CNS injury research; reviewing the last decade: Methodological errors and a proposal for a new strategy

Kazanis, I. 2005. CNS injury research; reviewing the last decade: Methodological errors and a proposal for a new strategy. Brain Research Reviews. 50 (2), pp. 377-386. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresrev.2005.09.003

TitleCNS injury research; reviewing the last decade: Methodological errors and a proposal for a new strategy
TypeJournal article
AuthorsKazanis, I.
Abstract

During the last decades the field of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) has been characterized by a paucity of new treatments. This is in contrast to the amount of pre-clinical experimental work and the number of clinical trials done. This paper aims to contribute to the ongoing debate on the reasons that have led to this phenomenon. A reasonable suggestion could be the presence of methodological limitations when comparing and integrating experimental results. The first methodological drawback, which is shortly discussed, is the insistence (during the last decades) on the concept of “similarity to the human pathology” as the main criterion to evaluate results, and the constant effort to create a “super model” that would fully replicate human TBI cases. The second methodological limitation examined is the lack of a common way to present and analyze data. It is proposed that the basic neuro-histo-pathology of each injury model should serve as the ground on which hypotheses should be built, as it could constitute the common basis for comparisons between different experimental settings. In this context, 95 papers reporting experimental results from various models of animal CNS injury were reviewed in order to examine the extent to which results were presented and analyzed using a common basis. No such common basis was observed; moreover, the review revealed a remarkable lack of histopathological examination of the animals, especially when biochemical and/or behavioral endpoints were assessed. It is argued that this practice deprives data of an objective common basis. Conclusively, a new theoretical way of organizing experimental work in the field of TBI is briefly presented.

JournalBrain Research Reviews
Journal citation50 (2), pp. 377-386
ISSN0165-0173
Year2005
PublisherElsevier
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresrev.2005.09.003
Publication dates
Published15 Dec 2005

Related outputs

Alpha-synuclein pathology in the "weaver" mouse, a genetic model of dopaminergic denervation.
Dimopoulou, Aggeliki, Panagiotakopoulou, Vasiliki, Mourtzi, Theodora, Kazanis, Ilias and Angelatou, Fevronia 2024. Alpha-synuclein pathology in the "weaver" mouse, a genetic model of dopaminergic denervation. microPublication biology. 2024, p. 10.17912/micropub.biology.001156. https://doi.org/10.17912/micropub.biology.001156

Reversal of Postnatal Brain Astrocytes and Ependymal Cells towards a Progenitor Phenotype in Culture
Dimitrios Kakogiannis, Michaela Kourla, Dimitrios Dimitrakopoulos and Ilias Kazanis 2024. Reversal of Postnatal Brain Astrocytes and Ependymal Cells towards a Progenitor Phenotype in Culture. Cells. 13 (8) 668. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells13080668

Enhancement of endogenous midbrain neurogenesis by microneurotrophin BNN-20 after neural progenitor grafting in a mouse model of nigral degeneration
Theodora Mourtzi, Nasia Antoniou, Christina Dimitriou, Panagiotis Gkaravelas, Georgia Athanasopoulou, Panagiota Nti Kostantzo, Olga Stathi, Efthymia Theodorou, Maria Anesti, Rebecca Matsas, Fevronia Angelatou, Georgia Kouroupi and Ilias Kazanis 2024. Enhancement of endogenous midbrain neurogenesis by microneurotrophin BNN-20 after neural progenitor grafting in a mouse model of nigral degeneration. Neural Regeneration Research. 19 (6), pp. 1318-1324. https://doi.org/10.4103/1673-5374.385314

Endogenous versus exogenous cell replacement for Parkinson’s disease: where are we at and where are we going?
Theodora Mourtzi and Ilias Kazanis 2022. Endogenous versus exogenous cell replacement for Parkinson’s disease: where are we at and where are we going? Neural Regeneration Research. 17 (12), pp. 2637-2642. https://doi.org/10.4103/1673-5374.336137

