How is working memory content consciously experienced? The 'conscious copy' model of WM introspection

Silvanto, J. and Jacobs, C. 2015. How is working memory content consciously experienced? The 'conscious copy' model of WM introspection. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews. 55, pp. 510-519. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2015.06.003

TitleHow is working memory content consciously experienced? The 'conscious copy' model of WM introspection
AuthorsSilvanto, J. and Jacobs, C.
Abstract

We address the issue of how visual information stored in working memory (WM) is introspected. In other words, how do we become aware of WM content in order to consciously examine or manipulate it? Influential models of WM have suggested that WM representations are either conscious by definition, or directly accessible for conscious inspection. We propose that WM introspection does not operate on the actual memory trace but rather requires a new representation to be created for the conscious domain. This conscious representation exists in addition and in parallel to the actual memory representation. The existence of such a separate representation is revealed by and reflected in the qualitatively different functional characteristics between the actual memory trace and its conscious experience, and their distinct interactions within external visual input. Our model differs from state-based models in that WM introspection does not involve a change in the state of WM content, but rather involves the creation of a new, second representation existing in parallel to the original memory trace.

KeywordsWorking memory; Introspection; Consciousness; Visual short-term memory; Mental imagery
JournalNeuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews
Journal citation55, pp. 510-519
ISSN0149-7634
Year2015
PublisherElsevier
Publisher's versionJacobs_Silvanto_NBR_2015.pdf
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2015.06.003
Publication dates
PublishedAug 2015
LicenseCC BY 4.0

Related outputs

Strengthening functionally specific neural pathways with transcranial brain stimulation
Chiappini, E., Silvanto, J., Hibbard, P.B., Avenanti, A. and Romei, V. 2018. Strengthening functionally specific neural pathways with transcranial brain stimulation. Current Biology. 28 (13), pp. R735-R736. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2018.05.083

TMS over right OFA affects individuation of faces but not of exemplars of objects
Bona, S., Silvanto, J. and Cattaneo, Z. 2018. TMS over right OFA affects individuation of faces but not of exemplars of objects. Neuropsychologia. 117, pp. 364-370. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2018.06.024

On the Mechanisms of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS): How Brain State and Baseline Performance Level Determine Behavioral Effects of TMS
Silvanto, J., Bona, S., Marelli, M. and Cattaneo, Z. 2018. On the Mechanisms of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS): How Brain State and Baseline Performance Level Determine Behavioral Effects of TMS. Frontiers in Psychology. 9, p. 741. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00741

On the “blindness” of blindsight: What is the evidence for phenomenal awareness in the absence of primary visual cortex (V1)?
Mazzi, C., Savazzi, S. and Silvanto, J. 2017. On the “blindness” of blindsight: What is the evidence for phenomenal awareness in the absence of primary visual cortex (V1)? Neuropsychologia. Advanced online publication. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2017.10.029

Common framework for “virtual lesion” and state-dependent TMS: the facilitatory/suppressive range model of online TMS effects on behavior Journal: Brain and Cognition
Silvanto, J. and Cattaneo, Z. 2017. Common framework for “virtual lesion” and state-dependent TMS: the facilitatory/suppressive range model of online TMS effects on behavior Journal: Brain and Cognition. Brain and Cognition. 119, pp. 32-38. doi:10.1016/j.bandc.2017.09.007

Initial activation state, stimulation intensity and timing of stimulation interact in producing behavioral effects of TMS
Silvanto,, Bona, S. and Cattaneo, Z. 2017. Initial activation state, stimulation intensity and timing of stimulation interact in producing behavioral effects of TMS. Neuroscience. 363, pp. 134-141. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2017.09.002

Not all visual symmetry is equal: partially distinct neural bases for vertical and horizontal symmetry
Cattaneo, Z., Bona, S. and Silvanto, J. 2017. Not all visual symmetry is equal: partially distinct neural bases for vertical and horizontal symmetry. Neuropsychologia. 104, pp. 126-132. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2017.08.002

