Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: relationship with cardiovascular risk markers and clinical endpoints

Buckley, A., Thomas, E.L., Lessan, N., Trovato, F.M., Trovato, G.M. and Taylor-Robinson, S.D. 2018. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: relationship with cardiovascular risk markers and clinical endpoints. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. 144, pp. 144-152. doi:10.1016/j.diabres.2018.08.011

TitleNon-alcoholic fatty liver disease: relationship with cardiovascular risk markers and clinical endpoints
TypeJournal article
AuthorsBuckley, A., Thomas, E.L., Lessan, N., Trovato, F.M., Trovato, G.M. and Taylor-Robinson, S.D.
Abstract

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common diagnosis and is increasing in prevalence worldwide. NAFLD is usually asymptomatic at presentation; progression of the
disease is unpredictable, leading to the development of a variety of techniques for screening, diagnosis and risk stratification. Clinical methods in current use include serum biomarker panels, hepatic ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, and liver biopsy.
NAFLD is strongly associated with the metabolic syndrome, and the most common cause of death for people with the condition is cardiovascular disease. Whether NAFLD is an independent cardiovascular risk factor needs exploration. NAFLD has been associated with surrogate markers of cardiovascular disease such as carotid intima-media thickness, the presence
of carotid plaque, brachial artery vasodilatory responsiveness and CT coronary artery
calcification score.
There is no effective medical treatment for NAFLD and evidence is lacking regarding the efficacy of interventions in mitigating cardiovascular risk. Health care professionals managing patients with NAFLD should tackle the issue with early identification of risk factors and aggressive modification. Current management strategies therefore comprise lifestyle change,with close attention to known cardiovascular risk factors.

KeywordsNAFLD and Diabetes
Cardiovascular risk markers
Carotid intima-media thickness
Surrogate markers of cardiovascular disease
Fatty liver disease
NAFLD screening process
JournalDiabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Journal citation144, pp. 144-152
ISSN0168-8227
Year2018
PublisherElsevier
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)doi:10.1016/j.diabres.2018.08.011
PubMed ID30170074
Web address (URL)https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168822718309549?via%3Dihub
Publication dates
Published online28 Aug 2018
Published in printOct 2018

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Watson, R.A., Pride, N.B., Thomas, E.L., Ind, P.W. and Bell, J.D. 2012. Relation between trunk fat volume and reduction of total lung capacity in obese men. Journal of Applied Physiology. 112 (1), pp. 118-126. doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00217.2011

The missing risk: MRI and MRS phenotyping of abdominal adiposity and ectopic fat
Thomas, E.L., Parkinson, J.R.C., Frost, G.S., Goldstone, A.P., Doré, C.J., McCarthy, J., Collins, A.L., Fitzpatrick, J., Durighel, G., Taylor-Robinson, S.D. and Bell, J.D. 2012. The missing risk: MRI and MRS phenotyping of abdominal adiposity and ectopic fat. Obesity. 20 (1), pp. 76-87. doi:10.1038/oby.2011.142

Aberrant adiposity and ectopic lipid deposition characterize the adult phenotype of the preterm infant
Thomas, E.L., Parkinson, J.R.C., Hyde, M.J., Yap, I.K.S., Holmes, E., Doré, C.J., Bell, J.D. and Modi, N. 2011. Aberrant adiposity and ectopic lipid deposition characterize the adult phenotype of the preterm infant. Paediatric Research. 70 (5), pp. 507-512. doi:10.1203/PDR.0b013e31822d7860

Pragmatic study of orlistat 60 mg on abdominal obesity
Thomas, E.L., Makwana, A., Newbould, R., Rao, A.W., Gambarota, G., Frost, G.S., Delafont, B., Mishra, R.G., Matthews, P.M., Berk, E.S., Schwartz, S.M., Bell, J.D. and Beaver, J.D. 2011. Pragmatic study of orlistat 60 mg on abdominal obesity. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 65, pp. 1256-1262. doi:10.1038/ejcn.2011.108

The influence of maternal body mass index on infant adiposity and hepatic lipid content
Modi, N., Murgasova, D., Ruager-Martin, R., Thomas, E.L., Hyde, M.J., Gale, C., Santhakumaran, S., Doré, C.J., Alavi, Afshin and Bell, J.D. 2011. The influence of maternal body mass index on infant adiposity and hepatic lipid content. Paediatric Research. 70 (3), pp. 287-291. doi:10.1203/PDR.0b013e318225f9b1

Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and ultrasound for hepatic fat quantification
Mehta, S.R., Thomas, E.L., Patel, N., Crofton, M.E., McCarthy, J., Eliahoo, J., Morin, S.H.X., Fitzpatrick, J., Durighel, G., Goldstone, A.P., Johnston, D.G., Bell, J.D. and Taylor-Robinson, S.D. 2010. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and ultrasound for hepatic fat quantification. Hepatology Research. 40 (4), pp. 399-406. doi:10.1111/j.1872-034X.2009.00620.x