Heterogeneity of quiescent and active neural stem cells in the postnatal brain
Dimitrios Dimitrakopoulos, Dimitrios Kakogiannis and Ilias Kazanis 2022. Heterogeneity of quiescent and active neural stem cells in the postnatal brain. The International Journal of Developmental Biology. 66 (1-2-3), pp. 51-58. https://doi.org/10.1387/ijdb.220010ik

Divergence between Neuronal and Oligodendroglial Cell Fate, in Postnatal Brain Neural Stem Cells, Leads to Divergent Properties in Polymorphic In Vitro Assays
Maria Anesti, Stavroula Magkafa, Efstathia Prantikou and Ilias Kazanis 2022. Divergence between Neuronal and Oligodendroglial Cell Fate, in Postnatal Brain Neural Stem Cells, Leads to Divergent Properties in Polymorphic In Vitro Assays. Cells. 11 (11) 1743. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11111743

Platelets' regulatory role on postnatal brain Neural Stem Cells of the Subependymal Zone
Dimitriou, C., Giachali, M., Lagogiannis, D., Anesti, M., Ghevaert, C., Franklin, R., Rivera, F. and Kazanis, I. 2021. Platelets' regulatory role on postnatal brain Neural Stem Cells of the Subependymal Zone. GLIA. 69 (S1), pp. E501-E502. https://doi.org/10.1002/glia.24036

"Milking": an innovative approach to investigate the properties of postnatal brain neural stem cells and to obtain oligodendrocyte progenitor cells from live experimental rats
Dimitrakopoulos, D., Kakogiannis, D., Franklin, R.J. and Kazanis, I. 2021. "Milking": an innovative approach to investigate the properties of postnatal brain neural stem cells and to obtain oligodendrocyte progenitor cells from live experimental rats. GLIA. 69 (S1), p. E411. https://doi.org/10.1002/glia.24036

Platelets as novel regulators of postnatal brain Neural Stem Cells
Dimitriou, C., Papadimitriou, K., Roussis, K., Guerrero, J., Ghevaert, C., Franklin, R., Symeonidis, A. and Kazanis, I. 2021. Platelets as novel regulators of postnatal brain Neural Stem Cells. GLIA. 67 (S1), pp. E647-E648. https://doi.org/10.1002/glia.23675

Neurogenic and oligodendrogenic cell fate decisions of postnatal brain Neural Stem Cells are differentially dependent on their microenvironment
Anesti, M., Magkafa, S., Prantikou, E. and Kazanis, I. 2021. Neurogenic and oligodendrogenic cell fate decisions of postnatal brain Neural Stem Cells are differentially dependent on their microenvironment. GLIA. 69 (S1), pp. E415-E416. https://doi.org/10.1002/glia.24036

Isolation of neural stem and oligodendrocyte progenitor cells from the brain of live rats
Freyja McClenahan, Christina Dimitriou, Christos Koutsakis, Dimitrios Dimitrakopoulos, Asterios Arampatzis, Paraskevi Kakouri, Michaela Kourla, Sofia Oikonomou, Evangelia Andreopoulou, Melina Patsonis, Danai-Kassandra Meri, Rana-Tahir Rasool, Robin JM. Franklin and Ilias Kazanis 2021. Isolation of neural stem and oligodendrocyte progenitor cells from the brain of live rats. Stem Cell Reports. 16 (10), pp. 2534-2547. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stemcr.2021.08.015

Characterization of substantia nigra neurogenesis in homeostasis and dopaminergic degeneration: beneficial effects of the microneurotrophin BNN-20
Theodora Mourtzi, Dimitrios Dimitrakopoulos, Dimitrios Kakogiannis, Charalampos Salodimitris, Konstantinos Botsakis, Danai Kassandra Meri, Maria Anesti, Aggeliki Dimopoulou, Ioannis Charalampopoulos, Achilleas Gravanis, Nikolaos Matsokis, Fevronia Angelatou and Ilias Kazanis 2021. Characterization of substantia nigra neurogenesis in homeostasis and dopaminergic degeneration: beneficial effects of the microneurotrophin BNN-20. Stem Cell Research & Therapy. 12 335. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13287-021-02398-3

