Anthocyanins and their physiologically relevant metabolites alter the expression of IL-6 and VCAM-1 in CD40L and oxidized LDL challenged vascular endothelial cells

Amin, H.P., Czank, C., Raheem, S., Zhang, Q., Botting, N.P., Cassidy, A. and Kay, C.D. 2015. Anthocyanins and their physiologically relevant metabolites alter the expression of IL-6 and VCAM-1 in CD40L and oxidized LDL challenged vascular endothelial cells. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research. 59 (6), pp. 1095-1106. https://doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.201400803

TitleAnthocyanins and their physiologically relevant metabolites alter the expression of IL-6 and VCAM-1 in CD40L and oxidized LDL challenged vascular endothelial cells
AuthorsAmin, H.P.
Czank, C.
Raheem, S.
Zhang, Q.
Botting, N.P.
Cassidy, A.
Kay, C.D.
Abstract

Scope
In vitro and in vivo studies suggest that dietary anthocyanins modulate cardiovascular disease risk; however, given anthocyanins extensive metabolism, it is likely that their degradation products and conjugated metabolites are responsible for this reported bioactivity.

Methods and results
Human vascular endothelial cells were stimulated with either oxidized LDL (oxLDL) or cluster of differentiation 40 ligand (CD40L) and cotreated with cyanidin-3-glucoside and 11 of its recently identified metabolites, at 0.1, 1, and 10 μM concentrations. Protein and gene expression of IL-6 and VCAM-1 was quantified by ELISA and RT-qPCR. In oxLDL-stimulated cells the parent anthocyanin had no effect on IL-6 production, whereas numerous anthocyanin metabolites significantly reduced IL-6 protein levels; phase II conjugates of protocatechuic acid produced the greatest effects (>75% reduction, p ≤ 0.05). In CD40L-stimulated cells the anthocyanin and its phase II metabolites reduced IL-6 protein production, where protocatechuic acid-4-sulfate induced the greatest reduction (>96% reduction, p ≤ 0.03). Similarly, the anthocyanin and its metabolites reduced VCAM-1 protein production, with ferulic acid producing the greatest effect (>65% reduction, p ≤ 0.04).

Conclusion
These novel data provide evidence to suggest that anthocyanin metabolites are bioactive at physiologically relevant concentrations and have the potential to modulate cardiovascular disease progression by altering the expression of inflammatory mediators.

JournalMolecular Nutrition & Food Research
Journal citation59 (6), pp. 1095-1106
ISSN1613-4133
Year2015
PublisherWiley
Publisher's version
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.201400803
Publication dates
Published30 Apr 2015

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