Searching for real-world effectiveness versus efficacy of healthcare innovations: the case of social prescribing for diabetes

Polley, M.J., Loef, M. and Pilkington, K. 2017. Searching for real-world effectiveness versus efficacy of healthcare innovations: the case of social prescribing for diabetes. Journal of Medical Internet Research. 19 (2), p. e20.

TitleSearching for real-world effectiveness versus efficacy of healthcare innovations: the case of social prescribing for diabetes
AuthorsPolley, M.J., Loef, M. and Pilkington, K.
Abstract

Background: Social prescribing is a process whereby primary care patients are linked or referred to nonmedical sources of support in the community and voluntary sector. It is a concept that has arisen in practice and implemented widely in the United Kingdom and has been evaluated by various organizations.

Objective: The aim of our study was to characterize, collate, and analyze the evidence from evaluation of social prescribing for type 2 diabetes in the United Kingdom and Ireland, comparing information available on publicly available websites with the published literature.

Methods: We used a broad, pragmatic definition of social prescribing and conducted Web-based searches for websites of organizations providing potentially relevant services. We also explored linked information. In parallel, we searched Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, and reference lists for relevant studies published in peer-reviewed journals. We extracted the data systematically on the characteristics, any reported evaluation, outcomes measured and results, and terminology used to describe each service.

Results: We identified 40 UK- or Ireland-based projects that referred people with type 2 diabetes and prediabetes to nonmedical interventions or services provided in the community. We located evaluations of 24 projects; 11 as published papers, 12 as Web-based reports, and 1 as both a paper and a Web-based report. The interventions and services identified included structured group educational programs, exercise referral schemes, and individualized advice and support with signposting of health-related activities in the community. Although specific interventions such as community-based group educational programs and exercise referral have been evaluated in randomized controlled trials, evaluation of individualized social prescribing services involving people with type 2 diabetes has, in most cases, used pre-post and mixed methods approaches. These evaluations report generic improvement in a broad range of outcomes and provide an insight into the criteria for the success of social prescribing services.

Conclusions: Our study revealed the varied models of social prescribing and nonmedical, community-based services available to people with type 2 diabetes and the extent of evaluation of these, which would not have been achieved by searching databases alone. The findings of this scoping study do not prove that social prescribing is an effective measure for people with type 2 diabetes in the United Kingdom, but can be used to inform future evaluation and contribute to the development of the evidence base for social prescribing. Accessing Web-based information provides a potential method for investigating how specific innovative health concepts, such as social prescribing, have been translated, implemented, and evaluated in practice. Several challenges were encountered including defining the concept, focusing on process plus intervention, and searching diverse, evolving Web-based sources. Further exploration of this approach will inform future research on the application of innovative health care concepts into practice.

Keywords diabetes mellitus, type 2; evaluation studies; primary health care; program evaluation
JournalJournal of Medical Internet Research
Journal citation19 (2), p. e20
ISSN1439-4456
Year2017
PublisherJournal of Medical Internet Research
Publisher's versionfc-xsltGalley-6431-111333-73-PB.pdf
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)doi:10.2196/jmir.6431
Publication dates
Published02 Feb 2017
LicenseCC BY 2.0

Related outputs

Impact of Penny Brohn UK’s Living Well course on informal caregivers of people with cancer
Jolliffe, R., Durrant, J.R., Seers, H., Churchward, S.F., Griffiths, M., Naidoo, M., Ben-Arye, E., Polley, M.J. and Zollman, C. 2018. Impact of Penny Brohn UK’s Living Well course on informal caregivers of people with cancer. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 24 (9-10), pp. 974-980.

Development of Measure Yourself Concerns and Wellbeing for informal caregivers of people with cancer – a multicentred study
Jolliffe, R., Collaco, N., Seers, H., Farrell, C., Sawkins, M.J. and Polley, M.J. 2018. Development of Measure Yourself Concerns and Wellbeing for informal caregivers of people with cancer – a multicentred study. Supportive Care in Cancer.

Social Prescribing: community-based referral in public health
Chatterjee, H., Polley, M.J. and Clayton, G. 2018. Social Prescribing: community-based referral in public health. Perspectives in Public Health. 138 (1), pp. 18-19.