Cellular senescence in populations of postnatal brain Neural Stem Cells
Anesti, M., Dimitriou, C., Gorgoulis, V. and Kazanis, I. 2019. Cellular senescence in populations of postnatal brain Neural Stem Cells. GLIA. 67 (S1), pp. E503-E504. https://doi.org/10.1002/glia.23675

Milking the postnatal brain neural stem cell niche: a method for isolating endogenous neural stem and progenitor cells from the cerebrospinal fluid
McClenahan, F., Arampatzis, A., Rasool, R., Franklin, R.J.M. and Kazanis, I. 2017. Milking the postnatal brain neural stem cell niche: a method for isolating endogenous neural stem and progenitor cells from the cerebrospinal fluid. GLIA. 65 (S1), pp. E538-E539. https://doi.org/10.1002/glia.23157

The extracellular matrix glycoprotein Tenascin-C regulates the behavior of cortical neural stem cells during the neuroepithelial to radial glial transition
Patsoni, M., Kazanis, I., Ffrench-Constant, C., Faissner, A. and May, M. 2017. The extracellular matrix glycoprotein Tenascin-C regulates the behavior of cortical neural stem cells during the neuroepithelial to radial glial transition. GLIA. 65 (S1), pp. E408-E409. https://doi.org/10.1002/glia.23157

Subependymal Zone-Derived Oligodendroblasts Respond to Focal Demyelination but Fail to Generate Myelin in Young and Aged Mice
Kazanis, Ilias, Evans, Kimberley A., Andreopoulou, Evangelia, Dimitriou, Christina, Koutsakis, Christos, Karadottir, Ragnhildur Thora and Franklin, Robin J. M. 2017. Subependymal Zone-Derived Oligodendroblasts Respond to Focal Demyelination but Fail to Generate Myelin in Young and Aged Mice. Stem Cell Reports. 8 (3), pp. P685-700. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stemcr.2017.01.007

Being a Neural Stem Cell: A Matter of Character But Defined by the Microenvironment
Evangelia Andreopoulou, Asterios Arampatzis, Melina Patsoni and Ilias Kazanis 2017. Being a Neural Stem Cell: A Matter of Character But Defined by the Microenvironment. in: Birbrair, A. (ed.) Stem Cell Microenvironments and Beyond Springer. pp. 81-118

Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells: the ever mitotic cells of the CNS
Neumann, B. and Kazanis, I. 2016. Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells: the ever mitotic cells of the CNS. Frontiers in Bioscience-Scholar. 8 (1), pp. 29-43. https://doi.org/10.2741/s444

How Necessary is the Vasculature in the Life of Neural Stem and Progenitor Cells? Evidence from Evolution, Development and the Adult Nervous System.
Koutsakis, C. and Kazanis, I. 2016. How Necessary is the Vasculature in the Life of Neural Stem and Progenitor Cells? Evidence from Evolution, Development and the Adult Nervous System. Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience. 10 35. https://doi.org/10.3389/fncel.2016.00035

CNS lesion-induced accumulation of platelets promotes survival of adult SVZ-derived neural stem / progenitor cells
Rivera, F., Kazanis, I., Feichtner, M., Lange, S., Rotheneichner, P., Hainzl, S., Oeller, M., Schallmoser, K., Rohde, E., Reitsamer, H. A., Couillard-Despres, S., Bauer, H. -C., Franklin, R. J. M. and Aigner, L. 2015. CNS lesion-induced accumulation of platelets promotes survival of adult SVZ-derived neural stem / progenitor cells. GLIA. 63 (S1), p. E403. https://doi.org/10.1002/glia.22870

Lesion-induced accumulation of platelets promotes survival of adult neural stem / progenitor cells.
Kazanis, I., Feichtner, M., Lange, S., Rotheneichner, P., Hainzl, S., Öller, M., Schallmoser, K., Rohde, E., Reitsamer, H.A., Couillard-Despres, S., Bauer, H.C., Franklin, R.J., Aigner, L. and Rivera, F.J. 2015. Lesion-induced accumulation of platelets promotes survival of adult neural stem / progenitor cells. Experimental Neurology. 269, pp. 75-89. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.expneurol.2015.03.018