State-dependent TMS reveals representation of affective body movements in the anterior intraparietal cortex
Mazzoni, N., Jacobs, C., Venuti, P., Silvanto, J. and Cattaneo, L. 2017. State-dependent TMS reveals representation of affective body movements in the anterior intraparietal cortex . Journal of Neuroscience. 37 (30), pp. 7231-7239. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0913-17.2017

A TMS study on the contribution of visual area V5 to the perception of implied motion in art and its appreciation.
Cattaneo, Z., Schiavi, S., Silvanto, J. and Nadal, M. 2017. A TMS study on the contribution of visual area V5 to the perception of implied motion in art and its appreciation. Cognitive Neuroscience. 8 (1), pp. 59-68. doi:10.1080/17588928.2015.1083968

Information-Based Approaches of Noninvasive Transcranial Brain Stimulation
Romei, V., Thut, G. and Silvanto, J. 2016. Information-Based Approaches of Noninvasive Transcranial Brain Stimulation. Trends in Neurosciences. 39 (11), pp. 782-795. doi:10.1016/j.tins.2016.09.001

Is conscious awareness needed for all working memory processes?
Silvanto, J. and Soto, D. 2016. Is conscious awareness needed for all working memory processes? Neuroscience of Consciousness. 2016 (1), p. niw009. doi:10.1093/nc/niw009

Investigating the causal role of rightOFA in holistic detection of Mooney faces and objects: an fMRI-guided TMS study
Bona, S., Cattaneo, Z. and Silvanto, J. 2016. Investigating the causal role of rightOFA in holistic detection of Mooney faces and objects: an fMRI-guided TMS study . Brain Stimulation. 9 (4), p. 594–600. doi:10.1016/j.brs.2016.04.003

Attention, working memory, and phenomenal experience of WM content: memory levels determined by different types of top-down modulation.
Jacob, J., Jacobs, C. and Silvanto, J. 2015. Attention, working memory, and phenomenal experience of WM content: memory levels determined by different types of top-down modulation. Frontiers in Psychology. 6, p. 1603. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01603

The role of the lateral occipital cortex in aesthetic appreciation of representational and abstract paintings: a TMS study.
Cattaneo, Z., Lega, C., Ferrari, C., Vecchi, T., Cela-Conde, C.J., Silvanto, J. and Nadal, M. 2015. The role of the lateral occipital cortex in aesthetic appreciation of representational and abstract paintings: a TMS study. Brain and Cognition. 95 (April), pp. 44-53. doi:doi:10.1016/j.bandc.2015.01.008

Partial dissociation in the neural bases of VSTM and imagery in the early visual cortex.
Saad, E., Wojciechowska, M. and Silvanto, J. 2015. Partial dissociation in the neural bases of VSTM and imagery in the early visual cortex. Neuropsychologia. 75, pp. 143-148. doi:doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2015.05.026

The causal role of the occipital face area (OFA) and lateral occipital (LO) cortex in symmetry perception
Silvanto, J., Bona, S. and Cattaneo, Z. 2015. The causal role of the occipital face area (OFA) and lateral occipital (LO) cortex in symmetry perception. Journal of Neuroscience. 35 (2), pp. 731-8. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3733-14.2015

Why is “blindsight” blind? A new perspective on primary visual cortex, recurrent activity and visual awareness
Silvanto, J. 2015. Why is “blindsight” blind? A new perspective on primary visual cortex, recurrent activity and visual awareness. Consciousness and Cognition. 32, pp. 15-32. doi:10.1016/j.concog.2014.08.001

Two distinct neural mechanisms in early visual cortex determine subsequent visual processing
Jacobs, C., de Graaf, T.A. and Sack, A.T. 2014. Two distinct neural mechanisms in early visual cortex determine subsequent visual processing. Cortex. 59, pp. 1-11. doi:10.1016/j.cortex.2014.06.017

