Footprinting of Chlorella virus DNA ligase bound at a nick in duplex DNA

Odell, M. and Shuman, S. 1999. Footprinting of Chlorella virus DNA ligase bound at a nick in duplex DNA. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 274 (20), pp. 14032-14039.

TitleFootprinting of Chlorella virus DNA ligase bound at a nick in duplex DNA
AuthorsOdell, M. and Shuman, S.
Abstract

The 298-amino acid ATP-dependent DNA ligase of Chlorella virus PBCV-1 is the smallest eukaryotic DNA ligase known. The enzyme has intrinsic specificity for binding to nicked duplex DNA. To delineate the ligase-DNA interface, we have footprinted the enzyme binding site on DNA and the DNA binding site on ligase. The size of the exonuclease III footprint of ligase bound a single nick in duplex DNA is 19-21 nucleotides. The footprint is asymmetric, extending 8-9 nucleotides on the 3'-OH side of the nick and 11-12 nucleotides on the 5'-phosphate side. The 5'-phosphate moiety is essential for the binding of Chlorella virus ligase to nicked DNA. Here we show that the 3'-OH moiety is not required for nick recognition. The Chlorella virus ligase binds to a nicked ligand containing 2',3'-dideoxy and 5'-phosphate termini, but cannot catalyze adenylation of the 5'-end. Hence, the 3'-OH is important for step 2 chemistry even though it is not itself chemically transformed during DNA-adenylate formation. A 2'-OH cannot substitute for the essential 3'-OH in adenylation at a nick or even in strand closure at a preadenylated nick. The protein side of the ligase-DNA interface was probed by limited proteolysis of ligase with trypsin and chymotrypsin in the presence and absence of nicked DNA. Protease accessible sites are clustered within a short segment from amino acids 210-225 located distal to conserved motif V. The ligase is protected from proteolysis by nicked DNA. Protease cleavage of the native enzyme prior to DNA addition results in loss of DNA binding. These results suggest a bipartite domain structure in which the interdomain segment either comprises part of the DNA binding site or undergoes a conformational change upon DNA binding. The domain structure of Chlorella virus ligase inferred from the solution experiments is consistent with the structure of T7 DNA ligase determined by x-ray crystallography.

JournalJournal of Biological Chemistry
Journal citation274 (20), pp. 14032-14039
ISSN0021-9258
Year14 May 1999
PublisherAmerican Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Web address (URL)http://www.jbc.org/cgi/content/abstract/274/20/14032
Publication dates
Published14 May 1999

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