Beyond Clotting: A Role of Platelets in CNS Repair?
Rivera, F.J., Kazanis, I., Ghevaert, C. and Aigner, L. 2015. Beyond Clotting: A Role of Platelets in CNS Repair? Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience. 9 511. https://doi.org/10.3389/fncel.2015.00511

Disc1 variation leads to specific alterations in adult neurogenesis
Chandran, J.S., Kazanis, I., Clapcote, S.J., Ogawa, F., Millar, J.K., Porteous, D.J. and Ffrench-Constant, C. 2014. Disc1 variation leads to specific alterations in adult neurogenesis. PLoS ONE. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0108088

Adult Neural Stem Cells Generate Waves of Oligodenrocyte Progenitor Cells That Populate Transiently the Corpus Callosum but Do Not Contribute to Its Pool of Oligodendrocytes
Kazanis, I. and Franklin, R. 2013. Adult Neural Stem Cells Generate Waves of Oligodenrocyte Progenitor Cells That Populate Transiently the Corpus Callosum but Do Not Contribute to Its Pool of Oligodendrocytes. GLIA. 61 (S1), p. S148. https://doi.org/10.1002/glia.22530

Niche derived oligodendrocyte progenitors: A source of rejuvenation or complementation for local oligodendrogenesis?
Agathou, S., Káradóttir, R.T. and Kazanis, I. 2013. Niche derived oligodendrocyte progenitors: A source of rejuvenation or complementation for local oligodendrogenesis? Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience. 7. https://doi.org/10.3389/fncel.2013.00188

Reforming the Greek health system: A role for non-medical, clinical bioscientists
Kazanis, I. 2013. Reforming the Greek health system: A role for non-medical, clinical bioscientists. Health Policy. 109 (1), pp. 46-51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthpol.2012.03.020

The late response of rat subependymal zone stem and progenitor cells to stroke is restricted to directly affected areas of their niche
Kazanis, I., Gorenkova, N., Zhao, J.-W., Franklin, R.J.M., Modo, M. and ffrench-Constant, C. 2013. The late response of rat subependymal zone stem and progenitor cells to stroke is restricted to directly affected areas of their niche. Experimental Neurology. 248, pp. 387-397. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.expneurol.2013.06.025

Neurogenesis in the Adult Mammalian Brain: How Much Do We Need, How Much Do We Have?
Kazanis, I. 2013. Neurogenesis in the Adult Mammalian Brain: How Much Do We Need, How Much Do We Have? in: Belzung, C. and Wigmore, P. (ed.) Neurogenesis and Neural Plasticity Springer. pp. 3-29

Can adult neural stem cells create new brains? Plasticity in the adult mammalian neurogenic niches: realities and expectations in the era of regenerative biology
Kazanis, I. 2012. Can adult neural stem cells create new brains? Plasticity in the adult mammalian neurogenic niches: realities and expectations in the era of regenerative biology. The Neuroscientist. 18 (1), pp. 15-27. https://doi.org/10.1177/1073858410390379

Can adult neural stem cells create New Brains? plasticity in the adult mammalian neurogenic niches: Realities and expectations in the Era of regenerative biology
Kazanis, I. 2011. Can adult neural stem cells create New Brains? plasticity in the adult mammalian neurogenic niches: Realities and expectations in the Era of regenerative biology. The Neuroscientist. 18 (1), pp. 15-27. https://doi.org/10.1177/1073858410390379

The Number of Stem Cells in the Subependymal Zone of the Adult Rodent Brain is Correlated with the Number of Ependymal Cells and Not with the Volume of the Niche
Kazanis, I. and ffrench-Constant, C. 2011. The Number of Stem Cells in the Subependymal Zone of the Adult Rodent Brain is Correlated with the Number of Ependymal Cells and Not with the Volume of the Niche. Stem Cells and Development. 21 (7). https://doi.org/10.1089/scd.2011.0130

