Cultural tourism, community participation and empowerment

Cole, S. 2006. Cultural tourism, community participation and empowerment. in: Smith, M. and Robinson, M. (ed.) Cultural Tourism in a Changing World: Politics, Participation and (Re)presentation Cleveland Channel View Publications. pp. 89-103

Chapter titleCultural tourism, community participation and empowerment
AuthorsCole, S.
EditorsSmith, M. and Robinson, M.
Abstract

This chapter examines how cultural tourism can be sustained through community participation. The degree of participation is however contingent on the citizens' level of empowerment. Factors restricting empowerment are lack of knowledge about tourism, lack of self-belief or a lack of skills. Conversely, esteem, pride, confidence, external contacts and skills empower citizens. Four case studies which will be discussed in the succeeding chapters, illustrate these issues. In Lapland, the collection of historic objects and stories created a feeling of togetherness and an appreciation of local traditions among the villagers. In Kiltimagh, Ireland, improving the town's appearance and recreating the 19th century market town created a sense of pride of place. In Soweto, South Africa, the residents' pride in their struggle heritage encouraged them to share to visitors, their visions of their past oppression and struggle for freedom. In Kenya and Tanzania, citizens are empowered by economic gains from tourism. Interestingly, cultural tourism stimulates greater participation and empowerment. Tourism increases a community's access to information, external contacts, new language skills and globalised media. Furthermore, tourism can boost the confidence and strengthen the identity of individuals and communities. Empowerment and participation should be sustained through education on tourists and tourism, access to electronic information, skills training and capacity building and more importantly, legal and institutional change to allow for genuine reallocation of decision-making power.

Keywordscommunity action, community involvement, cultural tourism, empowerment, participation, reviews
Book titleCultural Tourism in a Changing World: Politics, Participation and (Re)presentation
Page range89-103
Year2006
PublisherChannel View Publications
Publication dates
Published in print12 Sep 2006
Place of publicationCleveland
SeriesTourism and Cultural Change
ISBN9781845410438
9781845410445

Related outputs

Making an impact on Bali's water crisis: Research to mobilize NGOs, the tourism industry and policy makers
Cole, S., Wardana, A. and Dharmiasih, W. 2021. Making an impact on Bali's water crisis: Research to mobilize NGOs, the tourism industry and policy makers. Annals of Tourism Research . 87 103119. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2020.103119

Perspektif Gender dan Hak Anak dalam Bisnis dan Hak Asasi Manusia: Perempuan dan Anak di Bawah Kuasa Korporasi di Indonesia
Ahsinin, A., Prihandono, I., Banjaran Aji, S., Dewi, C., Novita, J., Elpasari,, J. N., Riyadi, E., Hadi, S., El Muhtaj, M., Wahyuningroem, S., Sandang,Y. and Cole, S. 2020. Perspektif Gender dan Hak Anak dalam Bisnis dan Hak Asasi Manusia: Perempuan dan Anak di Bawah Kuasa Korporasi di Indonesia. Indonesia Elsam.

Tourism and Gender-based Violence: Challenging Inequalities
Cole, S. Vizcaino-Suárez, P., Jeffrey, H. and Eger, C. (ed.) 2020. Tourism and Gender-based Violence: Challenging Inequalities. Wallingford CABI.

“Tourism, water, and gender”—An international review of an unexplored nexus
Cole, S., Mullor, E. C. and Sandang, Y. 2020. “Tourism, water, and gender”—An international review of an unexplored nexus. WIREs Water. 7 (4) e1442. https://doi.org/10.1002/wat2.1442

No sustainability for tourism without gender equality
Alarcón, D. M. and Cole, S. 2019. No sustainability for tourism without gender equality. Journal of Sustainable Tourism . 27 (7), pp. 903-919. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2019.1588283

Gender Equality and Tourism: Beyond Empowerment
Cole, S. Cole, S. (ed.) 2018. Gender Equality and Tourism: Beyond Empowerment. Wallingford CABI.

Water worries: An intersectional feminist political ecology of tourism and water in Labuan Bajo, Indonesia
Cole, S. 2017. Water worries: An intersectional feminist political ecology of tourism and water in Labuan Bajo, Indonesia. Annals of Tourism Research . 67, pp. 14-24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2017.07.018

A Gendered Political Ecology of Tourism and Water
Cole, S. 2016. A Gendered Political Ecology of Tourism and Water. in: Mostafanezhad, M., Norum, R., Shelton, E. J. and Thompson-Carr, A. (ed.) Political Ecology of Tourism: Community, Power and the Environment London Routledge.

