Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) function is regulated by Nox-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) and redox-dependent signaling in discrete cellular compartments. Whether cholesterol-rich microdomains (lipid rafts/caveolae) are involved in these processes is unclear. Here we examined the sub-cellular compartmentalization of Nox isoforms in lipid rafts/caveolae and assessed the role of these microdomains in VSMC ROS production and pro-contractile and growth signaling. Intact small arteries and primary VSMCs from humans were studied. Vessels from Cav-1−/− mice were used to test proof of concept. Human VSMCs express Nox1, Nox4, Nox5 and Cav-1. Cell fractionation studies showed that Nox1 and Nox5 but not Nox4, localize in cholesterol-rich fractions in VSMCs. Angiotensin II (Ang II) stimulation induced trafficking into and out of lipid rafts/caveolae for Nox1 and Nox5 respectively. Co-immunoprecipitation studies showed interactions between Cav-1/Nox1 but not Cav-1/Nox5. Lipid raft/caveolae disruptors (methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MCD) and Nystatin) and Ang II stimulation variably increased O2− generation and phosphorylation of MLC20, Ezrin-Radixin-Moesin (ERM) and p53 but not ERK1/2, effects recapitulated in Cav-1 silenced (siRNA) VSMCs. Nox inhibition prevented Ang II-induced phosphorylation of signaling molecules, specifically, ERK1/2 phosphorylation was attenuated by mellitin (Nox5 inhibitor) and Nox5 siRNA, while p53 phosphorylation was inhibited by NoxA1ds (Nox1 inhibitor). Ang II increased oxidation of DJ1, dual anti-oxidant and signaling molecule, through lipid raft/caveolae-dependent processes. Vessels from Cav-1−/− mice exhibited increased O2− generation and phosphorylation of ERM. We identify an important role for lipid rafts/caveolae that act as signaling platforms for Nox1 and Nox5 but not Nox4, in human VSMCs. Disruption of these microdomains promotes oxidative stress and Nox isoform-specific redox signalling important in vascular dysfunction associated with cardiovascular diseases.