Acceptability of artificial intelligence (AI)-led chatbot services in healthcare: A mixed-methods study

Nadarzynski, T., Miles, Oliver, Cowie, Aimee and Ridge, Damien 2019. Acceptability of artificial intelligence (AI)-led chatbot services in healthcare: A mixed-methods study. Digital Health. 5, p. 205520761987180. https://doi.org/10.1177/2055207619871808

TitleAcceptability of artificial intelligence (AI)-led chatbot services in healthcare: A mixed-methods study
TypeJournal article
AuthorsNadarzynski, T.
Miles, O.
Cowie, A.
Ridge, Damien T.
Abstract

Background
Artificial intelligence (AI) is increasingly being used in healthcare. Here, AI-based chatbot systems can act as automated conversational agents, capable of promoting health, providing education, and potentially prompting behaviour change. Exploring the motivation to use health chatbots is required to predict uptake; however, few studies to date have explored their acceptability. This research aimed to explore participants’ willingness to engage with AI-led health chatbots.

Methods
The study incorporated semi-structured interviews (N-29) which informed the development of an online survey (N-216) advertised via social media. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. A survey of 24 items explored demographic and attitudinal variables, including acceptability and perceived utility. The quantitative data were analysed using binary regressions with a single categorical predictor.

Results
Three broad themes: ‘Understanding of chatbots’, ‘AI hesitancy’ and ‘Motivations for health chatbots’ were identified, outlining concerns about accuracy, cyber-security, and the inability of AI-led services to empathise. The survey showed moderate acceptability (67%), correlated negatively with perceived poorer IT skills OR = 0.32 [CI95%:0.13–0.78] and dislike for talking to computers OR = 0.77 [CI95%:0.60–0.99] as well as positively correlated with perceived utility OR = 5.10 [CI95%:3.08–8.43], positive attitude OR = 2.71 [CI95%:1.77–4.16] and perceived trustworthiness OR = 1.92 [CI95%:1.13–3.25].

Conclusion
Most internet users would be receptive to using health chatbots, although hesitancy regarding this technology is likely to compromise engagement. Intervention designers focusing on AI-led health chatbots need to employ user-centred and theory-based approaches addressing patients’ concerns and optimising user experience in order to achieve the best uptake and utilisation. Patients’ perspectives, motivation and capabilities need to be taken into account when developing and assessing the effectiveness of health chatbots.

KeywordsAcceptability
Artificial Intelligence
Chatbot
JournalDigital Health
Journal citation5, pp. 1-12
ISSN2055-2076
Year2019
PublisherSage
Publisher's version
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1177/2055207619871808
Web address (URL)https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/2055207619871808
Publication dates
Published online21 Aug 2019
LicenseCC BY-NC 4.0

Related outputs

Feasibility study of the Home-based Exercises for Responsible Sex (HERS) intervention to promote correct and consistent condom use among young women.
Knights, Nicola, Stone, Nicole, Nadarzynski, Tom, Brown, Katherine, Newby, Katie and Graham, C. 2021. Feasibility study of the Home-based Exercises for Responsible Sex (HERS) intervention to promote correct and consistent condom use among young women. Pilot and Feasibility Studies. 7 (1), p. 145. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40814-021-00885-1

Barriers and facilitators to engagement with artificial intelligence (AI)-based chatbots for sexual and reproductive health advice: A qualitative analysis
Nadarzynski, T., Puentes, V., Pawlak, I., Mendes, T., Montgomery, I., Bayley, J. and Ridge, Damien T. 2021. Barriers and facilitators to engagement with artificial intelligence (AI)-based chatbots for sexual and reproductive health advice: A qualitative analysis. Sexual Health.

Using protection motivation theory to explain the intention to initiate human papillomavirus vaccination among men who have sex with men in China
Huang, Ruonan, Wang, Zhenyu, Yuan, Tanwei, Nadarzynski, Tom, Qian, Han-Zhu, Li, Peiyang, Meng, Xiaojun, Wang, Guanghui, Zhou, Yepeng, Luo, Danyang, Wang, Ying, Cai, Yong and Zou, Huachun 2021. Using protection motivation theory to explain the intention to initiate human papillomavirus vaccination among men who have sex with men in China. Tumour Virus Research. 12 200222. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tvr.2021.200222

Sexual healthcare professionals’ views on the rapid provision of remote services at the beginning of COVID-19 pandemic: A mixed-methods study
Lunt, Alexandria, Llewellyn, C., Bayley, Jake and Nadarzynski, T. 2021. Sexual healthcare professionals’ views on the rapid provision of remote services at the beginning of COVID-19 pandemic: A mixed-methods study. International Journal of STD & AIDS. https://doi.org/10.1177/09564624211023018

