Prasugrel, a P2Y₁₂ adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor antagonist effectively inhibits ADP-mediated platelet activation and aggregation, and may be useful in reducing vaso-occlusive crises in sickle cell disease (SCD). In this study, we assess the effect of prasugrel on biomarkers of platelet activation and coagulation in patients with SCD.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Twelve adult patients with SCD and 13 healthy subjects were examined before and after 12 ± 2 days of 5.0 or 7.5 mg/day oral prasugrel. Assessed cellular biomarkers included monocyte- and neutrophil-platelet aggregates, activated glycoprotein IIb-IIIa (GPIIbIIIa), P-selectin, CD40 ligand (CD40L), tissue factor (TF) expression on circulating platelets and on monocyte-platelet aggregates, and platelet-erythrocyte aggregates. Soluble biomarkers included CD40L, prothrombin fragment 1.2 (F1.2), thromboxane B₂ (TXB₂), P-selectin, and TF.
Patients with SCD had increased platelet baseline activation compared to healthy subjects, as measured by percentages of monocyte-platelet aggregates, neutrophil-platelet aggregates, and platelets expressing CD40L. Likewise, baseline levels of soluble F1.2 and TXB₂ were elevated in patients with SCD compared to healthy subjects. After 12 days of prasugrel, patients with SCD had a significant reduction in platelet-monocyte aggregates that was not observed in healthy subjects. Following prasugrel administration, those with SCD maintained higher levels of monocyte-platelet aggregates and soluble F1.2, but had lower levels of platelet-erythrocyte aggregates and soluble TF compared to healthy subjects.
These results provide evidence for chronic platelet activation in the SCD steady state, activation that was in part attenuated by prasugrel, thereby suggesting that ADP may mediate platelet activation in SCD.
|Keywords||ADP, Biomarkers, CD40 ligand, CD40L, EDTA, GPIIbIIIa, P2Y(12) receptor antagonist, PD, PK, Platelets, Prasugrel, RBCs, SCD, SD, Sickle cell disease, TF, TXB(2), VOC, adenosine diphosphate, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, glycoprotein IIb-IIIa, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, red blood cells, sickle cell disease, standard deviation, thromboxane B(2), tissue factor, vaso-occlusive crisis|