Prediction of specific absorption rate in mother and fetus associated with MRI examinations during pregnancy

Hand, J.W., Li, Y., Thomas, E.L., Rutherford, M.A. and Hajnal, J.V. 2006. Prediction of specific absorption rate in mother and fetus associated with MRI examinations during pregnancy. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. 55 (4), pp. 883-93. doi:10.1002/mrm.20824

TitlePrediction of specific absorption rate in mother and fetus associated with MRI examinations during pregnancy
TypeJournal article
AuthorsHand, J.W., Li, Y., Thomas, E.L., Rutherford, M.A. and Hajnal, J.V.
Abstract

There is uncertainty regarding the risk posed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations to pregnant patients. The most frequently used methods, such as single-shot fast spin echo (ssFSE), often require operation at the specific absorption rate (SAR) limits imposed by safety guidelines. With the introduction of higher-field systems, such limits will be even more significant for fetal imaging. An electromagnetic solver based on the time domain finite integration technique (FIT) was used to predict SAR in an anatomically realistic model of a pregnant patient (28 weeks' gestation) associated with the radiofrequency (RF) fields from birdcage body coils typical of 1.5 T and 3 T MRI systems (i.e., operating at approximately 64 and 127 MHz, respectively). The results suggest that 1) the highest local SAR is in the mother, with the fetus being exposed to a peak of approximately 40-60% of that value at 64 MHz, increasing to approximately 50-70% at 127 MHz; 2) compliance with U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines requires control of SAR values averaged over 1 g or 10 g of tissue, respectively; and 3) compliance with Medical Device Agency (MDA) guidelines requires control of the maximum SAR(10g) within the fetus.

JournalMagnetic Resonance in Medicine
Journal citation55 (4), pp. 883-93
ISSN0740-3194
Year2006
PublisherWiley
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)doi:10.1002/mrm.20824
PubMed ID16508913
Publication dates
Published28 Feb 2006

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Gender differences in VLDL1 and VLDL2 triglyceride kinetics and fatty acid kinetics in obese postmenopausal women and obese men
Sarac, I., Backhouse, K., Shojaee-Moradie, F., Stolinski, M., Robertson, M.D., Bell, J.D., Thomas, E.L., Hovorka, R., Wright, J. and Umpleby, A.M. 2012. Gender differences in VLDL1 and VLDL2 triglyceride kinetics and fatty acid kinetics in obese postmenopausal women and obese men. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 97 (7), pp. 2475-2481. doi:10.1210/jc.2011-3248

Excess body fat in obese and normal weight subjects
Thomas, E.L., Frost, G.S., Taylor-Robinson, S.D. and Bell, J.D. 2012. Excess body fat in obese and normal weight subjects. Nutrition Research Reviews. 25 (1), pp. 150-161. doi:10.1017/S0954422412000054

The effect of preterm birth on adiposity and metabolic pathways and the implications for later life
Thomas, E.L., Al Saud, N.B., Durighel, G., Frost, G.S. and Bell, J.D. 2012. The effect of preterm birth on adiposity and metabolic pathways and the implications for later life. Clinical Lipidology. 7 (3), pp. 275-288. doi:10.2217/clp.12.32

Intrahepatic insulin exposure, intrahepatocellular lipid and regional body fat in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
Mehta, S.R., Godsland, I.F., Thomas, E.L., Pavitt, D.V., Morin, S.H.X., Bell, J.D., Taylor-Robinson, S.D. and Johnston, D.G. 2012. Intrahepatic insulin exposure, intrahepatocellular lipid and regional body fat in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 97 (6), pp. 2151-2159. doi:10.1210/jc.2011-2430

Hepatic steatosis, GH deficiency and the effects of GH replacement: a Liverpool magnetic resonance spectroscopy study
Gardner, C.J., Irwin, A., Daousi, C., McFarlane, I.A., Joseph, F., Bell, J.D., Thomas, E.L., Adams, V.L., Kemp, G.J. and Cuthbertson, D.J. 2012. Hepatic steatosis, GH deficiency and the effects of GH replacement: a Liverpool magnetic resonance spectroscopy study. European Journal of Endocrinology. 166, pp. 993-1002. doi:10.1530/EJE-12-0002

