Kava Lactones and the kava-kava controversy

Whitton, P.A., Lau, A., Salisbury, A., Whitehouse, J. and Evans, C.S. 2003. Kava Lactones and the kava-kava controversy. Phytochemistry. 64 (3), pp. 673-679.

TitleKava Lactones and the kava-kava controversy
AuthorsWhitton, P.A., Lau, A., Salisbury, A., Whitehouse, J. and Evans, C.S.
Abstract

Kava-kava is a traditional beverage of the South Pacific islanders and has had centuries of use without major side effects. Standardised extracts of kava-kava produced in Europe have led to many serious health problems and even to death. The extraction process (aqueous vs. acetone in the two types of preparations) is responsible for the difference in toxicity as extraction of glutathione in addition to the kava lactones is important to provide protection against hepatotoxicity. The Michael reaction between glutathione and kava lactones, resulting in opening of the lactone ring, reduces the side effects of the kava kava extracts. This protective activity was demonstrated using Acanthamoebae castellanii in which 100% cell death occurred with 100 mg ml-1 kava lactones alone, and 40% cell death with a mixture of 100 mg ml -1glutathione and 100 mg ml -1 kava lactones. A comparison of kava lactone toxicity with other pharmaceutical products is discussed and recommendations made for safe usage of kava-kava products

KeywordsKava-kava, Kava lactones, Piper methysticum, Hepatotoxicity, Glutathione
JournalPhytochemistry
Journal citation64 (3), pp. 673-679
ISSN0031-9422
YearOct 2003
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(03)00381-9
Publication dates
PublishedOct 2003

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