Vaccine acceptability, uptake and completion amongst men who have sex with men: A systematic review, meta-analysis and theoretical framework
Nadarzynski, T., Frost, M., Miller, Danny, Wheldon, Christopher W., Wiernik, Brenton M., Zou, Huachun, Richardson, Daniel, Marlow, L., Smith, Helen, Jones, C. and Llewellyn, C. 2021. Vaccine acceptability, uptake and completion amongst men who have sex with men: A systematic review, meta-analysis and theoretical framework. Vaccine. 39 (27), pp. 3565-3581. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2021.05.013

Does online sexually transmitted infection screening compromise care? A service evaluation comparing the management of chlamydial infection diagnosed online and in clinic
Gasmelsid, N., Moran, B., Nadarzynski, T., Patel, R. and Foley, E. 2021. Does online sexually transmitted infection screening compromise care? A service evaluation comparing the management of chlamydial infection diagnosed online and in clinic. International Journal of STD & AIDS. 32 (6), pp. 528-532. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956462420980929

Perceived barriers and facilitators to female condoms among UK based healthcare professionals
Burton, Jack, Bedford, Rowena, Graham, C. and Nadarzynski, T. 2020. Perceived barriers and facilitators to female condoms among UK based healthcare professionals. The European Journal of Contraception & Reproductive Health Care. 25 (4), pp. 299-304. https://doi.org/10.1080/13625187.2020.1777966

Acceptability of remote prescribing and postal delivery services for contraceptive pills and treatment of uncomplicated Chlamydia trachomatis
Nadarzynski, T., Symonds, Y., Carroll, R., Gibbs, J., Kidsley, S. and Graham, C. A. 2020. Acceptability of remote prescribing and postal delivery services for contraceptive pills and treatment of uncomplicated Chlamydia trachomatis. BMJ Sexual and Reproductive Health. 47, pp. 185-192. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjsrh-2020-200687

Understanding the diverse sexual repertoires of men who have sex with men, trans and gender-diverse groups is important for sexually transmitted infection prevention
Richardson, D., Nambiar, K. and Nadarzynski, T. 2020. Understanding the diverse sexual repertoires of men who have sex with men, trans and gender-diverse groups is important for sexually transmitted infection prevention. BMJ Sexual & Reproductive Health. 47 (3). https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjsrh-2020-200804

Acceptability of artificial intelligence (AI)-enabled chatbots, video consultations and live webchats as online platforms for sexual health advice
Nadarzynski, T., Bayley, J., Llewellyn, C., Kidsley, S. and Graham, C.A. 2020. Acceptability of artificial intelligence (AI)-enabled chatbots, video consultations and live webchats as online platforms for sexual health advice. BMJ Sexual and Reproductive Health. 46, pp. 210-217. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjsrh-2018-200271

Targeted advertisement of chlamydia screening on social media: A mixed-methods analysis
Nadarzynski, T., Burton, Jack, Henderson, Kimberley, Zimmerman, Deborah, Hill, Orla and Graham, Cynthia 2019. Targeted advertisement of chlamydia screening on social media: A mixed-methods analysis. Digital Health. 5, p. 205520761982719. https://doi.org/10.1177/2055207619827193

Attitudes of pregnant women and healthcare professionals towards clinical trials and routine implementation of antenatal vaccination against respiratory syncytial virus: a multi-centre questionnaire study
Wilcox, Christopher R., Calvert, Anna, Metz, Jane, Kilich, Eliz, MacLeod, Rachael, Beadon, Kirsten, Heath, Paul T, Khalil, Asma, Finn, Adam, Snape, Matthew, Vandrevala, Tushna, Nadarzynski, T., Coleman, Matthew and Jones, Christine 2019. Attitudes of pregnant women and healthcare professionals towards clinical trials and routine implementation of antenatal vaccination against respiratory syncytial virus: a multi-centre questionnaire study. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. 38 (9), pp. 944-951. https://doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000002384

Acceptability of artificial intelligence (AI)-led chatbot services in healthcare: A mixed-methods study
Nadarzynski, T., Miles, O., Cowie, A. and Ridge, Damien T. 2019. Acceptability of artificial intelligence (AI)-led chatbot services in healthcare: A mixed-methods study. Digital Health. 5, pp. 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1177/2055207619871808

