basis for river management Chichester Wiley. pp. 1-18

Changing river channels: the geographical tradition
Petts, G.E. 1995. Changing river channels: the geographical tradition. in: Gurnell, A.M. and Petts, G.E. (ed.) Changing river channels Chichester Wiley. pp. 1-23

River channel assessment: a method for defining channel sectors: the River Glem, Lincolnshire UK
Maddock, I.P., Petts, G.E. and Bickerton, M.A. 1995. River channel assessment: a method for defining channel sectors: the River Glem, Lincolnshire UK. in: Petts, G.E. (ed.) Man's influence on freshwater ecosystems and water use Wallingford International Association of Hydrological Sciences.

Assessing the river aquifer interactions within the hyporheic zone
Maddock, I.P., Evans, C., Greenwood, M.T. and Petts, G.E. 1995. Assessing the river aquifer interactions within the hyporheic zone. in: Brown, A.G. (ed.) Geomorphology and groundwater Chichester Wiley. pp. 53-74

The role of dead wood in aquatic ecosystems in forests
Gregory, K.J., Gurnell, A.M. and Petts, G.E. 1995. The role of dead wood in aquatic ecosystems in forests. in: Brown, I.R. (ed.) Forests and water Edinburgh Institute of Chartered Foresters. pp. 158-192

Floodplain Coleoptera distributions: the River Trent, UK
Greenwood, M.T., Bickerton, M.A. and Petts, G.E. 1995. Floodplain Coleoptera distributions: the River Trent, UK. Archiv fuer Hydrobiologie Supplement. 101 (3-4), pp. 427-437.

Thermal profiles within river beds
Evans, E.C., Greenwood, M.T. and Petts, G.E. 1995. Thermal profiles within river beds. Hydrological Processes. 9 (1), pp. 19-25.

Low flows and recovery of macroinvertebrates in a small regulated chalk stream
Wood, P.J. and Petts, G.E. 1994. Low flows and recovery of macroinvertebrates in a small regulated chalk stream. Regulated Rivers: Research & Management. 9 (4), pp. 303-316.

Influence of water abstraction on the macroinvertebrate community gradient within a glacial stream system: La Borgne d'Arolla, Valais, Switzerland
Petts, G.E. and Bickerton, M.A. 1994. Influence of water abstraction on the macroinvertebrate community gradient within a glacial stream system: La Borgne d'Arolla, Valais, Switzerland. Freshwater Biology. 32 (2), pp. 375-386.

Glacial rivers: physical habitat and ecology
Milner, A.M. and Petts, G.E. 1994. Glacial rivers: physical habitat and ecology. Freshwater Biology. 32 (2), pp. 295-307.

Flow allocation for in-river needs
Petts, G.E. and Maddock, I.P. 1994. Flow allocation for in-river needs. in: Calow, P. and Petts, G.E. (ed.) The River's handbook: hydrological and ecological principles. Vol. 2 Oxford Blackwell Science. pp. 289-307

The impact of large dams and river basin schemes
Petts, G.E. 1994. The impact of large dams and river basin schemes. in: Roberts, N. (ed.) The changing global environment Oxford Blackwell. pp. 262-284

Rivers: dynamic components of catchment ecosystems
Petts, G.E. 1994. Rivers: dynamic components of catchment ecosystems. in: Calow, P. and Petts, G.E. (ed.) The River's handbook: hydrological and ecological principles. Vol. 2 Oxford Blackwell Science. pp. 3-22

rehabilitation of river margins
Large, A.R.G. and Petts, G.E. 1994. rehabilitation of river margins. in: Calow, P. and Petts, G.E. (ed.) The River's handbook: hydrological and ecological principles. Vol. 2 Oxford Blackwell Science. pp. 401-418

Physical habitat changes and macroinvertebrate response to river regulation: the river Rede, UK
Petts, G.E., Armitage, P.D. and Castella, E. 1993. Physical habitat changes and macroinvertebrate response to river regulation: the river Rede, UK. Regulated Rivers: Research & Management. 8 (1-2), pp. 167-178.

Assessing the ecological effects of groundwater abstraction on chalk streams: three examples from Eastern England
Bickerton, M.A., Petts, G.E. and Armitage, P.D. 1993. Assessing the ecological effects of groundwater abstraction on chalk streams: three examples from Eastern England. Regulated Rivers: Research & Management. 8 (1-2), pp. 121-134.

Restoration of floodplains: a UK perspective
Large, A.R.G., Petts, G.E., Wilby, R.L. and Greenwood, M.T. 1993. Restoration of floodplains: a UK perspective. European Water Pollution Control. 3, pp. 44-52.

Groundwater invertebrates of european alluvial floodplains
Obrdlik, P., Castella, E., Foeckler, F. and Petts, G.E. 1992. Groundwater invertebrates of european alluvial floodplains. Regulated Rivers: Research & Management. 7 (1), pp. 1-3.