Resistant starch improves insulin sensitivity in metabolic syndrome
Johnston, K.L., Thomas, E.L., Bell, J.D., Frost, G.S. and Robertson, M.D. 2010. Resistant starch improves insulin sensitivity in metabolic syndrome. Diabetic Medicine. 27 (4), pp. 391-397. doi:10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.02923.x

Reduction of total lung capacity in obese men: comparison of total intrathoracic and gas volumes
Watson, R.A., Pride, N.B., Thomas, E.L., Fitzpatrick, J., Durighel, G., McCarthy, J., Morin, S.H.X., Ind, P.W. and Bell, J.D. 2010. Reduction of total lung capacity in obese men: comparison of total intrathoracic and gas volumes. Journal of Applied Physiology. 108 (6), pp. 1605-1612. doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.01267.2009

Estimation of abdominal fat compartments by bioelectrical impedance: the validity of the ViScan measurement system in comparison with MRI
Thomas, E.L., Collins, A.L., McCarthy, J., Fitzpatrick, J., Durighel, G., Goldstone, A.P. and Bell, J.D. 2010. Estimation of abdominal fat compartments by bioelectrical impedance: the validity of the ViScan measurement system in comparison with MRI. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 64, pp. 525-533. doi:10.1038/ejcn.2010.18

Incidental findings in healthy control research subjects using whole-body MRI
Morin, S.H.X., Cobbold, J.F.L., Lim, A.K.P., Eliahoo, J., Thomas, E.L., Mehta, S.R., Durighel, G., Fitzpatrick, J., Bell, J.D. and Taylor-Robinson, S.D. 2009. Incidental findings in healthy control research subjects using whole-body MRI. European Journal of Radiology. 72 (3), pp. 529-533. doi:10.1016/j.ejrad.2008.08.006

Obesity, diabetes and longevity in the Gulf: is there a Gulf metabolic syndrome?
Guy, G.W., Nunn, A.V.W., Thomas, E.L. and Bell, J.D. 2009. Obesity, diabetes and longevity in the Gulf: is there a Gulf metabolic syndrome? International Journal of Diabetes Mellitus. 1 (1), pp. 43-54. doi:10.1016/j.ijdm.2009.05.001

The application of magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy to gene therapy
So, P.W., Bhakoo, K.K., Cox, I.J., Taylor-Robinson, S.D. and Bell, J.D. 2009. The application of magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy to gene therapy. in: Conn, P.M. (ed.) Essential bioimaging methods Academic Press. pp. 374-398

Fat distribution in men of different waist girth, fitness level and exercise habit
O'Donovan, G., Thomas, E.L., McCarthy, J., Fitzpatrick, J., Durighel, G., Mehta, S.R., Morin, S.H.X., Goldstone, A.P. and Bell, J.D. 2009. Fat distribution in men of different waist girth, fitness level and exercise habit. International Journal of Obesity. 33 (12), pp. 1356-1362. doi:10.1038/ijo.2009.189

Whole body magnetic resonance imaging of healthy newborn infants demonstrates increased central adiposity in Asian Indians
Modi, N., Thomas, E.L., Uthaya, S.N., Umranikar, S., Bell, J.D. and Yajnik, C. 2009. Whole body magnetic resonance imaging of healthy newborn infants demonstrates increased central adiposity in Asian Indians. Paediatric Research. 65 (5), pp. 584-587. doi:10.1203/PDR.0b013e31819d98be

Neonatal intrahepatocellular lipid
Thomas, E.L., Uthaya, S.N., Vasu, V., McCarthy, J., McEwan, P., Hamilton, G., Bell, J.D. and Modi, N. 2008. Neonatal intrahepatocellular lipid. Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition. 93 (5), pp. F382-F383. doi:10.1136/adc.2007.127431

Non-invasive means of measuring hepatic fat content
Mehta, S.R., Thomas, E.L., Bell, J.D., Johnston, D.G. and Taylor-Robinson, S.D. 2008. Non-invasive means of measuring hepatic fat content. World Journal of Gastroenterology. 14 (22), pp. 3476-3483. doi:10.3748/wjg.14.3476

Pioglitazone added to conventional lipid lowering treatment in familial combined hyperlipidaemia improves parameters of metabolic control: relation to liver, muscle and regional body fat content
Thomas, E.L., Potter, E., Tosi, I., Fitzpatrick, J., Hamilton, G., Amber, V., Hughs, R., North, C., Holvoet, P., Seed, M., Betteridge, D.J., Bell, J.D. and Naoumova, R.P. 2007. Pioglitazone added to conventional lipid lowering treatment in familial combined hyperlipidaemia improves parameters of metabolic control: relation to liver, muscle and regional body fat content. Atherosclerosis. 195 (1), pp. e181-e190. doi:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2007.03.043

