Departing from the inquiry if Community-Based Enterprises (CBEs) can support the implementation of Community Forest Management (CFM) approaches in sustainable use conservation units, the paper delves into Community-Based Forest Enterprises (CBFEs) in eight different Communities that agreed to be part of the Timber Small-Scale Sustainable Management Plan policy (SSSMP), in the Rio Negro Sustainable Development Reserve in the Brazilian Amazon. From the perspective of the communities, this article explores the factors that influence the creation of CBFEs, their viability, and their role in the implementation of CFM aiming at sustainable development in the forest in conjunction with the SSSMP policy. The analysis is based on the interviews, workshops and observation during fieldwork in the Reserve, resulting in three inductively deduced aggregate dimensions: community, CBFE and state. The findings suggest that these dimensions are interrelated, although they affect CBFEs differently regarding the conditions of possibility for their establishment in the first place. It is argued that considerable attention must be given to the community and their incentive structures where the CBFEs are located that directly inform the characteristics of the CBFEs themselves, as well as guide how CFM is implemented. The findings contribute to CBFE literature and CFM public policies in forest reserves. It broadens the discussion to explore the interdependent relationship that one has on the other and the benefits for livelihood and income generation of the peoples in conservation units in the Brazilian Amazon.