Biotic score and prediction to assess the effects of water abstractions on river macroinvertebrates for conservation purposes
Armitage, P.D. and Petts, G.E. 1992. Biotic score and prediction to assess the effects of water abstractions on river macroinvertebrates for conservation purposes. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems. 2 (1), pp. 1-17.

Floodplain assessment for restoration and conservation: linking hydrogeomorphology and ecology
Petts, G.E., Large, A.R.G., Greenwood, M.T. and Bickerton, M.A. 1992. Floodplain assessment for restoration and conservation: linking hydrogeomorphology and ecology. in: Carling, P.A. and Petts, G.E. (ed.) Lowland floodplain rivers: geomorphological perspectives Chichester Wiley. pp. 217-234

The use of coleoptera (arthropoda:insecta) for floodplain characterization on the River Trent, U.K.
Greenwood, M.T., Bickerton, M.A., Castella, E., Large, A.R.G. and Petts, G.E. 1991. The use of coleoptera (arthropoda:insecta) for floodplain characterization on the River Trent, U.K. Regulated Rivers: Research & Management. 6 (4), pp. 321-332.

Freeze-sampling method of collecting drainage sediments for gold exploration
Petts, G.E., Coats, S.T. and Hughes, N. 1991. Freeze-sampling method of collecting drainage sediments for gold exploration. Transactions of the Institution of Mining and Metallurgy: Section B: Applied Earth Science. 100, pp. 28-32.

Management of regulated rivers in South America
Petts, G.E. 1991. Management of regulated rivers in South America. Interciencia. 15, pp. 388-395.

The role of ecotones in aquatic landscape management
Petts, G.E. 1990. The role of ecotones in aquatic landscape management. in: Naiman, R.J. and Décamps, H. (ed.) Ecology and management of aquatic-terrestrial ecotones Paris UNESCO. pp. 227-261

Water engineering and landscape: prospect for environmentally sound development
Petts, G.E. 1990. Water engineering and landscape: prospect for environmentally sound development. in: Cosgrove, D. and Petts, G.E. (ed.) Water, engineering and landscape: water control and landscape transformation in the modern period London Bellhaven. pp. 188-208

Forrested alluvial corridors: a lost resource
Petts, G.E. 1990. Forrested alluvial corridors: a lost resource. in: Cosgrove, D. and Petts, G.E. (ed.) Water, engineering and landscape: water control and landscape transformation in the modern period London Bellhaven. pp. 12-34

A freeze-coring technique applied to pollution by fine sediments in gravel-bed rivers
Petts, G.E., Thoms, M.C., Brittan, K. and Atkin, B. 1989. A freeze-coring technique applied to pollution by fine sediments in gravel-bed rivers. Science of the Total Environment. 84, pp. 259-272.

Management of fish populations in large rivers: a review of tools and approaches
Petts, G.E., Imhof, J., Manny, B.A., Maher, J.F.B. and Weisberg, S.B. 1989. Management of fish populations in large rivers: a review of tools and approaches. in: Dodge, D.P. (ed.) Proceedings of the International Large River Symposium. Ottowa, Ontario Department of Fisheries and Oceans.

The regulation of the River Derwent
Petts, G.E. 1989. The regulation of the River Derwent. East Midland Geographer. 11 (2), pp. 54-63.

Perspectives for ecological management of regulated rivers
Petts, G.E. 1989. Perspectives for ecological management of regulated rivers. in: Gore, J.A. and Petts, G.E. (ed.) Alternatives in regulated river management Boca Raton, Fla CRC Press. pp. 3-24

Historical analysis of fluvial hydrosystems
Petts, G.E. 1989. Historical analysis of fluvial hydrosystems. in: Petts, G.E., Möller, H. and Roux, A.L. (ed.) Historical change of large alluvial rivers: Western Europe Chichester Wiley. pp. 1-18

Water management: the case of Lake Biwa, Japan
Petts, G.E. 1988. Water management: the case of Lake Biwa, Japan. Geographical Journal. 154 (3), pp. 367-376.

Regulated rivers in the United Kingdom
Petts, G.E. 1988. Regulated rivers in the United Kingdom. Regulated Rivers: Research & Management. 2 (3), pp. 201-220.

Hydrological changes and river regulation in the UK
Higgs, G. and Petts, G.E. 1988. Hydrological changes and river regulation in the UK. Regulated Rivers: Research & Management. 2 (3), pp. 349-368.

Accumulation of fine sediment within substrate gravels along two regulated rivers, UK
Petts, G.E. 1988. Accumulation of fine sediment within substrate gravels along two regulated rivers, UK. Regulated Rivers: Research & Management. 2 (2), pp. 141-153.

Rivers and river regulation in the UK
Petts, G.E. 1988. Rivers and river regulation in the UK. in: Petts, G.E. and Wood, R. (ed.) Regulated rivers, research and management: river regulation in the United Kingdom Chichester Wiley.

Hydrological changes and river regulation in the UK
Higgs, G. and Petts, G.E. 1988. Hydrological changes and river regulation in the UK. in: Petts, G.E. and Wood, R. (ed.) Regulated rivers, research and management: river regulation in the United Kingdom Chichester Wiley.

