Thirteen species of sea lice (family Caligidae) are reported from a range of elasmobranch and actinopterygian fishes caught off South Africa or obtained from public aquaria in South Africa. Two new species of Caligus Müller, 1785 are described: C. linearis n. sp. from Pomatomus saltatrix (Linnaeus) and C. tumulus n. sp. from Chrysoblephus cristiceps (Valenciennes). A supplementary description is provided for both sexes of Caligus tetrodontis Barnard, 1948 taken from Amblyrhynchotes honckenii (Bloch) and previous records of this parasite from South African fishes are critically reviewed. It is concluded that Caligus material from Arothron hispidus Linnaeus was previously misidentified as C. tetrodontis and is in urgent need of re-examination. Morphological and molecular observations on Caligus furcisetifer Redkar, Rangnekar & Murti, 1949 indicate that this copepod is phenotypically and genetically identical to Lepeophtheirus natalensis Kensley & Grindley, 1973, and the latter becomes a junior subjective synonym of C. furcisetifer. We include new geographical distribution records for Caligus longipedis Bassett-Smith, 1898, C. rufimaculatus Wilson, 1905 and Lepeophtheirus spinifer Kirtisinghe, 1937, extending into South African waters, as well as both new distribution and host records for Alebion gracilis Wilson, 1905, Caligus dakari van Beneden, 1892 and Lepeophtheirus acutus Heegaard, 1943. The molecular analysis confirmed the monophyly of the genus Caligus. The South African species of Caligus did not cluster together, but the two included South African species of Lepeophtheirus were recovered as sister taxa.