You have free access to this content Creatine supplements in patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies who are clinically weak after conventional pharmacologic treatment: Six-month, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial
Chung, Y.L., Alexanderson, H., Pipitone, N., Morrison, C., Dastmalchi, M., Ståhl-Hallengren, C., Richards, S., Thomas, E.L., Hamilton, G., Bell, J.D., Lundberg, I.E. and Scott, D.L. 2007. You have free access to this content Creatine supplements in patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies who are clinically weak after conventional pharmacologic treatment: Six-month, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Arthritis & Rheumatism. 57 (4), pp. 694-702. doi:10.1002/art.22687

Exercise training reduces fatty acid availability and improves the insulin sensitivity of glucose metabolism
Shojaee-Moradie, F., Baynes, K.C.R., Pentecost, C., Bell, J.D., Thomas, E.L., Jackson, N.C., Stolinski, M., Whyte, M., Lovell, D., Bowes, S.B., Gibney, J., Jones, R.H. and Umpleby, A.M. 2007. Exercise training reduces fatty acid availability and improves the insulin sensitivity of glucose metabolism. Diabetologia. 50 (2), pp. 404-413. doi:10.1007/s00125-006-0498-7

Determinants of adiposity during preweaning postnatal growth in appropriately grown and growth-restricted term infants
Modi, N., Thomas, E.L., Harrington, T.A.M., Uthaya, S.N., Doré, C.J. and Bell, J.D. 2006. Determinants of adiposity during preweaning postnatal growth in appropriately grown and growth-restricted term infants. Pediatric Research. 60 (3), pp. 345-348. doi:10.1203/01.pdr.0000232732.93000.52

Critical role for peptide YY in protein-mediated satiation and body-weight regulation
Batterham, R.L., Heffron, H., Kapoor, S., Chivers, J.E., Chandarana, K., Herzog, H., le Roux, C.W., Thomas, E.L., Bell, J.D. and Withers, D.J. 2006. Critical role for peptide YY in protein-mediated satiation and body-weight regulation. Cell Metabolism. 4 (3), pp. 223-233. doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2006.08.001

Effect of nutritional counselling on hepatic, muscle and adipose tissue fat content and distribution in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
Thomas, E.L., Brynes, A.E., Hamilton, G., Patel, N., Spong, A., Goldin, R.D., Frost, G.S., Bell, J.D. and Taylor-Robinson, S.D. 2006. Effect of nutritional counselling on hepatic, muscle and adipose tissue fat content and distribution in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. World Journal of Gastroenterology. 12 (36), pp. 5813-5819. doi:10.3748/wjg.v12.i36.5813

Intra-cellular fat accumulation: mechanisms and implications for health
Thomas, E.L. and Bell, J.D. 2006. Intra-cellular fat accumulation: mechanisms and implications for health. International Journal of Body Composition Research. 4 (1), pp. 27-37.

Excess visceral and hepatic adipose tissue in Turner syndrome determined by magnetic resonance imaging: estrogen deficiency associated with hepatic adipose content
Ostberg, J.E., Thomas, E.L., Hamilton, G., Attar, M.J.H., Bell, J.D. and Conway, G.S. 2005. Excess visceral and hepatic adipose tissue in Turner syndrome determined by magnetic resonance imaging: estrogen deficiency associated with hepatic adipose content. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 90 (5), pp. 2631-2635. doi:10.1210/jc.2004-1939

Altered adiposity after extremely preterm birth
Uthaya, S.N., Thomas, E.L., Hamilton, G., Doré, C.J., Bell, J.D. and Modi, N. 2005. Altered adiposity after extremely preterm birth. Pediatric Research. 57 (2), pp. 211-215. doi:10.1203/01.PDR.0000148284.58934.1C

Hepatic triglyceride content and its relation to body adiposity: a magnetic resonance imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study
Thomas, E.L., Hamilton, G., Patel, N., O'Dwyer, R., Doré, C.J., Goldin, R.D., Bell, J.D. and Taylor-Robinson, S.D. 2005. Hepatic triglyceride content and its relation to body adiposity: a magnetic resonance imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study. Gut. 54 (1), pp. 122-127. doi:10.1136/gut.2003.036566

Links Familial partial lipodystrophy associated with compound heterozygosity for novel mutations in the LMNA gene
Savage, D.B., McFarlane, I.A., Barroso, I., Soos, M.A., Powlson, A., Thomas, E.L., Bell, J.D., Scobie, I., Belchetz, P.E., Kelly, W.F., Halsall, D.J., Schafer, A.J. and O’Rahilly, S. 2004. Links Familial partial lipodystrophy associated with compound heterozygosity for novel mutations in the LMNA gene. Diabetologia. 47 (4), pp. 753-756. doi:10.1007/s00125-004-1360-4