Fermentable carbohydrate alters hypothalamic neuronal activity and protects against the obesogenic environment
Anastasovska, J., Arora, T., Sanchez-Canon, G.J., Parkinson, J.R.C., Touhy, K., Gibson, G.R., Nadkarni, N., So, P.W., Goldstone, A.P., Thomas, E.L., Hankir, M., Van Loo, J., Modi, N., Bell, J.D. and Frost, G.S. 2012. Fermentable carbohydrate alters hypothalamic neuronal activity and protects against the obesogenic environment. Obesity. 20 (5), pp. 1016-1023. doi:10.1038/oby.2012.6

Differential effects of two fermentable carbohydrates on central appetite regulation and body composition
Arora, T., Loo, R.L., Anastasovska, J., Gibson, G.R., Tuohy, K., Kumar Sharma, R., Swann Jonathan, Deaville, E.R., Sleeth Michelle, L., Thomas, E.L., Holmes, E., Bell, J.D. and Frost, G.S. 2012. Differential effects of two fermentable carbohydrates on central appetite regulation and body composition. PLoS ONE. 7 (8), p. e43263. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0043263

Improved Glycaemia correlates with liver fat reduction in obese, type 2 diabetes, patients given glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists
Cuthbertson, D.J., Irwin, A., Gardner, C.J., Daousi, C., Purewal, T, Furlong, N, Goenka, N, Thomas, E.L., Adams, V.L., Pushpakom, SP, Pirmohamed, M and Kemp, G.J. 2012. Improved Glycaemia correlates with liver fat reduction in obese, type 2 diabetes, patients given glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists. PLoS ONE. 7 (12), p. e50117. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050117

Relation between trunk fat volume and reduction of total lung capacity in obese men
Watson, R.A., Pride, N.B., Thomas, E.L., Ind, P.W. and Bell, J.D. 2012. Relation between trunk fat volume and reduction of total lung capacity in obese men. Journal of Applied Physiology. 112 (1), pp. 118-126. doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00217.2011

The missing risk: MRI and MRS phenotyping of abdominal adiposity and ectopic fat
Thomas, E.L., Parkinson, J.R.C., Frost, G.S., Goldstone, A.P., Doré, C.J., McCarthy, J., Collins, A.L., Fitzpatrick, J., Durighel, G., Taylor-Robinson, S.D. and Bell, J.D. 2012. The missing risk: MRI and MRS phenotyping of abdominal adiposity and ectopic fat. Obesity. 20 (1), pp. 76-87. doi:10.1038/oby.2011.142

Aberrant adiposity and ectopic lipid deposition characterize the adult phenotype of the preterm infant
Thomas, E.L., Parkinson, J.R.C., Hyde, M.J., Yap, I.K.S., Holmes, E., Doré, C.J., Bell, J.D. and Modi, N. 2011. Aberrant adiposity and ectopic lipid deposition characterize the adult phenotype of the preterm infant. Paediatric Research. 70 (5), pp. 507-512. doi:10.1203/PDR.0b013e31822d7860

Pragmatic study of orlistat 60 mg on abdominal obesity
Thomas, E.L., Makwana, A., Newbould, R., Rao, A.W., Gambarota, G., Frost, G.S., Delafont, B., Mishra, R.G., Matthews, P.M., Berk, E.S., Schwartz, S.M., Bell, J.D. and Beaver, J.D. 2011. Pragmatic study of orlistat 60 mg on abdominal obesity. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 65, pp. 1256-1262. doi:10.1038/ejcn.2011.108

The influence of maternal body mass index on infant adiposity and hepatic lipid content
Modi, N., Murgasova, D., Ruager-Martin, R., Thomas, E.L., Hyde, M.J., Gale, C., Santhakumaran, S., Doré, C.J., Alavi, Afshin and Bell, J.D. 2011. The influence of maternal body mass index on infant adiposity and hepatic lipid content. Paediatric Research. 70 (3), pp. 287-291. doi:10.1203/PDR.0b013e318225f9b1

Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and ultrasound for hepatic fat quantification
Mehta, S.R., Thomas, E.L., Patel, N., Crofton, M.E., McCarthy, J., Eliahoo, J., Morin, S.H.X., Fitzpatrick, J., Durighel, G., Goldstone, A.P., Johnston, D.G., Bell, J.D. and Taylor-Robinson, S.D. 2010. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and ultrasound for hepatic fat quantification. Hepatology Research. 40 (4), pp. 399-406. doi:10.1111/j.1872-034X.2009.00620.x

Resistant starch improves insulin sensitivity in metabolic syndrome
Johnston, K.L., Thomas, E.L., Bell, J.D., Frost, G.S. and Robertson, M.D. 2010. Resistant starch improves insulin sensitivity in metabolic syndrome. Diabetic Medicine. 27 (4), pp. 391-397. doi:10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.02923.x

Reduction of total lung capacity in obese men: comparison of total intrathoracic and gas volumes
Watson, R.A., Pride, N.B., Thomas, E.L., Fitzpatrick, J., Durighel, G., McCarthy, J., Morin, S.H.X., Ind, P.W. and Bell, J.D. 2010. Reduction of total lung capacity in obese men: comparison of total intrathoracic and gas volumes. Journal of Applied Physiology. 108 (6), pp. 1605-1612. doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.01267.2009

Estimation of abdominal fat compartments by bioelectrical impedance: the validity of the ViScan measurement system in comparison with MRI
Thomas, E.L., Collins, A.L., McCarthy, J., Fitzpatrick, J., Durighel, G., Goldstone, A.P. and Bell, J.D. 2010. Estimation of abdominal fat compartments by bioelectrical impedance: the validity of the ViScan measurement system in comparison with MRI. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 64, pp. 525-533. doi:10.1038/ejcn.2010.18

Incidental findings in healthy control research subjects using whole-body MRI
Morin, S.H.X., Cobbold, J.F.L., Lim, A.K.P., Eliahoo, J., Thomas, E.L., Mehta, S.R., Durighel, G., Fitzpatrick, J., Bell, J.D. and Taylor-Robinson, S.D. 2009. Incidental findings in healthy control research subjects using whole-body MRI. European Journal of Radiology. 72 (3), pp. 529-533. doi:10.1016/j.ejrad.2008.08.006

Obesity, diabetes and longevity in the Gulf: is there a Gulf metabolic syndrome?
Guy, G.W., Nunn, A.V.W., Thomas, E.L. and Bell, J.D. 2009. Obesity, diabetes and longevity in the Gulf: is there a Gulf metabolic syndrome? International Journal of Diabetes Mellitus. 1 (1), pp. 43-54. doi:10.1016/j.ijdm.2009.05.001

Fat distribution in men of different waist girth, fitness level and exercise habit
O'Donovan, G., Thomas, E.L., McCarthy, J., Fitzpatrick, J., Durighel, G., Mehta, S.R., Morin, S.H.X., Goldstone, A.P. and Bell, J.D. 2009. Fat distribution in men of different waist girth, fitness level and exercise habit. International Journal of Obesity. 33 (12), pp. 1356-1362. doi:10.1038/ijo.2009.189

Whole body magnetic resonance imaging of healthy newborn infants demonstrates increased central adiposity in Asian Indians
Modi, N., Thomas, E.L., Uthaya, S.N., Umranikar, S., Bell, J.D. and Yajnik, C. 2009. Whole body magnetic resonance imaging of healthy newborn infants demonstrates increased central adiposity in Asian Indians. Paediatric Research. 65 (5), pp. 584-587. doi:10.1203/PDR.0b013e31819d98be

Neonatal intrahepatocellular lipid
Thomas, E.L., Uthaya, S.N., Vasu, V., McCarthy, J., McEwan, P., Hamilton, G., Bell, J.D. and Modi, N. 2008. Neonatal intrahepatocellular lipid. Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition. 93 (5), pp. F382-F383. doi:10.1136/adc.2007.127431

Non-invasive means of measuring hepatic fat content
Mehta, S.R., Thomas, E.L., Bell, J.D., Johnston, D.G. and Taylor-Robinson, S.D. 2008. Non-invasive means of measuring hepatic fat content. World Journal of Gastroenterology. 14 (22), pp. 3476-3483. doi:10.3748/wjg.14.3476

