Information systems (IS) expenditure is necessary for gaining competitive advantage in the service sector and in certain cases mandatory for the effective delivery of services. Many formal processes for IS budgeting and evaluation do not take into consideration the vast amount spent on indirect human costs (IHCs) of IS implementation. The paper reviews existing work on the evaluation of IT investments and identifies a major problem in IS evaluation to be the identification of IHCs. The authors build on the theory of IHCs drivers by proposing key performance indicators (KPIs) that facilitate transparency and better management of these costs. They describe the context and propose a framework, using three cases from the service sector, namely health, financial and retail industries, where expenditures on IS have significantly increased in the past decade.