The present study examined mental health literacy of negative body image in a sample of 485 British adults. Participants were presented with vignettes of a fictional woman (‘Kate’) and man (‘Jack’) suffering from negative body image and were asked questions addressing symptom recognition, distress, sympathy and sources of help-seeking. Participants also completed measures of body appreciation and psychiatric skepticism. Results showed that less than a fifth of participants correctly identified the vignettes as depicting cases of negative body image. The vignette describing Kate was rated as significantly more distressing, deserving of sympathy and requiring help than that of Jack. Women rated the conditions described by both vignettes as significantly more distressing and requiring help than did men. Psychiatric skepticism and body appreciation were significantly associated with beliefs about the vignettes. Implications of the results for the promotion of mental health literacy in relation to body image are discussed.