Pioglitazone added to conventional lipid lowering treatment in familial combined hyperlipidaemia improves parameters of metabolic control: relation to liver, muscle and regional body fat content
Thomas, E.L., Potter, E., Tosi, I., Fitzpatrick, J., Hamilton, G., Amber, V., Hughs, R., North, C., Holvoet, P., Seed, M., Betteridge, D.J., Bell, J.D. and Naoumova, R.P. 2007. Pioglitazone added to conventional lipid lowering treatment in familial combined hyperlipidaemia improves parameters of metabolic control: relation to liver, muscle and regional body fat content. Atherosclerosis. 195 (1), pp. e181-e190. doi:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2007.03.043

Creatine supplements in patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies who are clinically weak after conventional pharmacologic treatment: Six-month, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial
Chung, Y.L., Alexanderson, H., Pipitone, N., Morrison, C., Dastmalchi, M., Ståhl-Hallengren, C., Richards, S., Thomas, E.L., Hamilton, G., Bell, J.D., Lundberg, I.E. and Scott, D.L. 2007. Creatine supplements in patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies who are clinically weak after conventional pharmacologic treatment: Six-month, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Arthritis & Rheumatism. 57 (4), pp. 694-702. doi:10.1002/art.22687

Exercise training reduces fatty acid availability and improves the insulin sensitivity of glucose metabolism
Shojaee-Moradie, F., Baynes, K.C.R., Pentecost, C., Bell, J.D., Thomas, E.L., Jackson, N.C., Stolinski, M., Whyte, M., Lovell, D., Bowes, S.B., Gibney, J., Jones, R.H. and Umpleby, A.M. 2007. Exercise training reduces fatty acid availability and improves the insulin sensitivity of glucose metabolism. Diabetologia. 50 (2), pp. 404-413. doi:10.1007/s00125-006-0498-7

Determinants of adiposity during preweaning postnatal growth in appropriately grown and growth-restricted term infants
Modi, N., Thomas, E.L., Harrington, T.A.M., Uthaya, S.N., Doré, C.J. and Bell, J.D. 2006. Determinants of adiposity during preweaning postnatal growth in appropriately grown and growth-restricted term infants. Pediatric Research. 60 (3), pp. 345-348. doi:10.1203/01.pdr.0000232732.93000.52

Critical role for peptide YY in protein-mediated satiation and body-weight regulation
Batterham, R.L., Heffron, H., Kapoor, S., Chivers, J.E., Chandarana, K., Herzog, H., le Roux, C.W., Thomas, E.L., Bell, J.D. and Withers, D.J. 2006. Critical role for peptide YY in protein-mediated satiation and body-weight regulation. Cell Metabolism. 4 (3), pp. 223-233. doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2006.08.001

Effect of nutritional counselling on hepatic, muscle and adipose tissue fat content and distribution in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
Thomas, E.L., Brynes, A.E., Hamilton, G., Patel, N., Spong, A., Goldin, R.D., Frost, G.S., Bell, J.D. and Taylor-Robinson, S.D. 2006. Effect of nutritional counselling on hepatic, muscle and adipose tissue fat content and distribution in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. World Journal of Gastroenterology. 12 (36), pp. 5813-5819. doi:10.3748/wjg.v12.i36.5813

Intra-cellular fat accumulation: mechanisms and implications for health
Thomas, E.L. and Bell, J.D. 2006. Intra-cellular fat accumulation: mechanisms and implications for health. International Journal of Body Composition Research. 4 (1), pp. 27-37.

Excess visceral and hepatic adipose tissue in Turner syndrome determined by magnetic resonance imaging: estrogen deficiency associated with hepatic adipose content
Ostberg, J.E., Thomas, E.L., Hamilton, G., Attar, M.J.H., Bell, J.D. and Conway, G.S. 2005. Excess visceral and hepatic adipose tissue in Turner syndrome determined by magnetic resonance imaging: estrogen deficiency associated with hepatic adipose content. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 90 (5), pp. 2631-2635. doi:10.1210/jc.2004-1939

Altered adiposity after extremely preterm birth
Uthaya, S.N., Thomas, E.L., Hamilton, G., Doré, C.J., Bell, J.D. and Modi, N. 2005. Altered adiposity after extremely preterm birth. Pediatric Research. 57 (2), pp. 211-215. doi:10.1203/01.PDR.0000148284.58934.1C