Towards a Gendered Political Economy of Tourism and Water
Cole, S. and Ferguson, L. 2015. Towards a Gendered Political Economy of Tourism and Water. Tourism Geographies. 17 (4), pp. 511-528. https://doi.org/10.1080/14616688.2015.1065509

For the Worry of Water: Water, Women and Tourism in Labuan Bajo
Cole, S. and Muslin, M. 2015. For the Worry of Water: Water, Women and Tourism in Labuan Bajo.

Tourism and water: from stakeholders to rights holders, and what tourism businesses need to do
Cole, S. 2014. Tourism and water: from stakeholders to rights holders, and what tourism businesses need to do. Journal of Sustainable Tourism . 22 (1), pp. 89-106. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2013.776062

Water Equity in Tourism: A Human Right, A Global Responsibility
Nobel R., Browne M., Cole, S., Latchford R., Nang, D. and de Gama A. 2012. Water Equity in Tourism: A Human Right, A Global Responsibility. London Tourism Concern.

A political ecology of water equity and tourism: A Case Study From Bali
Cole, S. 2012. A political ecology of water equity and tourism: A Case Study From Bali. Annals of Tourism Research . 39 (2), pp. 1221-1241. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2012.01.003

Tourism and Water in Bali: a looming Crisis
Cole, S. 2011. Tourism and Water in Bali: a looming Crisis. Contours. 21 (1), pp. 14-25.

Tourism and human rights
Cole, S. and Eriksson, J. 2010. Tourism and human rights. in: Cole, S. and Morgan, N. (ed.) Tourism and inequality: problems and prospects Oxford CABI Publishing. pp. 107-125

Living in Hope: Tourism and Poverty Alleviation in Flores
Cole, S. 2008. Living in Hope: Tourism and Poverty Alleviation in Flores. in: Burns, P. and Novelli, M. (ed.) Tourism Development: Growth, Myths and Realities Oxford CABI Publishing. pp. 272-279

Sustaining Communities: Understanding the Socio-cultural and Socio-economic Impacts of Tourism
Cole, S. and James, G. 2008. Sustaining Communities: Understanding the Socio-cultural and Socio-economic Impacts of Tourism. Tourism Concern.

Implementing and evaluating a code of conduct for visitors
Cole, S. 2007. Implementing and evaluating a code of conduct for visitors. Tourism Management . 28 (2), pp. 443-451. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2006.03.010

Beyond authenticity and commodification
Cole, S. 2007. Beyond authenticity and commodification. Annals of Tourism Research . 34 (4), pp. 943-960. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2007.05.004

Tourism, Culture and Development: Hopes, Dreams and Realities in East Indonesia
Cole, S. 2007. Tourism, Culture and Development: Hopes, Dreams and Realities in East Indonesia . Clevedon Channel View Publications.

Entrepreneurship and Empowerment: Considering the barriers - a case study from Indonesia
Cole, S. 2007. Entrepreneurship and Empowerment: Considering the barriers - a case study from Indonesia. Tourism: An International Interdisciplinary Journal. 55 (4), pp. 461-473.

Community Development and Entrepreneurial Activity
Cole, S. and Harris, C. 2007. Community Development and Entrepreneurial Activity. Tourism: An International Interdisciplinary Journal. 55 (4), pp. 371-373.

Information and Empowerment: The Keys to Achieving Sustainable Tourism
Cole, S. 2006. Information and Empowerment: The Keys to Achieving Sustainable Tourism. Journal of Sustainable Tourism . 14 (6), pp. 629-644. https://doi.org/10.2167/jost607.0

The Hidden Power: The role of NGOs and the consequences of consumer choices
Cole, S. 2006. The Hidden Power: The role of NGOs and the consequences of consumer choices.

