|Chapter title||L’applicabilità delle norme riguardanti lo spionaggio e la partecipazione diretta dei civili alle ostilità al fenomeno del Cyber Exploitation|
Cyber exploitation is a new means of intelligence gathering that consists in the use of cyber offensive actions for the purpose of obtaining information resident on or transiting through an adversary’s computer systems. This paper, after an examination of the international humanitarian law rules regarding intelligence collection in times of war, and specifically regarding espionage, verifies whether these old rules are applicable and relevant for the activity of cyber exploitation. In addition, this paper examines the applicability to cyber exploitation of the rule regarding direct participation of civilians in hostilities. The conclusion is that international humanitarian law considers cyber exploitation to be lawful since the law of armed conflict does not prohibit intelligence gathering; however, the examined specific international humanitarian law rules are not applicable to cyber exploitation.
|Keywords||Cyber exploitation, Espionage, Intelligence collection,|
|Book title||La protezione dei dati personali ed informatici nell’era della sorveglianza globale: temi scelti|
|Place of publication||Napoli|