Evaluation of the Reading Well Books on Prescription Shelf Help scheme for young people
Polley, M.J. and Kovandzic, M. 2017. Evaluation of the Reading Well Books on Prescription Shelf Help scheme for young people.

Making Sense of Social Prescribing
Polley, M.J., Fleming, J., Anfilogoff, T. and Carpenter, A. 2017. Making Sense of Social Prescribing. London University of Westminster.

Integrative Whole Person Oncology Care in the UK
Zollman, C., Walther, A., Seers, H., Jolliffe, R. and Polley, M.J. 2017. Integrative Whole Person Oncology Care in the UK. JNCI Monographs. 2017 (52), p. lgx002.

Development of a two day wellbeing course for supporters of teenagers and young adults (TYA) with cancer
Jolliffe, R., Cargill, J., Polley, M.J., French, H., Hardman, F., Seers, H. and Baker, L. 2017. Development of a two day wellbeing course for supporters of teenagers and young adults (TYA) with cancer. TYAC BRIGHTLIGHT Conference. Leeds, UK 06 - 07 Jul 2017

A review of the evidence assessing impact of social prescribing on healthcare demand and cost implications
Polley, M.J. and Pilkington, K. 2017. A review of the evidence assessing impact of social prescribing on healthcare demand and cost implications. University of Westminster.

Working with people affected by cancer –mixed methods exploration of practitioner perspectives in nutritional therapy
Granger, C.A., Pilkington, K., Draper, A. and Polley, M.J. 2016. Working with people affected by cancer –mixed methods exploration of practitioner perspectives in nutritional therapy. Society for Integrative Oncology 13th International Conference. Miami, Florida, USA 05 - 07 Nov 2016

Using a whole person approach to support people with cancer: a longitudinal, mixed methods service evaluation
Polley, M.J., Jolliffe, R., Boxell, E., Zollman, C., Jackson, S. and Seers, H. 2016. Using a whole person approach to support people with cancer: a longitudinal, mixed methods service evaluation. Integrative Cancer Therapies. 15 (4), pp. 435-445.

Barriers to working with people affected by cancer: Preliminary qualitative data from a mixed methods exploration of practitioner perspectives in nutritional therapy
Granger, C.A., Pilkington, K., Draper, A. and Polley, M.J. 2015. Barriers to working with people affected by cancer: Preliminary qualitative data from a mixed methods exploration of practitioner perspectives in nutritional therapy. European Journal of Integrative Medicine. 7 (6), p. 681.

The Responsiveness, Content Validity, and Convergent Validity of the Measure Yourself Concerns and Wellbeing (MYCaW) Patient-Reported Outcome Measure
Jolliffe, R., Seers, H., Jackson, S., Caro, E., Weeks, L. and Polley, M.J. 2015. The Responsiveness, Content Validity, and Convergent Validity of the Measure Yourself Concerns and Wellbeing (MYCaW) Patient-Reported Outcome Measure. Integrative Cancer Therapies. 14 (1), pp. 26-34.

Working with people affected by cancer – Phase 1 of a mixed methods exploration of practitioner perspectives in nutritional therapy
Granger, C.A., Pilkington, K., Draper, A. and Polley, M.J. 2014. Working with people affected by cancer – Phase 1 of a mixed methods exploration of practitioner perspectives in nutritional therapy. European Journal of Integrative Medicine. 6 (5), pp. 613-614.

Artemisia absinthium
Pilkington, K. and CAM-Cancer Consortium 2014. Artemisia absinthium. CAM-Cancer Database National Information Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NIFAB).

Quality of reporting in systematic reviews of adverse events: systematic review
Zorzela, L., Golder, S., Liu, Y., Pilkington, K., Hartling, L., Joffe, A., Loke, Y. and Vohra, S. 2014. Quality of reporting in systematic reviews of adverse events: systematic review. British Medical Journal. 348, p. f7668.

Understanding the professional characteristics, needs and experience of nutritional therapy practitioners working with cancer patients
Granger, C.A., Polley, M.J., Pilkington, K. and Draper, A. 2013. Understanding the professional characteristics, needs and experience of nutritional therapy practitioners working with cancer patients. European Journal of Integrative Medicine. 5 (6), p. 579.