Hepatic triglyceride content and its relation to body adiposity: a magnetic resonance imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study
Thomas, E.L., Hamilton, G., Patel, N., O'Dwyer, R., Doré, C.J., Goldin, R.D., Bell, J.D. and Taylor-Robinson, S.D. 2005. Hepatic triglyceride content and its relation to body adiposity: a magnetic resonance imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study. Gut. 54 (1), pp. 122-127. doi:10.1136/gut.2003.036566

Familial partial lipodystrophy associated with compound heterozygosity for novel mutations in the LMNA gene
Savage, D.B., McFarlane, I.A., Barroso, I., Soos, M.A., Powlson, A., Thomas, E.L., Bell, J.D., Scobie, I., Belchetz, P.E., Kelly, W.F., Halsall, D.J., Schafer, A.J. and O’Rahilly, S. 2004. Familial partial lipodystrophy associated with compound heterozygosity for novel mutations in the LMNA gene. Diabetologia. 47 (4), pp. 753-756. doi:10.1007/s00125-004-1360-4

Elevated fasting plasma ghrelin in Prader-Willi Syndrome adults is not solely explained by their reduced visceral adiposity and insulin resistance
Goldstone, A.P., Thomas, E.L., Brynes, A.E., Castroman, G., Edwards, R., Ghatei, M.A., Frost, G.S., Holland, A., Grossman, A.B., Korbonits, M., Bloom, S.R. and Bell, J.D. 2004. Elevated fasting plasma ghrelin in Prader-Willi Syndrome adults is not solely explained by their reduced visceral adiposity and insulin resistance. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 89 (4), pp. 1718-1726. doi:10.1210/jc.2003-031118

Distribution of adipose tissue in the newborn
Harrington, T.A.M., Thomas, E.L., Modi, N., Frost, G.S. and Bell, J.D. 2004. Distribution of adipose tissue in the newborn. Pediatric Research. 55 (3), pp. 437-441. doi:10.1203/01.PDR.0000111202.29433.2D

Human metabolic syndrome resulting from dominant-negative mutations in the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ
Savage, D.B., Tan, G.D., Acerini, C.L., Jebb, S.A., Agostini, M., Gurnell, M., Williams, R.L., Umpleby, A.M., Thomas, E.L., Bell, J.D., Dixon, A.K., Dunne, F., Boiani, R., Cinti, S., Vidal-Puig, A., Karpe, F., Chatterjee, V.K.K. and O'Rahilly, S. 2003. Human metabolic syndrome resulting from dominant-negative mutations in the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ. Diabetes. 52 (4), p. 910. doi:10.2337/diabetes.52.4.910

Carbohydrate-induced manipulation of insulin sensitivity independently of intramyocellular lipids
Goff, L.M., Frost, G.S., Hamilton, G., Thomas, E.L., Dhillo, W.S., Dornhorst, A. and Bell, J.D. 2003. Carbohydrate-induced manipulation of insulin sensitivity independently of intramyocellular lipids. British Journal of Nutrition. 89 (3), pp. 365-375. doi:10.1079/BJN2002789

Influence of undersampling on magnetic resonance imaging measurements of intra-abdominal adipose tissue
Thomas, E.L. and Bell, J.D. 2003. Influence of undersampling on magnetic resonance imaging measurements of intra-abdominal adipose tissue. International Journal of Obesity. 27 (2), pp. 211-218. doi:10.1038/sj.ijo.802229

Hypothalamic neuropeptides and regulation of fat mass in Prader-Willi syndrome
Goldstone, A.P., Unmehopa, U.A., Thomas, E.L., Brynes, A.E., Bell, J.D., Frost, G.S., Ghatei, M.A., Holland, A., Bloom, S.R. and Swaab, D.F. 2003. Hypothalamic neuropeptides and regulation of fat mass in Prader-Willi syndrome. in: Eiholzer, U., l’Allemand, D. and Zipf, W.B. (ed.) Prader-Willi syndrome as a model for obesity: international symposium, Zurich, October 18-19, 2002 Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers. pp. 31-43