Elevated fasting plasma ghrelin in Prader-Willi Syndrome adults is not solely explained by their reduced visceral adiposity and insulin resistance
Goldstone, A.P., Thomas, E.L., Brynes, A.E., Castroman, G., Edwards, R., Ghatei, M.A., Frost, G.S., Holland, A., Grossman, A.B., Korbonits, M., Bloom, S.R. and Bell, J.D. 2004. Elevated fasting plasma ghrelin in Prader-Willi Syndrome adults is not solely explained by their reduced visceral adiposity and insulin resistance. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 89 (4), pp. 1718-1726. doi:10.1210/jc.2003-031118

Distribution of adipose tissue in the newborn
Harrington, T.A.M., Thomas, E.L., Modi, N., Frost, G.S. and Bell, J.D. 2004. Distribution of adipose tissue in the newborn. Pediatric Research. 55 (3), pp. 437-441. doi:10.1203/01.PDR.0000111202.29433.2D

The application of magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy to gene therapy
Bhakoo, K.K., Bell, J.D., Cox, I.J. and Taylor-Robinson, S.D. 2004. The application of magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy to gene therapy. in: Ashkenazi, A., Wells, J.A. and Yuan, J. (ed.) Methods in enzymology Elsevier.

Human metabolic syndrome resulting from dominant-negative mutations in the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ
Savage, D.B., Tan, G.D., Acerini, C.L., Jebb, S.A., Agostini, M., Gurnell, M., Williams, R.L., Umpleby, A.M., Thomas, E.L., Bell, J.D., Dixon, A.K., Dunne, F., Boiani, R., Cinti, S., Vidal-Puig, A., Karpe, F., Chatterjee, V.K.K. and O'Rahilly, S. 2003. Human metabolic syndrome resulting from dominant-negative mutations in the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ. Diabetes. 52 (4), p. 910. doi:10.2337/diabetes.52.4.910

Carbohydrate-induced manipulation of insulin sensitivity independently of intramyocellular lipids
Goff, L.M., Frost, G.S., Hamilton, G., Thomas, E.L., Dhillo, W.S., Dornhorst, A. and Bell, J.D. 2003. Carbohydrate-induced manipulation of insulin sensitivity independently of intramyocellular lipids. British Journal of Nutrition. 89 (3), pp. 365-375. doi:10.1079/BJN2002789

Influence of undersampling on magnetic resonance imaging measurements of intra-abdominal adipose tissue
Thomas, E.L. and Bell, J.D. 2003. Influence of undersampling on magnetic resonance imaging measurements of intra-abdominal adipose tissue. International Journal of Obesity. 27 (2), pp. 211-218. doi:10.1038/sj.ijo.802229

Hypothalamic neuropeptides and regulation of fat mass in Prader-Willi syndrome
Goldstone, A.P., Unmehopa, U.A., Thomas, E.L., Brynes, A.E., Bell, J.D., Frost, G.S., Ghatei, M.A., Holland, A., Bloom, S.R. and Swaab, D.F. 2003. Hypothalamic neuropeptides and regulation of fat mass in Prader-Willi syndrome. in: Eiholzer, U., l’Allemand, D. and Zipf, W.B. (ed.) Prader-Willi syndrome as a model for obesity: international symposium, Zurich, October 18-19, 2002 Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers. pp. 31-43

Letter: Digenic inheritance of severe insulin resistance in a human pedigree
Savage, D.B., Agostini, M., Barroso, I., Gurnell, M., Luan, J.A., Meirhaeghe, A., Harding, A.H., Ihrke, G., Rajanayagam, O., Soos, M.A., George, S., Birger, D., Thomas, E.L., Bell, J.D., Meera, K., Ross, R.J., Vidal-Puig, A., Wareham, N.J., O'Rahilly, S., Chatterjee, V.K.K. and Schafer, A.J. 2002. Letter: Digenic inheritance of severe insulin resistance in a human pedigree. Nature Genetics. 31 (4), pp. 379-384. doi:10.1038/ng926

Resting metabolic rate, plasma leptin concentrations, leptin receptor expression, and adipose tissue measured by whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in women with Prader-Willi syndrome
Goldstone, A.P., Brynes, A.E., Thomas, E.L., Bell, J.D., Frost, G.S., Holland, A., Ghatei, M.A. and Bloom, S.R. 2002. Resting metabolic rate, plasma leptin concentrations, leptin receptor expression, and adipose tissue measured by whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in women with Prader-Willi syndrome. American Journal of Clinical Nutition. 75 (3), pp. 468-475.