Acupuncture therapy for psychiatric illness
Pilkington, K. 2013. Acupuncture therapy for psychiatric illness. International Review of Neurobiology. 111, pp. 197-216.

Psychometric properties of the QuickPIPER: a shortened version of the PIPER Fatigue scale
Cuesta-Vargas, A.I., Férnandez-Lao, C., Cantarero-Villanueva, I., Castro-Sánchez, A.M., Fernández-de-Las Peñas, C., Polley, M.J. and Arroyo-Morales, M. 2013. Psychometric properties of the QuickPIPER: a shortened version of the PIPER Fatigue scale. European Journal of Cancer Care. 22 (2), pp. 245-252.

Service Evaluation of 'Living Well with the Impact of Cancer' Courses
Polley, M.J., Jackson, S., Seers, H., Boxell, E. and Jolliffe, R. 2013. Service Evaluation of 'Living Well with the Impact of Cancer' Courses. Penny Brohn Cancer Care.

Melatonin in cancer treatment (protocol)
Wolf, E., Milazzo, S., Pilkington, K., Liu, J.P., Zwahlen, M. and Horneber, M. 2013. Melatonin in cancer treatment (protocol). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 10, p. CD010145.

Yoga treatment for chronic non-specific low-back pain (protocol)
Wieland, L.S., Skoetz, N., Manheimer, E., Pilkington, K., Vempati, R. and Berman, B.M. 2013. Yoga treatment for chronic non-specific low-back pain (protocol). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 7, p. CD010671.

Complementary and alternative therapies
Pilkington, K. and Rampes, H. 2013. Complementary and alternative therapies. in: Norman, I.J. and Ryrie, I. (ed.) The art and science of mental health nursing. 3rd edition Open University Press. pp. 442-455

Yoga
Pilkington, K. and CAM-Cancer Consortium 2013. Yoga. CAM-Cancer Database National Information Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NIFAB).

Spirulina (blue-green algae)
Pilkington, K. and CAM-Cancer Consortium 2013. Spirulina (blue-green algae). CAM-Cancer Database National Information Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NIFAB).

Pomegranate (Punica granatum)
Pilkington, K. and CAM-Cancer Consortium 2013. Pomegranate (Punica granatum). CAM-Cancer Database National Information Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NIFAB).

State of mind
Pilkington, K. 2013. State of mind. International Therapist. 105, pp. 14-16.

Patient outcomes and experiences of an acupuncture and self-care service for persistent low back pain in the NHS: a mixed methods approach
Cheshire, A., Polley, M.J., Peters, D. and Ridge, Damien T. 2013. Patient outcomes and experiences of an acupuncture and self-care service for persistent low back pain in the NHS: a mixed methods approach. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 13 (1), p. 300.

Chinese herbal medicine and depression: the research evidence
Butler, L. and Pilkington, K. 2013. Chinese herbal medicine and depression: the research evidence. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2013 (739716), pp. 1-14.

Editorial: Building the evidence for CAM—30 years on
Robinson, N., Newman-Turner, R. and Pilkington, K. 2013. Editorial: Building the evidence for CAM—30 years on. European Journal of Integrative Medicine. 5 (6), pp. 465-468.

Lavender and sleep: a systematic review of the evidence
Fismer, K.L. and Pilkington, K. 2012. Lavender and sleep: a systematic review of the evidence. European Journal of Integrative Medicine. 4 (4), pp. e436-e447.

A detailed investigation into yoga interventions used in clinical trials
Azimian, N. and Pilkington, K. 2012. A detailed investigation into yoga interventions used in clinical trials. European Journal of Integrative Medicine. 4 (3), pp. e355-e356.

Patient experience of acupuncture provision in a GP practice
Fixler, M., Ogden, C., Moir, F. and Polley, M.J. 2012. Patient experience of acupuncture provision in a GP practice. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice. 18 (3), pp. 140-144.

Complementary medicine and safety: a systematic investigation of design and reporting of systematic reviews
Pilkington, K. and Boshnakova, A. 2012. Complementary medicine and safety: a systematic investigation of design and reporting of systematic reviews. Complementary Therapies in Medicine. 20 (1-2), pp. 73-82.

Ozone therapy
Pilkington, K. and CAM-Cancer Consortium 2012. Ozone therapy. CAM-Cancer Database National Information Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NIFAB).

