Three human clinical strains (W9323T , X0209T and X0394) isolated from lung biopsy, blood and cerebral spinal fluid, respectively, were characterized using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Comparative analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences showed the three strains belonged to two novel branches within the genus Kroppenstedtia : 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of W9323T showed closest sequence similarity to Kroppenstedtia eburnea JFMB- ATET (95.3 %), Kroppenstedtia guangzhouensis GD02T (94.7 %) and strain X0209T (94.6 %); sequence analysis of strain X0209T showed closest sequence similarity to K . eburnea JFMB- ATET (96.4 %) and K. guangzhouensis GD02T (96.0 %). Strains X0209T and X0394 were 99.9 % similar to each other by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The DNA- DNA relatedness was 94.6 %, confirming that X0209T and X0394 belong to the same species. Chemotaxonomic data for strains W9323T and X0209T were consistent with those described for the genus Kroppenstedtia : whole- cell peptidoglycan contained LL- diaminopimelic acid; the major cellular fatty acids were iso- C15 and anteiso- C15 ; and the major menaquinone was MK- 7. Different endospore morphology, carbon utilization profiles, and whole cell wall sugar patterns of strains W9323T and X0209T supported by phylogenetic analysis enabled us to conclude that the strains represent two new species within the genus Kroppenstedtia , for which the names Kroppenstedtia pulmonis sp. nov. (type strain W9323T = DSM 45752T = CCUG 68107T) and Kroppenstedtia sanguinis sp. nov. (type strain X0209T = DSM 45749T = CCUG 38657T) are proposed.