Letter: Digenic inheritance of severe insulin resistance in a human pedigree
Savage, D.B., Agostini, M., Barroso, I., Gurnell, M., Luan, J.A., Meirhaeghe, A., Harding, A.H., Ihrke, G., Rajanayagam, O., Soos, M.A., George, S., Birger, D., Thomas, E.L., Bell, J.D., Meera, K., Ross, R.J., Vidal-Puig, A., Wareham, N.J., O'Rahilly, S., Chatterjee, V.K.K. and Schafer, A.J. 2002. Letter: Digenic inheritance of severe insulin resistance in a human pedigree. Nature Genetics. 31 (4), pp. 379-384. doi:10.1038/ng926

Resting metabolic rate, plasma leptin concentrations, leptin receptor expression, and adipose tissue measured by whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in women with Prader-Willi syndrome
Goldstone, A.P., Brynes, A.E., Thomas, E.L., Bell, J.D., Frost, G.S., Holland, A., Ghatei, M.A. and Bloom, S.R. 2002. Resting metabolic rate, plasma leptin concentrations, leptin receptor expression, and adipose tissue measured by whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in women with Prader-Willi syndrome. American Journal of Clinical Nutition. 75 (3), pp. 468-475.

Fast and reproducible method for the direct quantitation of adipose tissue in newborn infants
Harrington, T.A.M., Thomas, E.L., Modi, N., Frost, G.S., Coutts, G.A. and Bell, J.D. 2002. Fast and reproducible method for the direct quantitation of adipose tissue in newborn infants. Lipids. 37 (1), pp. 95-100. doi:10.1007/s11745-002-0868-4

Visceral adipose tissue and metabolic complications of obesity are reduced in Prader-Willi syndrome female adults: evidence for novel influences on body fat distribution
Goldstone, A.P., Thomas, E.L., Brynes, A.E., Bell, J.D., Frost, G.S., Saeed, N., Hajnal, J.V., Howard, J.K., Holland, A. and Bloom, S.R. 2001. Visceral adipose tissue and metabolic complications of obesity are reduced in Prader-Willi syndrome female adults: evidence for novel influences on body fat distribution. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 86 (9), pp. 4330-4338.

In vivo evaluation of the effects of continuous exercise on skeletal muscle triglycerides in trained humans
Rico-Sanz, J., Moosavi, M., Thomas, E.L., McCarthy, J., Coutts, G.A., Saeed, N. and Bell, J.D. 2000. In vivo evaluation of the effects of continuous exercise on skeletal muscle triglycerides in trained humans. Lipids. 35 (12), pp. 1313-1315. doi:10.1007/s11745-000-0647-2

Preferential loss of visceral fat following aerobic exercise, measured by magnetic resonance imaging
Thomas, E.L., Brynes, A.E., McCarthy, J., Goldstone, A.P., Hajnal, J.V., Saeed, N., Frost, G.S. and Bell, J.D. 2000. Preferential loss of visceral fat following aerobic exercise, measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Lipids. 35 (7), pp. 769-776. doi:10.1007/s11745-000-0584-0

Relation of triglyceride stores in skeletal muscle cells to central obesity and insulin sensitivity in European and South Asian men
Forouhi, N.G., Jenkinson, G., Thomas, E.L., Mullick, S., Mierisová, Ŝ., Bhonsle, U., McKeigue, P.M. and Bell, J.D. 1999. Relation of triglyceride stores in skeletal muscle cells to central obesity and insulin sensitivity in European and South Asian men. Diabetologia. 42 (8), pp. 932-935. doi:10.1007/s001250051250

Angiotensin-converting-enzyme gene insertion/deletion polymorphism and response to physical training
Montgomery, H., Clarkson, P., Barnard, M.L., Bell, J.D., Brynes, A.E., Hajnal, J.V., Hemingway, H., Mercer, D., Jarman, P., Marshall, R., Prasad, K., Rayson, M., Saeed, N., Thomas, E.L., Jubb, M., World, M., Dollery, C., Talmud, P. and Humphries, S.E. 1999. Angiotensin-converting-enzyme gene insertion/deletion polymorphism and response to physical training. The Lancet. 353 (9152), pp. 541-545. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(98)07131-1

Body fat metabolism: observation by MR imaging and spectroscopy
Thomas, E.L. and Bell, J.D. 1999. Body fat metabolism: observation by MR imaging and spectroscopy. in: Young, I.R. (ed.) Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy in medicine and biology Wiley.

