Three strains of a Gram-positive, catalase-positive, fermentative, non-lipophilic, previously unknown bacterium were isolated from urogenital samples taken from mares in Scotland (M401624/00/1) and Sweden (VM 2074 and VM 2298(T)). All were deposited with the CCUG with tentative identifications as Corynebacterium spp. The strains were characterized using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Biochemically, the strains were very similar to each other, but phylogenetically distinct from Corynebacterium species with validly published names (≤95% sequence similarity). rpoB gene sequence data confirmed the strains belonged to the same species (>99% sequence similarity) and were distinct from species with validly published names (>13% sequence divergence). On the basis of phenotypic and sequence data, the strains represent a novel species within the genus Corynebacterium, for which the name Corynebacterium uterequi is proposed. The type strain is VM 2298(T) (=CCUG 61235(T)=DSM 45634(T)), isolated from equine uterus.