|Title||Voices from above—voices from below. Who’s talking and who’s listening in Norwegian language politics?|
Einar Haugen brought Norwegian language planning to prominence in the 1960s, describing a series of language reforms ultimately intended to bring the two written standards, Bokmal and Nynorsk, together. Since Haugen’s time language policy in Norway has changed direction, and developments over the past 40 years have led to increased autonomy for the two standards and an increasingly laissez-faire approach to language-internal planning. This can be characterised as the triumph of the voice from below over the voice from above, of plannees over planners. The concept of voice in language-political debate is developed as a means of analysing current debate. Close attention is paid to two key publications in Norwegian language politics of the past five years: the Language Council report, Norsk i hundre!, and the government paper, Mal og meining. With the language-internal voice largely stilled, debate has turned to address the place of Norwegian as part of the global language picture and to develop policies for ensuring its future in domains increasing dominated by English. The question is: has the new language politics learned from the old, or does the voice from above continue to shout down the voice from below?
|Keywords||Norwegian; language planning; history; policy; voice; domain loss; parallelingualism; English|
|Journal||Current Issues in Language Planning|
|Journal citation||11 (2), pp. 114-129|
|Publisher||Taylor & Francis|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI)||doi:10.1080/14664208.2010.505070|
|Published||20 Sep 2010|