Diversity in levels of intracellular total creatine and triglycerides in human skeletal muscles observed by 1H-MRS
Rico-Sanz, J., Thomas, E.L., Jenkinson, G., Mierisová, Ŝ., Iles, R.A. and Bell, J.D. 1999. Diversity in levels of intracellular total creatine and triglycerides in human skeletal muscles observed by 1H-MRS. Journal of Applied Physiology. 87 (6), pp. 2068-2072.

Magnetic resonance: in-vivo NMR, applications – other nuclei
Bell, J.D., Thomas, E.L. and Changani, K.K. 1999. Magnetic resonance: in-vivo NMR, applications – other nuclei. in: Lindon, J. (ed.) Encyclopedia of spectroscopy and spectrometry London Academic Press.

Critical assessment of in vivo13C NMR spectroscopy and gas–liquid chromatography in the study of adipose tissue composition
Thomas, E.L., Cunnane, S.C. and Bell, J.D. 1998. Critical assessment of in vivo13C NMR spectroscopy and gas–liquid chromatography in the study of adipose tissue composition. NMR in Biomedicine. 11 (6), pp. 290-296. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-1492(199810)11:6<290::AID-NBM524>3.0.CO;2-N

Evaluation of the stability of the proton chemical shifts of some metabolites other than water during thermal cycling of normal human muscle tissue
Young, I.R., Bell, J.D., Hajnal, J.V., Jenkinson, G. and Ling, J. 1998. Evaluation of the stability of the proton chemical shifts of some metabolites other than water during thermal cycling of normal human muscle tissue. Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging. 8 (5), pp. 1114-1118. doi:10.1002/jmri.1880080517

Persistent increase in cerebral lactate concentration after birth asphyxia
Hanrahan, J.D., Cox, I.J., Edwards, A.D., Cowan, F.M., Sargentoni, J., Bell, J.D., Bryant, D.J., Rutherford, M.A. and Azzopardi, D. 1998. Persistent increase in cerebral lactate concentration after birth asphyxia. Pediatric Research. 44 (3), pp. 304-311. doi:10.1203/00006450-199809000-00007

Intracellular and extracellular skeletal muscle triglyceride metabolism during alternating intensity exercise in humans
Rico-Sanz, J., Hajnal, J.V., Thomas, E.L., Mierisová, Ŝ., Ala-Korpela, M. and Bell, J.D. 1998. Intracellular and extracellular skeletal muscle triglyceride metabolism during alternating intensity exercise in humans. Journal of Physiology. 510 (2), pp. 615-622. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7793.1998.615bk.x

Human gene for physical performance
Montgomery, H., Marshall, R., Hemingway, H., Myerson, S., Clarkson, P., Dollery, C., Hayward, M., Holliman, D.E., Jubb, M., World, M., Thomas, E.L., Brynes, A.E., Saeed, N., Barnard, M.L., Bell, J.D., Prasad, K., Rayson, M., Talmud, P. and Humphries, S.E. 1998. Human gene for physical performance. Nature. 393 (6682), pp. 221-222. doi:10.1038/30374

In vivo and in vitro hepatic phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy and electron microscopy in chronic ductopenic rejection of human liver allografts
Taylor-Robinson, S.D., Sargentoni, J., Bell, J.D., Thomas, E.L., Marcus, C.D., Changani, K.K., Saeed, N., Hodgson, H., Davidson, B.R., Burroughs, A.K., Rolles, K., Foster, C.S. and Cox, I.J. 1998. In vivo and in vitro hepatic phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy and electron microscopy in chronic ductopenic rejection of human liver allografts. Gut. 42 (5), pp. 735-43. doi:10.1136/gut.42.5.735

Magnetic resonance imaging of total body fat
Thomas, E.L., Saeed, N., Hajnal, J.V., Brynes, A.E., Goldstone, A.P., Frost, G.S. and Bell, J.D. 1998. Magnetic resonance imaging of total body fat. Journal of Applied Physiology. 85 (5), pp. 1778-1785.

