A highly efficient method for generating human antibodies using recall technology is provided. In one aspect, human antibodies which are specific to the anthrax toxin are provided. In one aspect, human peripheral blood cells that have been pre-exposed to anthrax toxin are used in the SCID mouse model. This method results in high human antibody titers which are primarily of the IgG isotype and which contain antibodies of high specificity and affinity to desired antigens. The antibodies generated by this method can be used therapeutically and prophylactically for preventing or treating mammals exposed to anthrax. Thus, in one embodiment, a prophylactic or therapeutic agent used to counter the effects of anthrax toxin, released as a mechanism of bioterrorism, is provided. In one embodiment, a formulation and method for preventing and/or treating anthrax infection comprising a binding agent that prevents the assembly of the PA63 heptamer is also provided. Methods for diagnosis and methods to determine anthrax contamination are also described.