Noni (Morinda citrifolia)
Pilkington, K. and CAM-Cancer Consortium 2012. Noni (Morinda citrifolia). CAM-Cancer Database National Information Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NIFAB).

Echinacea spp
Pilkington, K. and CAM-Cancer Consortium 2012. Echinacea spp. CAM-Cancer Database CAM-Cancer Consortium (Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Cancer).

The International Collaboration on Complementary Therapy Resources (ICCR): working together to improve online CAM information
Pilkington, K., Gamst, A., Liu, I., Ostermann, T., Pinto, D. and Richardson, J. 2011. The International Collaboration on Complementary Therapy Resources (ICCR): working together to improve online CAM information. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine. 17 (7), pp. 647-653.

A systematic review to assess the evidence of the positive and negative effects of Chinese herbal medicine in the treatment of depression
Butler, L. and Pilkington, K. 2011. A systematic review to assess the evidence of the positive and negative effects of Chinese herbal medicine in the treatment of depression. European Journal of Integrative Medicine. 3 (2), pp. e111-e112.

Where and how to find data on safety: what do systematic reviews of complementary therapies tell us?
Pilkington, K. and Boshnakova, A. 2011. Where and how to find data on safety: what do systematic reviews of complementary therapies tell us? 19th Cochrane Colloquium. Madrid 19th - 22nd October 2011

The application of Reiki in nurses diagnosed with Burnout Syndrome has beneficial effects on concentration of salivary IgA and blood pressure
Díaz-Rodríguez, L., Arroyo-Morales, M., Cantarero-Villanueva, I., Férnandez-Lao, C., Polley, M.J. and Cesar Fernández-de-las-Peñas, P. 2011. The application of Reiki in nurses diagnosed with Burnout Syndrome has beneficial effects on concentration of salivary IgA and blood pressure. Revista latino-americana de enfermagem. 19 (5), pp. 1132-1138.

Is it feasible and effective to provide osteopathy and acupuncture for patients with musculoskeletal problems in a GP setting? A service evaluation
Cheshire, A., Polley, M.J., Peters, D. and Ridge, Damien T. 2011. Is it feasible and effective to provide osteopathy and acupuncture for patients with musculoskeletal problems in a GP setting? A service evaluation. BMC Family Practice. 12 (49), p. 1.

Anxiety, depression and acupuncture: a review of the clinical research
Pilkington, K. 2010. Anxiety, depression and acupuncture: a review of the clinical research. Autonomic Neuroscience. 157 (1-2), pp. 91-95.

Effect of auricular acupuncture on appetite: a pilot study
Bradford, A., Tuffrey, V. and Polley, M.J. 2010. Effect of auricular acupuncture on appetite: a pilot study. Medical Acupuncture. 22 (3), pp. 181-186.

Individualised and complex experiences of integrative cancer support care: combining qualitative and quantitative data
Seers, H.E., Gale, N., Paterson, C., Cooke, H.J., Tuffrey, V. and Polley, M.J. 2009. Individualised and complex experiences of integrative cancer support care: combining qualitative and quantitative data. Supportive Care in Cancer. 17 (9), pp. 1159-1167.

Mind and body management strategies for chronic pain and rheumatoid arthritis
Shariff, F., Carter, J., Dow, C., Polley, M.J., Salinas, M. and Ridge, Damien T. 2009. Mind and body management strategies for chronic pain and rheumatoid arthritis. Qualitative Health Research. 19 (8), pp. 1037-1049.

Self care and CAM: defining the differences, recognising the similarities
Pilkington, K. 2009. Self care and CAM: defining the differences, recognising the similarities. Journal of Holistic Healthcare. 6 (2), pp. 29-34.

Expansion of systematic reviews to improve clinical practice and research
Fønnebø, V., Aickin, M., Verhoef, M., Horneber, M., Alræk, T. and Pilkington, K. 2009. Expansion of systematic reviews to improve clinical practice and research. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine. 15 (3), p. 3085.

Navigating the Web-based world of complementary and alternative medicine information: North American Research Conference on Complementary and Integrative Medicine
Pilkington, K. 2009. Navigating the Web-based world of complementary and alternative medicine information: North American Research Conference on Complementary and Integrative Medicine. Integrative Medicine: a clinician's journal. 8 (2), p. 53.