In vivo assessment of metabolic perturbations following alanine and glucagon administration using 31P-MRS in the rat
Changani, K.K., Barnard, M.L., Bell, J.D., Thomas, E.L., Williams, S.C.R., Bloom, S.R. and Iles, R.A. 1997. In vivo assessment of metabolic perturbations following alanine and glucagon administration using 31P-MRS in the rat. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta: general subjects. 1335 (3), pp. 290-304. doi:10.1016/S0304-4165(96)00148-1

Noninvasive characterization of neonatal adipose tissue by 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy
Thomas, E.L., Hanrahan, J.D., Ala-Korpela, M., Jenkinson, G., Azzopardi, D., Iles, R.A. and Bell, J.D. 1997. Noninvasive characterization of neonatal adipose tissue by 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Lipids. 32 (6), pp. 645-651. doi:10.1007/s11745-997-0082-4

Changes in adipose tissue composition in malnourished patients before and after liver transplantation: A carbon-13 magnetic resonance spectroscopy and gas-liquid chromatography study
Thomas, E.L., Taylor-Robinson, S.D., Barnard, M.L., Frost, G.S., Sargentoni, J., Davidson, B.R., Cunnane, S.C. and Bell, J.D. 1997. Changes in adipose tissue composition in malnourished patients before and after liver transplantation: A carbon-13 magnetic resonance spectroscopy and gas-liquid chromatography study. Hepatology. 25 (1), pp. 178-183. doi:10.1002/hep.510250133

Effects of n-3 fatty acids on the NMR profile of plasma lipoproteins
Bell, J.D., Barnard, M.L., Parkes, H.G., Thomas, E.L., Brennan, C.H., Cunnane, S.C. and Dagnelie, P.C. 1996. Effects of n-3 fatty acids on the NMR profile of plasma lipoproteins. The Journal of Lipid Research. 37 (8), pp. 1664-1674.

Automated feature extraction for the classification of human in vivo13C NMR spectra using statistical pattern recognition and wavelets
Tate, A.R., Watson, D., Eglen, S., Arvanitis, T.N., Thomas, E.L. and Bell, J.D. 1996. Automated feature extraction for the classification of human in vivo13C NMR spectra using statistical pattern recognition and wavelets. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. 35 (6), pp. 834-840. doi:10.1002/mrm.1910350608

Development of a rapid and efficient magnetic resonance imaging technique for analysis of body fat distribution
Barnard, M.L., Schwieso, J.E., Thomas, E.L., Bell, J.D., Saeed, N., Frost, G.S., Bloom, S.R. and Hajnal, J.V. 1996. Development of a rapid and efficient magnetic resonance imaging technique for analysis of body fat distribution. NMR in Biomedicine. 9 (4), pp. 156-164. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-1492(199606)9:4<156::AID-NBM412>3.0.CO;2-B

Cerebral metabolism within 18 hours of birth asphyxia: a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study
Hanrahan, J.D., Sargentoni, J., Azzopardi, D., Manji, K., Cowan, F.M., Rutherford, M.A., Cox, I.J., Bell, J.D., Bryant, D.J. and Edwards, A.D. 1996. Cerebral metabolism within 18 hours of birth asphyxia: a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study. Paediatric Research. 39 (4), pp. 584-590. doi:10.1203/00006450-199604000-00004

Anin vivo 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopic study of the relationship between diet and adipose tissue composition
Thomas, E.L., Frost, G.S., Barnard, M.L., Bryant, D.J., Taylor-Robinson, S.D., Simbrunner, J., Coutts, G.A., Burl, M., Bloom, S.R., Sales, K.D. and Bell, J.D. 1996. Anin vivo 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopic study of the relationship between diet and adipose tissue composition. Lipids. 31 (2), pp. 145-151. doi:10.1007/BF02522613

Cirrhosis of the human liver: an in vitro 31P nuclear magnetic resonance study
Taylor-Robinson, S.D., Thomas, E.L., Sargentoni, J., Marcus, C.D., Davidson, B.R. and Bell, J.D. 1995. Cirrhosis of the human liver: an in vitro 31P nuclear magnetic resonance study. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta: Molecular Basis of Disease. 1272 (2), pp. 113-118. doi:10.1016/0925-4439(95)00074-E

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