Determinants of Influenza and Pertussis Vaccination Uptake in Pregnancy: A Multicenter Questionnaire Study of Pregnant Women and Healthcare Professionals
Wilcox, C.R., Calvert, A., Metz, J., Kilich, E., MacLeod, R., Beadon, K, Heath, P.T., Khalil, A., Finn, A., Snape, M.D., Vandrevala, T., Nadarzynski, T., Coleman, M.A. and Jones, C.E. 2019. Determinants of Influenza and Pertussis Vaccination Uptake in Pregnancy: A Multicenter Questionnaire Study of Pregnant Women and Healthcare Professionals. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. 38 (6), pp. 625-630. https://doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000002242

Digital Health Psychology
Yardley, L., Bradbury, K., Nadarzynski, T. and Hunter, C. 2019. Digital Health Psychology. in: Revenson, T.A. and Gerung, R.A.R. (ed.) Handbook of Health Psychology New York Routledge. pp. 519-525

Preferences for HIV testing services among men who have sex with men in the UK: A discrete choice experiment
Miners, A., Nadarzynski, T., Witzel, C, Phillips, A.N., Cambiano, V., Rodger, A.J. and Llewellyn, C.D. 2019. Preferences for HIV testing services among men who have sex with men in the UK: A discrete choice experiment. PLoS Medicine. 16 (4) e1002779. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1002779

Mixed-methods study in England and Northern Ireland to understand young men who have sex with men’s knowledge and attitudes towards human papillomavirus vaccination
Kesten, J.M., Flannagan, C., Ruane-McAteer, E., Merriel, S.W.D., Nadarzynski, T., Shapiro, G.K., Rosberger, Z. and Prue, G. 2019. Mixed-methods study in England and Northern Ireland to understand young men who have sex with men’s knowledge and attitudes towards human papillomavirus vaccination. BMJ Open. 9 (e025070) e025070. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-025070

Determinants of influenza and pertussis vaccination uptake in pregnancy: a multi-centre questionnaire study of pregnant women and healthcare professionals
Wilcox, C.R., Calvert, A., Metz, J., Kilich, E., MacLeod, R., Beadon, K., Heath, P.T., Khalil, A., Finn, A., Snape, M.D., Vandrevala, T., Nadarzynski, T., Coleman, M.A. and Jones, C.E. 2019. Determinants of influenza and pertussis vaccination uptake in pregnancy: a multi-centre questionnaire study of pregnant women and healthcare professionals. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. 38 (6), pp. 625-630. https://doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000002242

Attendance of MSM at Genitourinary Medicine services in England: implications for selective HPV vaccination programme (a short communication)
Bayley, J., Mesher, D., Nadarzynski, T., Hughes, G. and Soldan, K. 2018. Attendance of MSM at Genitourinary Medicine services in England: implications for selective HPV vaccination programme (a short communication). Sexually Transmitted Infections. 94, pp. 542-544. https://doi.org/10.1136/sextrans-2016-052912

Men who have sex with men who do not access sexual health clinics nor disclose sexual orientation are unlikely to receive the HPV vaccine in the UK
Nadarzynski, T., Smith, H., Richardson, D., Bremner, S. and Llewellyn, C. 2018. Men who have sex with men who do not access sexual health clinics nor disclose sexual orientation are unlikely to receive the HPV vaccine in the UK. Vaccine. 36 (33), pp. 5065-5070. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2018.06.075

Perceptions of HPV and attitudes towards HPV vaccination amongst men who have sex with men: A qualitative analysis
Nadarzynski, T., Smith, H., Richardson, D., Pollard, A. and Llewellyn, C.D. 2017. Perceptions of HPV and attitudes towards HPV vaccination amongst men who have sex with men: A qualitative analysis. British Journal of Health Psychology. 22 (2), pp. 345-361. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjhp.12233

Sexual healthcare professionals’ views on HPV vaccination for men in the UK
Nadarzynski, T., Smith, H.E., Richardson, D., Ford, E. and Llewellyn, C.D. 2015. Sexual healthcare professionals’ views on HPV vaccination for men in the UK. British Journal of Cancer. 113 (11), pp. 1599-1601. https://doi.org/10.1038/bjc.2015.403

Human papillomavirus and vaccine-related perceptions among men who have sex with men: a systematic review
Nadarzynski, T., Smith, H., Richardson, D., Jones, C.J. and Llewellyn, C.D. 2014. Human papillomavirus and vaccine-related perceptions among men who have sex with men: a systematic review. Sexually Transmitted Infections. 90 (7), pp. 515-523. https://doi.org/10.1136/sextrans-2013-051357

Permalink - https://westminsterresearch.westminster.ac.uk/item/qx6v5/acceptability-of-artificial-intelligence-ai-led-chatbot-services-in-healthcare-a-mixed-methods-study


Share this
Tweet
Email

Usage statistics

83 total views
47 total downloads
1 views this month
0 downloads this month
These values are for the period from September 2nd 2018, when this repository was created

Export as