Mind and body management strategies for chronic pain & rheumatoid arthritis: strategies in search of wellbeing
Shariff, F., Carter, J., Dow, C., Polley, M.J., Salinas, M. and Ridge, Damien T. 2009. Mind and body management strategies for chronic pain & rheumatoid arthritis: strategies in search of wellbeing. Qualitative Health Research. 19 (8), pp. 1037-1049.

Mind and body strategies for chronic pain and rheumatoid arthritis: strategies in search of wellbeing
Ridge, Damien T., Shariff, F., Carter, J., Dow, C., Polley, M.J. and Salinas, M. 2009. Mind and body strategies for chronic pain and rheumatoid arthritis: strategies in search of wellbeing. Medical Sociology Group 41st Annual Conference 2009. University of Manchester 03 - 05 Sep 2009 pp. 99

Complementary and alternative therapies
Pilkington, K. and Rampes, H. 2009. Complementary and alternative therapies. in: Norman, I.J. and Ryrie, I. (ed.) The art and science of mental health nursing. 2nd edition Open University Press.

Workshop - Navigating the web-based world of complementary and alternative information
Pilkington, K. 2009. Workshop - Navigating the web-based world of complementary and alternative information. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine. 15 (4), pp. 446-458.

Complementary therapies for depression: what is the evidence and how does it compare with the advice? Proceedings of the UKCPA Spring Meeting 2007
Pilkington, K. 2008. Complementary therapies for depression: what is the evidence and how does it compare with the advice? Proceedings of the UKCPA Spring Meeting 2007. Pharmacy World and Science. 30 (5), pp. 622-623.

Diabetes and complementary therapies: mapping the evidence
Pilkington, K., Stenhouse, E., Kirkwood, G. and Richardson, J. 2007. Diabetes and complementary therapies: mapping the evidence. Practical Diabetes International. 24 (7), pp. 371-376.

An overview of research on complementary therapies in life-limiting conditions
Richardson, J. and Pilkington, K. 2007. An overview of research on complementary therapies in life-limiting conditions. Nursing Times. 103 (32), pp. 32-33.

How to summarise and report written qualitative data from patients: a method for use in cancer support care
Polley, M.J., Seers, H.E., Cooke, H.J., Hoffman, C. and Paterson, C. 2007. How to summarise and report written qualitative data from patients: a method for use in cancer support care. Supportive Care in Cancer. 15 (8), pp. 963-971.

Acupuncture for anxiety and anxiety disorders: a systematic literature review
Pilkington, K., Kirkwood, G., Rampes, H., Cummings, M. and Richardson, J. 2007. Acupuncture for anxiety and anxiety disorders: a systematic literature review. Acupuncture in Medicine. 25 (1-2), pp. 1-10.

Searching for CAM evidence: an evaluation of therapy-specific search strategies
Pilkington, K. 2007. Searching for CAM evidence: an evaluation of therapy-specific search strategies. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine. 13 (4), pp. 451-459.

Evaluating complementary therapies
Richardson, J. and Pilkington, K. 2007. Evaluating complementary therapies. in: Barraclough, J. (ed.) Enhancing cancer care: complementary therapy and support Oxford Oxford University Press.

St John's wort for depression: time for a different perspective?
Pilkington, K., Boshnakova, A. and Richardson, J. 2006. St John's wort for depression: time for a different perspective? Complementary Therapies in Medicine. 14 (4), pp. 268-281.

Complementary medicine for depression
Pilkington, K., Rampes, H. and Richardson, J. 2006. Complementary medicine for depression. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics. 6 (1), pp. 1741-1751.

Homeopathy for anxiety and anxiety disorders: a systematic review of the research
Pilkington, K., Kirkwood, G., Rampes, H., Fisher, P. and Richardson, J. 2006. Homeopathy for anxiety and anxiety disorders: a systematic review of the research. Homeopathy. 95 (3), pp. 151-162.