Accuracy and confidence of visual short-term memory do not go hand-in-hand: behavioral and neural dissociations
Bona, S. and Silvanto, J. 2014. Accuracy and confidence of visual short-term memory do not go hand-in-hand: behavioral and neural dissociations. PLoS ONE. 9 (3), p. e90808. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0090808

The causal role of the lateral occipital complex in visual mirror symmetry detection and grouping: an fMRI-guided TMS study
Bona, S., Herbert, A., Toneatto, C., Silvanto, J. and Cattaneo, Z. 2014. The causal role of the lateral occipital complex in visual mirror symmetry detection and grouping: an fMRI-guided TMS study. Cortex. 51, pp. 46-55. doi:10.1016/j.cortex.2013.11.004

Neural basis of non-conscious visual working memory
Dutta, A., Shah, K., Silvanto, J. and Soto, D. 2014. Neural basis of non-conscious visual working memory. NeuroImage. 91, pp. 336-343. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2014.01.016

The chronometry of visual perception: review of occipital TMS masking studies
de Graaf, T.A., Koivisto, M., Jacobs, C. and Sack, A.T. 2014. The chronometry of visual perception: review of occipital TMS masking studies. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews. 45, pp. 295-304. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2014.06.017

Cerebellar vermis plays a causal role in visual motion discrimination
Cattaneo, Z., Renzi, C., Casali, S., Silvanto, J., Vecchi, T., Papagno, C. and D'Angelo, E. 2014. Cerebellar vermis plays a causal role in visual motion discrimination. Cortex. 58, pp. 272-280. doi:10.1016/j.cortex.2014.01.012

Reappraising the relationship between working memory and consciousness
Soto, D. and Silvanto, J. 2014. Reappraising the relationship between working memory and consciousness. Trends in Cognitive Sciences. 18 (10), pp. 520-525. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2014.06.005

Phosphene induction by cerebellar transcranial magnetic stimulation
Renzi, C., Vecchi, T., D’ Angelo, E., Silvanto, J. and Cattaneo, Z. 2014. Phosphene induction by cerebellar transcranial magnetic stimulation. Clinical Neurophysiology. 125 (10), pp. 2132-2133. doi:10.1016/j.clinph.2014.01.031

The cortex-based alignment approach to TMS coil positioning
Duecker, F., Frost, M.A., de Graaf, T.A., Graewe, B., Jacobs, C., Goebel, R. and Sack, A.T. 2014. The cortex-based alignment approach to TMS coil positioning. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience. 26 (10), pp. 2321-2329. doi:10.1162/jocn_a_00635

Is primary visual cortex necessary for visual awareness?
Silvanto, J. 2014. Is primary visual cortex necessary for visual awareness? Trends in Neurosciences. 37 (11), pp. 618-619. doi:10.1016/j.tins.2014.09.006

How short-term memory maintenance modulates subsequent visual after effects
Saad, E. and Silvanto, J. 2013. How short-term memory maintenance modulates subsequent visual after effects. Psychological Science. 24 (5), pp. 803-808. doi:10.1177/0956797612462140

Contrast and strength of visual memory and imagery differentially affect visual perception
Saad, E. and Silvanto, J. 2013. Contrast and strength of visual memory and imagery differentially affect visual perception. PLoS ONE. 8 (12), p. e84827. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0084827

Time- and task-dependent non-neural effects of real and sham TMS
Duecker, F., de Graaf, T.A., Jacobs, C. and Sack, A.T. 2013. Time- and task-dependent non-neural effects of real and sham TMS. PLoS ONE. 8 (9), p. e73813. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0073813

Posttraining transcranial magnetic stimulation of striate cortex disrupts consolidation early in visual skill learning
De Weerd, P., Reithler, J., van de Ven, V., Been, M., Jacobs, C. and Sack, A.T. 2012. Posttraining transcranial magnetic stimulation of striate cortex disrupts consolidation early in visual skill learning. The Journal of Neuroscience. 32 (6), pp. 1981-1988. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3712-11.2011