Fast and reproducible method for the direct quantitation of adipose tissue in newborn infants
Harrington, T.A.M., Thomas, E.L., Modi, N., Frost, G.S., Coutts, G.A. and Bell, J.D. 2002. Fast and reproducible method for the direct quantitation of adipose tissue in newborn infants. Lipids. 37 (1), pp. 95-100. doi:10.1007/s11745-002-0868-4

Evidence for altered hepatic gluconeogenesis in patients with cirrhosis using in vivo 31-phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy
Changani, K.K., Jalan, R., Cox, I.J., Ala-Korpela, M., Bhakoo, K.K., Taylor-Robinson, S.D. and Bell, J.D. 2001. Evidence for altered hepatic gluconeogenesis in patients with cirrhosis using in vivo 31-phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Gut. 49 (4), pp. 557-564. doi:10.1136/gut.49.4.557

Visceral adipose tissue and metabolic complications of obesity are reduced in Prader-Willi syndrome female adults: evidence for novel influences on body fat distribution
Goldstone, A.P., Thomas, E.L., Brynes, A.E., Bell, J.D., Frost, G.S., Saeed, N., Hajnal, J.V., Howard, J.K., Holland, A. and Bloom, S.R. 2001. Visceral adipose tissue and metabolic complications of obesity are reduced in Prader-Willi syndrome female adults: evidence for novel influences on body fat distribution. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 86 (9), pp. 4330-4338.

In vivo evaluation of the effects of continuous exercise on skeletal muscle triglycerides in trained humans
Rico-Sanz, J., Moosavi, M., Thomas, E.L., McCarthy, J., Coutts, G.A., Saeed, N. and Bell, J.D. 2000. In vivo evaluation of the effects of continuous exercise on skeletal muscle triglycerides in trained humans. Lipids. 35 (12), pp. 1313-1315. doi:10.1007/s11745-000-0647-2

Bioenergetic targeting during organ preservation: 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy investigations into the use of fructose to sustain hepatic ATP turnover during cold hypoxia in porcine livers
Changani, K.K., Fuller, B.J., Bell, J.D., Taylor-Robinson, S.D. and Davidson, B.R. 2000. Bioenergetic targeting during organ preservation: 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy investigations into the use of fructose to sustain hepatic ATP turnover during cold hypoxia in porcine livers. Cryobiology. 41 (1), pp. 72-87. doi:10.1006/cryo.2000.2268

Assessing gene expression in vivo: magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy
Bell, J.D. and Taylor-Robinson, S.D. 2000. Assessing gene expression in vivo: magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy. Gene Therapy. 7 (15), pp. 1259-1264.

Preferential loss of visceral fat following aerobic exercise, measured by magnetic resonance imaging
Thomas, E.L., Brynes, A.E., McCarthy, J., Goldstone, A.P., Hajnal, J.V., Saeed, N., Frost, G.S. and Bell, J.D. 2000. Preferential loss of visceral fat following aerobic exercise, measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Lipids. 35 (7), pp. 769-776. doi:10.1007/s11745-000-0584-0

Increased availability of central benzodiazepine receptors in patients with chronic hepatic encephalopathy and alcohol related cirrhosis
Jalan, R., Turjanski, N., Taylor-Robinson, S.D., Koepp, M.J., Richardson, M.P., Wilson, J.A., Bell, J.D. and Brooks, D.J. 2000. Increased availability of central benzodiazepine receptors in patients with chronic hepatic encephalopathy and alcohol related cirrhosis. Gut. 46 (4), pp. 546-552. doi:10.1136/gut.46.4.546

Cortical dysfunction in non-demented Parkinson's disease patients: A combined 31P-MRS and 18FDG-PET study
Hu, M.T.M., Taylor-Robinson, S.D., Chaudhuri, K.R., Bell, J.D., Labbé, C., Cunningham, V.J., Koepp, M.J., Hammers, A., Morris, R.G., Turjanski, N. and Brooks, D.J. 2000. Cortical dysfunction in non-demented Parkinson's disease patients: A combined 31P-MRS and 18FDG-PET study. Brain. 123 (2), pp. 340-352. doi:10.1093/brain/123.2.340

Cerebral proton and phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy in patients with subclinical hepatic encephalopathy
Taylor-Robinson, S.D., Buckley, C., Changani, K.K., Hodgson, H.J.F. and Bell, J.D. 1999. Cerebral proton and phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy in patients with subclinical hepatic encephalopathy. Liver. 19 (5), pp. 389-398. doi:10.1111/j.1478-3231.1999.tb00067.x

Improved preservation solutions for organ storage: a dynamic study of hepatic metabolism
Changani, K.K., Fuller, B.J., Bell, J.D., Taylor-Robinson, S.D., Moore, D.P. and Davidson, B.R. 1999. Improved preservation solutions for organ storage: a dynamic study of hepatic metabolism. Transplantation. 68 (3), pp. 345-355.