Morphology and sedimentology of a tributary confluence bar in a regulated river: North Tyne, U.K.
Petts, G.E. and Thoms, M.C. 1987. Morphology and sedimentology of a tributary confluence bar in a regulated river: North Tyne, U.K. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms. 12 (4), pp. 433-440.

Large rivers and large water projects
Petts, G.E. and Mann, R.H.K. 1987. Large rivers and large water projects. Regulated Rivers: Research & Management. 1 (2), pp. 189-191.

Timescales for ecological change in regulated rivers
Petts, G.E. 1987. Timescales for ecological change in regulated rivers. in: Craig, J.F. and Kemper, J.B. (ed.) Regulated streams: advances in ecology London Plenum. pp. 257-266

River regulation in Europe: an historical perspective
Petts, G.E. 1987. River regulation in Europe: an historical perspective. Regulated Rivers: Research & Management. 1 (4), pp. 363-369.

Water quality characteristics of regulated rivers
Petts, G.E. 1986. Water quality characteristics of regulated rivers. Progress in Physical Geography. 10 (4), pp. 492-516.

Channel aggradation below Chew Valley Lake, Somerset, U.K.
Petts, G.E. and Thoms, M.C. 1986. Channel aggradation below Chew Valley Lake, Somerset, U.K. Catena. 13 (3), pp. 305-320.

Turbidity and suspended solids variations downstream of a regulating reservoir
Gilvear, D.J. and Petts, G.E. 1985. Turbidity and suspended solids variations downstream of a regulating reservoir. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms. 10 (4), pp. 363-373.

Channel changes and invertebrate faunas below Nant-Y-Moch dam, River Rheidol, Wales, UK
Petts, G.E. and Greenwood, M.T. 1985. Channel changes and invertebrate faunas below Nant-Y-Moch dam, River Rheidol, Wales, UK. Hydrobiologia. 122 (1), pp. 65-80.

Wave-movement and water-quality variations during a controlled release from Kielder Reservoir, North Tyne River, U.K.
Petts, G.E., Foulger, T.R., Gilvear, D.J., Pratts, J.D. and Thoms, M.C. 1985. Wave-movement and water-quality variations during a controlled release from Kielder Reservoir, North Tyne River, U.K. Journal of Hydrology. 80 (3-4), pp. 371-389.

Rivers and landscape
Petts, G.E. and Foster, I.D.L. 1985. Rivers and landscape. London Edward Arnold.

Water quality implications of artificial flow fluctuations in regulated rivers
Foulger, T.R. and Petts, G.E. 1984. Water quality implications of artificial flow fluctuations in regulated rivers. Science of the Total Environment. 37 (2-3), pp. 177-185.

Sedimentation within a regulated river
Petts, G.E. 1984. Sedimentation within a regulated river. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms. 9 (2), pp. 125-134.

Impounded rivers: perspectives for ecological management
Petts, G.E. 1984. Impounded rivers: perspectives for ecological management. Chichester Wiley.

Channel changes following reservoir construction on a Lowland English River
Petts, G.E. and Pratts, J.D. 1983. Channel changes following reservoir construction on a Lowland English River. Catena. 10 (1-2), pp. 77-85.

Rivers
Petts, G.E. 1983. Rivers. Butterworths.

Channel changes in regulated rivers
Petts, G.E. 1982. Channel changes in regulated rivers. in: Adlam, B.H., Fenn, C.R. and Morris, L. (ed.) Papers in earth studies: Lovatt lectures - Worcester Norwich Geobooks. pp. 117-142

Habitat changes below Dartmoor reservoirs
Petts, G.E. and Greenwood, M.T. 1981. Habitat changes below Dartmoor reservoirs. Transactions of the Devonshire Association for the Advancement of Science. 113, pp. 13-27.

Morphological changes of river channels subsequent to headwater impoundment
Petts, G.E. 1980. Morphological changes of river channels subsequent to headwater impoundment. Journal of the Institution of Water Engineers and Scientists. 34 (4), pp. 374-382.

Long-term consequences of upstream impoundment
Petts, G.E. 1980. Long-term consequences of upstream impoundment. Environmental Conservation. 7 (4), pp. 325-332.

Complex response of river channel morphology subsequent to reservoir construction
Petts, G.E. 1979. Complex response of river channel morphology subsequent to reservoir construction. Progress in Physical Geography. 3 (3), pp. 329-362.

Physical effects of reservoirs on river systems
Petts, G.E. and Lewin, J. 1979. Physical effects of reservoirs on river systems. in: Hollis, G.E. (ed.) Man's impact on the hydrological cycle in the United Kingdom Norwich Geo Abstracts. pp. 79-91

Channel response to flow regulation: the case of the River Derwent, Derbyshire
Petts, G.E. 1977. Channel response to flow regulation: the case of the River Derwent, Derbyshire. in: Gregory, K.J. (ed.) River channel changes Chichester Wiley. pp. 145-164

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