Distinct causal mechanisms of attentional guidance by working memory and repetition priming in early visual cortex
Soto, D., Llewelyn, D. and Silvanto, J. 2012. Distinct causal mechanisms of attentional guidance by working memory and repetition priming in early visual cortex. The Journal of Neuroscience. 32 (10), pp. 3447-3452. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.6243-11.2012

The temporal dynamics of early visual cortex involvement in behavioral priming
Jacobs, C., de Graaf, T.A., Goebel, R. and Sack, A.T. 2012. The temporal dynamics of early visual cortex involvement in behavioral priming. PLoS ONE. 7 (11), p. e48808. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048808

Behavior in oblivion: the neurobiology of subliminal priming
Jacobs, C. and Sack, A.T. 2012. Behavior in oblivion: the neurobiology of subliminal priming. Brain Sciences. 2 (2), pp. 225-241. doi:10.3390/brainsci2020225

Topographic contribution of early visual cortex to short-term memory consolidation: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study
van de Ven, V., Jacobs, C. and Sack, A.T. 2012. Topographic contribution of early visual cortex to short-term memory consolidation: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study. The Journal of Neuroscience. 32 (1), pp. 4-11. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3261-11.2012

Visual awareness suppression by pre-stimulus brain stimulation: a neural effect
Jacobs, C., Goebel, R. and Sack, A.T. 2012. Visual awareness suppression by pre-stimulus brain stimulation: a neural effect. NeuroImage. 59 (1), pp. 616-624. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.07.090

TMS effects on subjective and objective measures of vision: stimulation intensity and pre- versus post-stimulus masking
de Graaf, T.A., Cornelsen, S., Jacobs, C. and Sack, A.T. 2011. TMS effects on subjective and objective measures of vision: stimulation intensity and pre- versus post-stimulus masking. Consciousness and Cognition. 20 (4), pp. 1244-1255. doi:10.1016/j.concog.2011.04.012

Working memory without consciousness
Soto, D., Mäntylä, T. and Silvanto, J. 2011. Working memory without consciousness. Current Biology. 21 (22), pp. R912-R913. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2011.09.049

FMRI effective connectivity and TMS chronometry: complementary accounts of causality in the visuospatial judgment network
de Graaf, T.A., Jacobs, C., Roebroeck, A. and Sack, A.T. 2009. FMRI effective connectivity and TMS chronometry: complementary accounts of causality in the visuospatial judgment network. PLoS ONE. 4 (12), p. e8307. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0008307

Dynamic premotor-to-parietal interactions during spatial imagery
Sack, A.T., Jacobs, C., De Martino, F., Staeren, N., Goebel, R. and Formisano, E. 2008. Dynamic premotor-to-parietal interactions during spatial imagery. The Journal of Neuroscience. 28 (34), pp. 8417-8429. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2656-08.2008

State dependency in brain stimulation studies of perception and cognition
Silvanto, J., Muggleton, N. and Walsh, V. 2008. State dependency in brain stimulation studies of perception and cognition. Trends in Cognitive Sciences. 12 (12), pp. 447-454. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2008.09.004

Inducing conscious perception of colour in blindsight
Silvanto, J., Cowey, A. and Walsh, V. 2008. Inducing conscious perception of colour in blindsight. Current Biology. 18 (20), pp. R950-R951. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2008.08.016

Striate cortex (V1) activity gates awareness of motion
Silvanto, J., Cowey, A., Lavie, N. and Walsh, V. 2005. Striate cortex (V1) activity gates awareness of motion. Nature Neuroscience. 8 (2), pp. 143-144. doi:10.1038/nn1379

Permalink - https://westminsterresearch.westminster.ac.uk/item/97469/how-is-working-memory-content-consciously-experienced-the-conscious-copy-model-of-wm-introspection


Share this
Tweet
Email