Evidence for cortical dysfunction in clinically non-demented patients with Parkinson’s disease: a proton MR spectroscopy study
Hu, M.T.M., Taylor-Robinson, S.D., Chaudhuri, K.R., Bell, J.D., Morris, R.G., Clough, C., Brooks, D.J. and Turjanski, N. 1999. Evidence for cortical dysfunction in clinically non-demented patients with Parkinson’s disease: a proton MR spectroscopy study. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry. 67 (1), pp. 20-26. doi:10.1136/jnnp.67.1.20

Relation of triglyceride stores in skeletal muscle cells to central obesity and insulin sensitivity in European and South Asian men
Forouhi, N.G., Jenkinson, G., Thomas, E.L., Mullick, S., Mierisová, Ŝ., Bhonsle, U., McKeigue, P.M. and Bell, J.D. 1999. Relation of triglyceride stores in skeletal muscle cells to central obesity and insulin sensitivity in European and South Asian men. Diabetologia. 42 (8), pp. 932-935. doi:10.1007/s001250051250

Incorporation of metabolite prior knowledge for data analysis: biochemical implications of dynamic 31P NMR ex vivo pig liver studies
Changani, K.K., Ala-Korpela, M., Fuller, B.J., Mierisová, Ŝ., Bryant, D.J., Taylor-Robinson, S.D., Davidson, B.R. and Bell, J.D. 1999. Incorporation of metabolite prior knowledge for data analysis: biochemical implications of dynamic 31P NMR ex vivo pig liver studies. NMR in Biomedicine. 12 (4), pp. 197-204. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-1492(199906)12:4<197::AID-NBM561>3.0.CO;2-9

Angiotensin-converting-enzyme gene insertion/deletion polymorphism and response to physical training
Montgomery, H., Clarkson, P., Barnard, M.L., Bell, J.D., Brynes, A.E., Hajnal, J.V., Hemingway, H., Mercer, D., Jarman, P., Marshall, R., Prasad, K., Rayson, M., Saeed, N., Thomas, E.L., Jubb, M., World, M., Dollery, C., Talmud, P. and Humphries, S.E. 1999. Angiotensin-converting-enzyme gene insertion/deletion polymorphism and response to physical training. The Lancet. 353 (9152), pp. 541-545. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(98)07131-1

Body fat metabolism: observation by MR imaging and spectroscopy
Thomas, E.L. and Bell, J.D. 1999. Body fat metabolism: observation by MR imaging and spectroscopy. in: Young, I.R. (ed.) Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy in medicine and biology Wiley.

Diversity in levels of intracellular total creatine and triglycerides in human skeletal muscles observed by 1H-MRS
Rico-Sanz, J., Thomas, E.L., Jenkinson, G., Mierisová, Ŝ., Iles, R.A. and Bell, J.D. 1999. Diversity in levels of intracellular total creatine and triglycerides in human skeletal muscles observed by 1H-MRS. Journal of Applied Physiology. 87 (6), pp. 2068-2072.

Magnetic resonance: in-vivo NMR, applications – other nuclei
Bell, J.D., Thomas, E.L. and Changani, K.K. 1999. Magnetic resonance: in-vivo NMR, applications – other nuclei. in: Lindon, J. (ed.) Encyclopedia of spectroscopy and spectrometry London Academic Press.

Critical assessment of in vivo13C NMR spectroscopy and gas–liquid chromatography in the study of adipose tissue composition
Thomas, E.L., Cunnane, S.C. and Bell, J.D. 1998. Critical assessment of in vivo13C NMR spectroscopy and gas–liquid chromatography in the study of adipose tissue composition. NMR in Biomedicine. 11 (6), pp. 290-296. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-1492(199810)11:6<290::AID-NBM524>3.0.CO;2-N

Intracellular and extracellular skeletal muscle triglyceride metabolism during alternating intensity exercise in humans
Rico-Sanz, J., Hajnal, J.V., Thomas, E.L., Mierisová, Ŝ., Ala-Korpela, M. and Bell, J.D. 1998. Intracellular and extracellular skeletal muscle triglyceride metabolism during alternating intensity exercise in humans. Journal of Physiology. 510 (2), pp. 615-622. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7793.1998.615bk.x

Non-invasive metabolic assessment of human donor livers: metabolite assignment in 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy
Changani, K.K., Taylor-Robinson, S.D., Bell, J.D., Fuller, B.J. and Davidson, B.R. 1998. Non-invasive metabolic assessment of human donor livers: metabolite assignment in 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Transplantation. 65 (11), pp. 1526-1527.