Extracellular matrix and the neural stem cell niche
Kazanis, I. 2011. Extracellular matrix and the neural stem cell niche. Developmental Neurobiology. 71 (11), pp. 1006-1017. https://doi.org/10.1002/dneu.20970

Adhesion molecules in the stem cell niche - More than just staying in shape?
Marthiens, V., Kazanis, I., Moss, L., Long, K. and Ffrench-Constant, C. 2010. Adhesion molecules in the stem cell niche - More than just staying in shape? Journal of Cell Science. 123 (10), pp. 1613-1622. https://doi.org/10.1242/jcs.054312

Quiescence and activation of stem and precursor cell populations in the subependymal zone of the mammalian brain are associated with distinct cellular and extracellular matrix signals
Kazanis, I., Lathia, J.D., Vadakkan, T.J., Raborn, E., Wan, R., Mughal, M.R., Eckley, D.M., Sasaki, T., Patton, B., Mattson, M.P., Hirschi, K.K., Dickinson, M.E. and ffrench-Constant, C. 2010. Quiescence and activation of stem and precursor cell populations in the subependymal zone of the mammalian brain are associated with distinct cellular and extracellular matrix signals. Journal of Neuroscience. 30 (29), pp. 9771-9781. https://doi.org/10.1523/jneurosci.0700-10.2010

Activated Adult Neural Stem Cells Generate Distinct Laminin/Integrin Interactions During Regeneration of the Subependymal Zone Neurogenic Niche
Kazanis, I, Lathia, J.D., Vadakkan, T.J., Mattson, M.P., Dickinon, M.E. and Ffrench-Constant, C. 2009. Activated Adult Neural Stem Cells Generate Distinct Laminin/Integrin Interactions During Regeneration of the Subependymal Zone Neurogenic Niche. GLIA. 57 (S13), p. S76. https://doi.org/10.1002/glia.20915

The Extracellular Matrix Glycoprotein Tenascin-C Controls the Activity of Directly Neurogenic Progenitors in the Ventricular Zone of the Mouse Embryonic Forebrain
Kazanis, I and Ffrench-Constant, C. 2009. The Extracellular Matrix Glycoprotein Tenascin-C Controls the Activity of Directly Neurogenic Progenitors in the Ventricular Zone of the Mouse Embryonic Forebrain. GLIA. 57 (S13), pp. S83-S84. https://doi.org/10.1002/glia.20915

The subependymal zone neurogenic niche: a beating heart in the centre of the brain: how plastic is adult neurogenesis? Opportunities for therapy and questions to be addressed
Kazanis, I. 2009. The subependymal zone neurogenic niche: a beating heart in the centre of the brain: how plastic is adult neurogenesis? Opportunities for therapy and questions to be addressed. Brain. 132 (11), p. 2909–2921. https://doi.org/10.1093/brain/awp237

The neural stem cell microenvironment
Kazanis, I., Lathia, J., Moss, L. and ffrench-Constant, C. 2008. The neural stem cell microenvironment. in: StemBook Harvard Stem Cell Institute.

A study of the adult sub-ependymal zone and of its regeneration following AraC treatment, in the Tenascin C null mice
Kazanis, Ilias, Belhadi, Aisha, Gossage, Sam, ffrench-Constant, Charles and Kazanis, Ilias 2007. A study of the adult sub-ependymal zone and of its regeneration following AraC treatment, in the Tenascin C null mice. Neuron Glia Biology. 2 (S1), p. S51.

The adult mouse subependymal zone regenerates efficiently in the absence of tenascin-C
Kazanis, I., Belhadi, A., Faissner, A. and Ffrench-Constant, C. 2007. The adult mouse subependymal zone regenerates efficiently in the absence of tenascin-C. Journal of Neuroscience. 27 (51), pp. 13991-13996. https://doi.org/10.1523/jneurosci.3279-07.2007

Dual function of Sox1 in telencephalic progenitor cells
Kazanis, I. 2007. Dual function of Sox1 in telencephalic progenitor cells. Developmental Biology. 310 (1), pp. 85-98. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ydbio.2007.07.026

