MRI Indices of Cortical Development in Young People With Psychotic Experiences: Influence of Genetic Risk and Persistence of Symptoms

Fonville, L., Drakesmith, M., Zammit, S., Lewis, G., Jones, D.K. and David, A.S. 2018. MRI Indices of Cortical Development in Young People With Psychotic Experiences: Influence of Genetic Risk and Persistence of Symptoms. Schizophrenia Bulletin. sbx195. https://doi.org/10.1093/schbul/sbx195

TitleMRI Indices of Cortical Development in Young People With Psychotic Experiences: Influence of Genetic Risk and Persistence of Symptoms
AuthorsFonville, L., Drakesmith, M., Zammit, S., Lewis, G., Jones, D.K. and David, A.S.
Abstract

Background
Psychotic experiences (PEs) are considered part of an extended psychosis phenotype and are associated with an elevated risk of developing a psychotic disorder. Risk of transition increases with persistence of PEs, and this is thought to be modulated by genetic and environmental factors. However, it is unclear if persistence is associated with progressive schizophrenia-like changes in neuroanatomy.

Methods
We examined cortical morphometry using MRI in 247 young adults, from a population-based cohort, assessed for the presence of PEs at ages 18 and 20. We then incorporated a polygenic risk score for schizophrenia (PRS) to elucidate the effects of high genetic risk. Finally, we used atlas-based tractography data to examine the underlying white matter.

Results
Individuals with persisting PEs showed reductions in gyrification (local gyrification index: lGI) in the left temporal gyrus as well as atypical associations with brain volume (TBV) in the left occipital and right prefrontal gyri. No main effect was found for the PRS, but interaction effects with PEs were identified in the orbitofrontal, parietal, and temporal regions. Examination of underlying white matter did not provide strong evidence of further disturbances.

Conclusions
Disturbances in lGI were similar to schizophrenia but findings were mostly limited to those with persistent PEs. These could reflect subtle changes that worsen with impending psychosis or reflect an early vulnerability associated with the persistence of PEs. The lack of clear differences in underlying white matter suggests our findings reflect early disturbances in cortical expansion rather than progressive changes in brain structure.

Keywordspsychotic experiences, psychosis, polygenic risk, magnetic resonance imaging, gyrification
Article numbersbx195
JournalSchizophrenia Bulletin
ISSN0586-7614
Year2018
PublisherOxford University Press
Publisher's version
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1093/schbul/sbx195
Web address (URL)https://academic.oup.com/schizophreniabulletin/advance-article/doi/10.1093/schbul/sbx195/4827888
Publication dates
Published29 Jan 2018
LicenseCC BY-NC 4.0

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