Human gene for physical performance
Montgomery, H., Marshall, R., Hemingway, H., Myerson, S., Clarkson, P., Dollery, C., Hayward, M., Holliman, D.E., Jubb, M., World, M., Thomas, E.L., Brynes, A.E., Saeed, N., Barnard, M.L., Bell, J.D., Prasad, K., Rayson, M., Talmud, P. and Humphries, S.E. 1998. Human gene for physical performance. Nature. 393 (6682), pp. 221-222. doi:10.1038/30374

Magnetic resonance imaging of total body fat
Thomas, E.L., Saeed, N., Hajnal, J.V., Brynes, A.E., Goldstone, A.P., Frost, G.S. and Bell, J.D. 1998. Magnetic resonance imaging of total body fat. Journal of Applied Physiology. 85 (5), pp. 1778-1785.

A comparison of ATP recovery or phosphomonoester/inorganic phosphate ratio to assess metabolic activity in liver at hypothermia: a 31P NMR study
Changani, K.K., Davidson, B.R., Bell, J.D., Taylor-Robinson, S.D. and Fuller, B.J. 1998. A comparison of ATP recovery or phosphomonoester/inorganic phosphate ratio to assess metabolic activity in liver at hypothermia: a 31P NMR study. CryoLetters. 19, pp. 183-188.

Enhanced energy metabolism at hypothermia following addition of a prostacyclin derivative in porcine liver
Changani, K.K., Davidson, B.R., Bell, J.D., Taylor-Robinson, S.D. and Fuller, B.J. 1998. Enhanced energy metabolism at hypothermia following addition of a prostacyclin derivative in porcine liver. CryoLetters. 19, pp. 131-140.

Depression of liver mitochondrial complex II-linked respiration following cooling: beneficial effects of using a prostacyclin analogue during hypothermia
Changani, K.K., Bell, J.D., Brooks, K.J., Fuller, B.J., Taylor-Robinson, S.D., Davidson, B.R., Brookes, P.S. and Bates, T.E. 1998. Depression of liver mitochondrial complex II-linked respiration following cooling: beneficial effects of using a prostacyclin analogue during hypothermia. CryoLetters. 19, pp. 71-78.

Assessment of quantitative artificial neural network analysis in a metabolically dynamic ex vivo31p NMR pig liver study
Ala-Korpela, M., Changani, K.K., Hiltunen, Y., Bell, J.D., Fuller, B.J., Bryant, D.J., Taylor-Robinson, S.D. and Davidson, B.R. 1997. Assessment of quantitative artificial neural network analysis in a metabolically dynamic ex vivo31p NMR pig liver study. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. 38 (5), pp. 840-844. doi:10.1002/mrm.1910380522

In vivo and in vitro hepatic 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy and electron microscopy of the cirrhotic liver
Taylor-Robinson, S.D., Sargentoni, J., Bell, J.D., Saeed, N., Changani, K.K., Davidson, B.R., Rolles, K., Burroughs, A.K., Hodgson, H.J.F., Foster, C.S. and Cox, I.J. 1997. In vivo and in vitro hepatic 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy and electron microscopy of the cirrhotic liver. Liver. 17 (4), pp. 198-209. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0676.1997.tb00806.x

In vivo assessment of metabolic perturbations following alanine and glucagon administration using 31P-MRS in the rat
Changani, K.K., Barnard, M.L., Bell, J.D., Thomas, E.L., Williams, S.C.R., Bloom, S.R. and Iles, R.A. 1997. In vivo assessment of metabolic perturbations following alanine and glucagon administration using 31P-MRS in the rat. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta: general subjects. 1335 (3), pp. 290-304. doi:10.1016/S0304-4165(96)00148-1

Noninvasive characterization of neonatal adipose tissue by 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy
Thomas, E.L., Hanrahan, J.D., Ala-Korpela, M., Jenkinson, G., Azzopardi, D., Iles, R.A. and Bell, J.D. 1997. Noninvasive characterization of neonatal adipose tissue by 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Lipids. 32 (6), pp. 645-651. doi:10.1007/s11745-997-0082-4

Non-invasive assessment of ATP regeneration potential of the preserved donor liver
Changani, K.K., Fuller, B.J., Bryant, D.J., Bell, J.D., Ala-Korpela, M., Taylor-Robinson, S.D., Moore, D.P. and Davidson, B.R. 1997. Non-invasive assessment of ATP regeneration potential of the preserved donor liver. Journal of Hepatology. 26 (2), pp. 336-342. doi:10.1016/S0168-8278(97)80050-5

Changes in adipose tissue composition in malnourished patients before and after liver transplantation: A carbon-13 magnetic resonance spectroscopy and gas-liquid chromatography study
Thomas, E.L., Taylor-Robinson, S.D., Barnard, M.L., Frost, G.S., Sargentoni, J., Davidson, B.R., Cunnane, S.C. and Bell, J.D. 1997. Changes in adipose tissue composition in malnourished patients before and after liver transplantation: A carbon-13 magnetic resonance spectroscopy and gas-liquid chromatography study. Hepatology. 25 (1), pp. 178-183. doi:10.1002/hep.510250133

Hepatic nucleotide triphosphate regeneration following a period of brief hypothermic reperfusion in the pig model: an in vitro 31P-NMR study
Changani, K.K., Fuller, B.J., Bell, J.D., Bryant, D.J., Moore, D.P., Taylor-Robinson, S.D. and Davidson, B.R. 1996. Hepatic nucleotide triphosphate regeneration following a period of brief hypothermic reperfusion in the pig model: an in vitro 31P-NMR study. Transplantation. 62 (6), pp. 787-793.