Neuronal migration and ventral subtype identity in the telencephalon depend on SOX1
Ekonomou, A., Kazanis, I., Malas, S., Wood, H., Alifragis, P., Denaxa, M., Karagogeos, D., Constanti, A., Lovell-Badge, R. and Episkopou, V. 2005. Neuronal migration and ventral subtype identity in the telencephalon depend on SOX1. PLOS Biology. 3 (6) e186. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0030186

Neuronal Migration and Ventral Subtype Identity in the Telencephalon Depend on SOX1
Kazanis, I. 2005. Neuronal Migration and Ventral Subtype Identity in the Telencephalon Depend on SOX1. PLOS Biology. 3 (6) e186. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0030186

Alterations in IGF-I, BDNF and NT-3 levels following experimental brain trauma and the effect of IGF-I administration
Kazanis, I., Giannakopoulou, M., Philippidis, H. and Stylianopoulou, F. 2004. Alterations in IGF-I, BDNF and NT-3 levels following experimental brain trauma and the effect of IGF-I administration. Experimental Neurology. 186 (2), pp. 221-234. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.expneurol.2003.12.004

Study of tissue alterations in traumatized regions of the rat CNS
Kazanis, I. 2003. Study of tissue alterations in traumatized regions of the rat CNS. PhD thesis National and Kapodistrian University of Athens School of Medicine

Control of neuronal nitric oxide synthase and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels by GABA-A receptors in the developing rat cortex
Mantelas, A., Stamatakis, A., Kazanis, I., Philippidis, H. and Stylianopoulou, F. 2003. Control of neuronal nitric oxide synthase and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels by GABA-A receptors in the developing rat cortex. Developmental Brain Research. 145 (2), pp. 185-195. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.devbrainres.2003.08.001

Neuroprotective effects of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) following a penetrating brain injury in rats
Kazanis, I. 2003. Neuroprotective effects of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) following a penetrating brain injury in rats. Brain Research. 991 (1-2), pp. 34-45. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-8993(03)03525-x

Genetic detection of bladder cancer by microsatellite analysis of p16, RB1 and p53 tumor suppressor genes
Sourvinos, G., Kazanis, I., Delakas, D., Cranidis, A. and Spandidos, D.A. 2001. Genetic detection of bladder cancer by microsatellite analysis of p16, RB1 and p53 tumor suppressor genes. Journal of Urology. 165 (1), pp. 249-252. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005392-200101000-00073

In utero radiation-induced changes in growth factor levels in the developing rat brain
Benekou, A., Bolaris, S., Kazanis, I., Bozas, E., Philippidis, H. and Stylianopoulou, F. 2001. In utero radiation-induced changes in growth factor levels in the developing rat brain. International Journal of Radiation Biology. 77 (1), pp. 83-93. https://doi.org/10.1080/095530001453140

Molecular mechanisms involved in the response of brain tissue to trauma molecular mechanisms involved in the response of brain tissue to trauma
Kazanis, E., Filippidou, H., Stylianopoulou, F. and Kazanis, I. 2001. Molecular mechanisms involved in the response of brain tissue to trauma molecular mechanisms involved in the response of brain tissue to trauma. Archives of Hellenic Medicine. 18 (4), pp. 363-374.

NMDA receptor mediated changes in IGF-II gene expression in the rat brain after injury and the possible role of nitric oxide
Giannakopoulou, M., Mansour, M., Kazanis, E., Bozas, E., Philpipidis, H., Stylianopoulou, F. and Kazanis, I. 2000. NMDA receptor mediated changes in IGF-II gene expression in the rat brain after injury and the possible role of nitric oxide. Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology. 26 (6), pp. 513-521. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.0305-1846.2000.00286.x

Permalink - https://westminsterresearch.westminster.ac.uk/item/w7vw6/cns-injury-research-reviewing-the-last-decade-methodological-errors-and-a-proposal-for-a-new-strategy


Share this

Usage statistics

7 total views
0 total downloads
These values cover views and downloads from WestminsterResearch and are for the period from September 2nd 2018, when this repository was created.