The development of criteria to analyse qualitative data from Measure Yourself Concerns and Wellbeing (MYCaW) questionnaire
Polley, M.J. and Seers, H.E. 2006. The development of criteria to analyse qualitative data from Measure Yourself Concerns and Wellbeing (MYCaW) questionnaire. Diversity and Debate in Alternative and Complementary Medicine: an Academic and Experiential Conference for Researchers and Practitioners. Nottingham, UK 05-07 Jul 2006

The benefit of individualised programmes of complementary therapies for breast cancer patients at Breast Cancer Haven
Polley, M.J., Hoffman, C., Brydon, N., Cox, C. and Deveraux, F. 2006. The benefit of individualised programmes of complementary therapies for breast cancer patients at Breast Cancer Haven. European Journal of Cancer Supplements. 4 (2), p. 89.

Hypnosis for procedure-related pain and distress in pediatric cancer patients: a systematic review of effectiveness and methodology related to hypnosis interventions
Richardson, J., Smith, J.E., McCall, G. and Pilkington, K. 2006. Hypnosis for procedure-related pain and distress in pediatric cancer patients: a systematic review of effectiveness and methodology related to hypnosis interventions. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management. 31 (1), pp. 70-84.

Yoga for depression: the research evidence
Pilkington, K., Kirkwood, G., Rampes, H. and Richardson, J. 2005. Yoga for depression: the research evidence. Journal of Affective Disorders. 89 (1-3), pp. 13-24.

Yoga for anxiety: a systematic review of the research evidence
Kirkwood, G., Rampes, H., Tuffrey, V., Richardson, J. and Pilkington, K. 2005. Yoga for anxiety: a systematic review of the research evidence. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 39 (12), pp. 884-891.

Mindfulness-based stress reduction as supportive therapy in cancer care: systematic review
Smith, J.E., Richardson, J., Hoffman, C. and Pilkington, K. 2005. Mindfulness-based stress reduction as supportive therapy in cancer care: systematic review. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 52 (3), pp. 315-327.

Aloe vera for preventing radiation-induced skin reactions: a systematic literature review
Richardson, J., Smith, J.E., McIntyre, M., Thomas, R. and Pilkington, K. 2005. Aloe vera for preventing radiation-induced skin reactions: a systematic literature review. Clinical Oncology. 17 (6), pp. 478-484.

Homeopathy for depression: a systematic review of the research evidence
Pilkington, K., Kirkwood, G., Rampes, H., Fisher, P. and Richardson, J. 2005. Homeopathy for depression: a systematic review of the research evidence. Homeopathy. 94 (3), pp. 153-163.

Complementary and alternative medicine evidence online for cancer
Richardson, J., Pilkington, K. and Thomas, R. 2005. Complementary and alternative medicine evidence online for cancer. British Journal of Cancer Management. 2 (2), pp. 9-11.

The long and winding road: tracking down the evidence on CAM in cancer
Pilkington, K. and Richardson, J. 2005. The long and winding road: tracking down the evidence on CAM in cancer. NCRI Cancer Conference. Birmingham, UK 02-05 Oct 2005

"No language restrictions" in database searches: what does this really mean?
Pilkington, K., Boshnakova, A., Clarke, M. and Richardson, J. 2005. "No language restrictions" in database searches: what does this really mean? Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine. 11 (1), pp. 205-207.

Exploring the evidence: the challenges of searching for research on acupuncture
Pilkington, K. and Richardson, J. 2004. Exploring the evidence: the challenges of searching for research on acupuncture. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 10 (3), pp. 587-590.

Developing CAMEO (CAM Evidence Online) for cancer
Pilkington, K., Smith, J.E. and Richardson, J. 2004. Developing CAMEO (CAM Evidence Online) for cancer. Focus on Alternative and Complementary Therapies. 9 (1), p. 39.

Evidence-based complementary (and alternative) medicine on the internet
Pilkington, K. and Richardson, J. 2003. Evidence-based complementary (and alternative) medicine on the internet. Health Information on the Internet. 34, pp. 7-9.

Complementary therapies: what is the evidence for their use?
Richardson, J., Jones, C. and Pilkington, K. 2001. Complementary therapies: what is the evidence for their use? Professional Nurse. 17 (2), pp. 96-99.

Permalink - https://westminsterresearch.westminster.ac.uk/item/9zz81/searching-for-real-world-effectiveness-versus-efficacy-of-healthcare-innovations-the-case-of-social-prescribing-for-diabetes


Share this
Tweet
Email