Effects of n-3 fatty acids on the NMR profile of plasma lipoproteins
Bell, J.D., Barnard, M.L., Parkes, H.G., Thomas, E.L., Brennan, C.H., Cunnane, S.C. and Dagnelie, P.C. 1996. Effects of n-3 fatty acids on the NMR profile of plasma lipoproteins. The Journal of Lipid Research. 37 (8), pp. 1664-1674.

Automated feature extraction for the classification of human in vivo13C NMR spectra using statistical pattern recognition and wavelets
Tate, A.R., Watson, D., Eglen, S., Arvanitis, T.N., Thomas, E.L. and Bell, J.D. 1996. Automated feature extraction for the classification of human in vivo13C NMR spectra using statistical pattern recognition and wavelets. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. 35 (6), pp. 834-840. doi:10.1002/mrm.1910350608

Development of a rapid and efficient magnetic resonance imaging technique for analysis of body fat distribution
Barnard, M.L., Schwieso, J.E., Thomas, E.L., Bell, J.D., Saeed, N., Frost, G.S., Bloom, S.R. and Hajnal, J.V. 1996. Development of a rapid and efficient magnetic resonance imaging technique for analysis of body fat distribution. NMR in Biomedicine. 9 (4), pp. 156-164. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-1492(199606)9:4<156::AID-NBM412>3.0.CO;2-B

Anin vivo 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopic study of the relationship between diet and adipose tissue composition
Thomas, E.L., Frost, G.S., Barnard, M.L., Bryant, D.J., Taylor-Robinson, S.D., Simbrunner, J., Coutts, G.A., Burl, M., Bloom, S.R., Sales, K.D. and Bell, J.D. 1996. Anin vivo 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopic study of the relationship between diet and adipose tissue composition. Lipids. 31 (2), pp. 145-151. doi:10.1007/BF02522613

Hepatic phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy in primary biliary cirrhosis and its relation to prognostic models
Jalan, R., Sargentoni, J., Coutts, G.A., Bell, J.D., Rolles, K., Burroughs, A.K. and Taylor-Robinson, S.D. 1996. Hepatic phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy in primary biliary cirrhosis and its relation to prognostic models. Gut. 39 (1), pp. 141-146. doi:10.1136/gut.39.1.141

Cirrhosis of the human liver: an in vitro 31P nuclear magnetic resonance study
Taylor-Robinson, S.D., Thomas, E.L., Sargentoni, J., Marcus, C.D., Davidson, B.R. and Bell, J.D. 1995. Cirrhosis of the human liver: an in vitro 31P nuclear magnetic resonance study. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta: Molecular Basis of Disease. 1272 (2), pp. 113-118. doi:10.1016/0925-4439(95)00074-E

Effect of functional grade and etiology on in vivo hepatic phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy in cirrhosis: Biochemical basis of spectral appearances
Menon, D.K., Sargentoni, J., Taylor-Robinson, S.D., Bell, J.D., Cox, I.J., Bryant, D.J., Coutts, G.A., Rolles, K., Burroughs, A.K. and Morgan, M.Y. 1995. Effect of functional grade and etiology on in vivo hepatic phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy in cirrhosis: Biochemical basis of spectral appearances. Hepatology. 21 (2), pp. 417-427. doi:10.1002/hep.1840210224

Cerebral 31P MRS in patients with chronic hepatic encephalopathy
Taylor-Robinson, S.D., Bell, J.D., Sargentoni, J., Bryant, D.J., Mallalieu, R.J. and Morgan, M.Y. 1995. Cerebral 31P MRS in patients with chronic hepatic encephalopathy. in: Capocaccia, L., Merli, M. and Riggio, O. (ed.) Advances in hepatic encephalopathy and metabolic nitrogen exchange Hants CRC Press.

Cerebral Phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy in patients with chronic hepatic encephalopathy
Taylor-Robinson, S.D., Sargentoni, J., Mallalieu, R.J., Bell, J.D., Bryant, D.J., Coutts, G.A. and Morgan, M.Y. 1994. Cerebral Phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy in patients with chronic hepatic encephalopathy. Hepatology. 20 (5), pp. 1173-1178. doi:10.1002/hep.1840200511

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