Hospitality and Tourism in Ngadha: An Ethnographic Exploration
Cole, S. 2006. Hospitality and Tourism in Ngadha: An Ethnographic Exploration. in: Lynch, P., Morrison, A. and Lashley, C. (ed.) Hospitality: a social lens London Elsevier. pp. 61-71

Action ethnography: using participant observation
Cole, S. 2005. Action ethnography: using participant observation. in: Ritchie, B. W., Burns, P. and Palmer, C. (ed.) Tourism research methods: integrating theory with practice Wallingford CABI Publishing. pp. 63-72

Action Anthropology: Methodological Innovations in Tourism Research
Cole, S. 2005. Action Anthropology: Methodological Innovations in Tourism Research. Tourism Recreation Research. 30 (2), pp. 65-72. https://doi.org/10.1080/02508281.2005.11081474

Community Tourism Education: case study from Ngadha, Flores, Indonesia
Cole, S. 2005. Community Tourism Education: case study from Ngadha, Flores, Indonesia. in: Airey, D. and Tribe, J. (ed.) An International Handbook of Tourism Education Oxford Elsevier. pp. 395-410

Shared Benefits? Longitudinal Research in Eastern Indonesia
Cole, S. 2004. Shared Benefits? Longitudinal Research in Eastern Indonesia. in: Goodson, L. and Phillimore, J. (ed.) Qualitative Research in Tourism: Epistemologies, Ontologies and Methodologies London Routledge.

Cultural values in conflict: case study from Ngadha, Flores, Indonesia
Cole, S. 2004. Cultural values in conflict: case study from Ngadha, Flores, Indonesia. Tourism: An International Interdisciplinary Journal. 52 (1), pp. 91-101.

Appropriated meanings: Megaliths and tourism in Eastern Indonesia
Cole, S. 2003. Appropriated meanings: Megaliths and tourism in Eastern Indonesia. Indonesia and the Malay World . 31 (89), pp. 140-150. https://doi.org/10.1080/13639810304448

Methodological Innovations in North-South Tourism Research: Action Anthropology- New Fieldwork Methods
Cole, S. 2001. Methodological Innovations in North-South Tourism Research: Action Anthropology- New Fieldwork Methods. 7th ATLAS International Conference. Savonlinna, Finland 18 - 21 Jun 2000 University of Joensuu.

Mot en mer moralsk turisme?
Cole, S. and Viken, A. 2001. Mot en mer moralsk turisme? in: Viken. A. (ed.) Turisme: Tradisjoner og trender Gyldendal akademisk.

Post-modern tourist typologies: Case study from Flores, Indonesia
Cole, S. 2000. Post-modern tourist typologies: Case study from Flores, Indonesia. in: Robinson, M., Long, P., Evans, N., Sharpley, R. and Swarbrooke, J. (ed.) Tourism and Heritage Relationships: Global, National and Local Perspectives Business Education Publishers Ltd..

Education for participation: The villagers' perspective - a case study from Ngada, Flores
Cole, S. 1999. Education for participation: The villagers' perspective - a case study from Ngada, Flores. Bras, K., Dahles, H., Gunawan and Richards (ed.) ATLAS Asia Inauguration Conference. Bandung, Indonesia 05 - 07 Jul 1999

Tradition and Tourism: Dilemmas in Sustainable Tourism Development: A Case Study from the Ngada Region of Flores, Indonesia
Cole, S. 1998. Tradition and Tourism: Dilemmas in Sustainable Tourism Development: A Case Study from the Ngada Region of Flores, Indonesia. Antropologi Indonesia. 56, pp. 37-46. https://doi.org/10.7454/ai.v0i56.3338

Cultural Heritage Tourism, the Villagers' Perspective. Case Study from Ngada, Flores
Cole, S. 1997. Cultural Heritage Tourism, the Villagers' Perspective. Case Study from Ngada, Flores. in: Nuryanti, W. (ed.) Tourism and Heritage Management Yogyakarta, Indonesia Gadjah Mada University Press.

Anthropologists, local communities and sustainable tourism development
Cole, S. 1997. Anthropologists, local communities and sustainable tourism development. in: Stabler, M. J. (ed.) Tourism and sustainability: principles to practice Wallingford CABI Publishing. pp. 219-230

Permalink - https://westminsterresearch.westminster.ac.uk/item/v6279/cultural-tourism-community-participation-and-empowerment


Share this
Tweet
Email

Usage statistics

8 total views
0 total downloads
3 views this month
0 downloads this month
These values are for the period from September 2nd 2018, when this repository was created

Export as