The complex association of cholesterol metabolism and Alzheimer’s disease is presented in depth, including the possible benefits to be gained from cholesterol-lowering statin therapy. Then follows a survey of the role of neuronal membrane cholesterol in Aβ pore formation and Aβ fibrillogenesis, together with the link with membrane raft domains and gangliosides. The contribution of structural studies to Aβ fibrillogenesis, using TEM and AFM, is given some emphasis. The role of apolipoprotein E and its isoforms, in particular ApoE4, in cholesterol and Aβ binding is presented, in relation to genetic risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease. Increasing evidence suggests that cholesterol oxidation products are of importance in generation of Alzheimer’s disease, possibly induced by Aβ-produced hydrogen peroxide. The body of evidence for a link between cholesterol in atherosclerosis and Alzheimer’s disease is increasing, along with an associated inflammatory response. The possible role of cholesterol in tau fibrillization, tauopathies and in some other non-Aβ amyloidogenic disorders is surveyed.