Cardiovascular Consequences of Completing a 160-km Ultramarathon

Scott, J.M., Esch, B.T., Shave, R., Warburton, D.E., Gaze, D.C. and George, K. 2009. Cardiovascular Consequences of Completing a 160-km Ultramarathon. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 41 (1), pp. 26-34. https://doi.org/10.1249/mss.0b013e31818313ff

TitleCardiovascular Consequences of Completing a 160-km Ultramarathon
TypeJournal article
AuthorsScott, J.M., Esch, B.T., Shave, R., Warburton, D.E., Gaze, D.C. and George, K.
Abstract

PURPOSES: To comprehensively investigate the cardiovascular consequences of a 160-km ultramarathon using traditional echocardiography, speckle tracking imaging, cardiac biomarkers, and heart rate variability (HRV) and to examine the relationship between the changes in these variables. METHODS: We examined athletes before an ultramarathon and reassessed all finishers immediately after the race. Left ventricular (LV) systolic (ejection fraction [EF], systolic blood pressure/end-systolic volume [SBP/ESV] ratio) and diastolic (ratio of early [E] to late [A], filling E:A) measurements were assessed using traditional echocardiography, whereas myocardial peak strain and strain rate were analyzed using speckle tracking. Cardiac biomarkers measured were cardiac troponin T (cTnT) and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP). HRV indices were assessed using standard frequency and time domain measures. RESULTS: Twenty-five athletes successfully completed the race (25.5 +/- 3.2 h). Significant pre- to postrace changes in EF (66.8 +/- 3.8 to 61.2 +/- 4.0 %, P < 0.05) and E:A ratio (1.62 +/- 0.37 to 1.35 +/- 0.33, P < 0.05) were reported. Peak strain was significantly decreased in all planes, with the largest reduction occurring circumferentially. NT-pro-BNP concentrations increased significantly (28 +/- 17.1 vs 795 +/- 823 ng x L, P < 0.05), whereas postrace cTnT were elevated in just five athletes (20%). No significant alterations in HRV were noted postrace. Reductions in LV function were not significantly associated with changes in cardiac biomarkers and/or HRV. CONCLUSIONS: Although the stress of an ultramarathon resulted in a mild reduction in LV function and biomarker release, the mechanisms behind such consequences remain unknown. It is likely that factors other than myocardial damage or strong vagal reactivation contributed to postexercise decreases in LV function after an ultramarathon.

JournalMedicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Journal citation41 (1), pp. 26-34
ISSN0195-9131
Year2009
PublisherWolters Kluwer
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1249/mss.0b013e31818313ff
Publication dates
Published01 Jan 2009

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Wilson. M., O Hanlon, R., Prasad, S., Oxborough, D., Godfrey, R., Alpendurada, F., Smith, G., Wong, J., Basavarajaiah, S., Sharma, S., Nevill, A., Gaze, D.C., George, K. and Whyte, G. 2011. Biological markers of cardiac damage are not related to measures of cardiac systolic and diastolic function using cardiovascular magnetic resonance and echocardiography following an acute bout of prolonged endurance exercise. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 45, pp. 780-784. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2009.064089

Volume status and diuretic therapy in systolic heart failure and the detection of early abnormalities in renal and tubular function
Damman, K., Chuen, M. J., MacFadyen, R., Gregory, Y. H., Lip, M. D., Gaze, D.C., Collinson, P.O., Hillege, H. L., Oeveren, W van, Voors, A. A. and Veldhuisen, D. J. van 2011. Volume status and diuretic therapy in systolic heart failure and the detection of early abnormalities in renal and tubular function. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 57 (22), pp. 2242-2243. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2010.10.065

The perils pitfalls and opportunities of using high sensitivity cardiac troponin
Gaze, D.C. 2011. The perils pitfalls and opportunities of using high sensitivity cardiac troponin. Current Medicinal Chemistry. 18 (23), pp. 3442-3445(4). https://doi.org/10.2174/092986711796642571

A unique case series of novel biomarkers of cardiac damage in cyclists completing the 4800 km Race Across America (RAAM)
Williams, K., George, K., Hulton, A., Godfrey, R., Lahart, I., Wilson, M.G., Charlesworth, S., Warburton, D., Gaze, D.C. and Whyte, G. 2011. A unique case series of novel biomarkers of cardiac damage in cyclists completing the 4800 km Race Across America (RAAM). Current Medicinal Chemistry. 18 (23), pp. 3446-3451. https://doi.org/10.2174/092986711796642616

The influence of a half-marathon upon cardiac troponin T release in adolescent runners
Nie, J., George, K.P., Tong, T.K., Gaze, D.C., Tian, Y., Lin, H. and Shi, Q. 2011. The influence of a half-marathon upon cardiac troponin T release in adolescent runners. Current Medicinal Chemistry. 18 (23), pp. 3452-3456. https://doi.org/10.2174/092986711796642625

Antioxidant supplementation does not attenuate exercise-induced cardiac troponin release
Howatson, G., Goodall, S., Hill, J., Brouner, J., Gaze, D.C., McHugh, J and Shave, R. 2011. Antioxidant supplementation does not attenuate exercise-induced cardiac troponin release. International Journal of Cardiology. 152 (1), pp. 101-102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2011.07.006

Influence of Population selection on the 99th percentile reference value for cardiac troponin assays
Collinson, P.O., Heung, Y.M., Gaze, D.C., Boa, F., Senior, R., Christenson, R. and Apple, F.S. 2011. Influence of Population selection on the 99th percentile reference value for cardiac troponin assays. Clinical Chemistry. 58 (1), pp. 219-225. https://doi.org/10.1373/clinchem.2011.171082

Cardiac Troponin I is released following high intensity short-duration exercise in healthy humans
Shave, R., Ross, P., Low, D., George, K. and Gaze, D.C. 2010. Cardiac Troponin I is released following high intensity short-duration exercise in healthy humans. International Journal of Cardiology. 145 (2), pp. 337-339. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2009.12.001

Effect of Prolonged Walking on Cardiac Troponin Levels
Eijsvogels, T., George, K., Shave, R., Gaze, D.C., Levine, B.D., Hopman, M.T.E. and Thijssen, D.H.J. 2010. Effect of Prolonged Walking on Cardiac Troponin Levels. The American Journal of Cardiology. 105 (2), pp. 267-272. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2009.08.679

Age-dependent values of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide are superior to a single cut-point for ruling out suspected systolic dysfunction in primary care
Hildebrandt, P., Collinson, P.O., Doughty, R. N., Fuat, A., Gaze, D.C., Gustafsson, F., Januzzi, J., Rosenberg, J., Senior, R. and Richards, M. 2010. Age-dependent values of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide are superior to a single cut-point for ruling out suspected systolic dysfunction in primary care. European Heart Journal. 31 (15), pp. 1881-1889. https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehq163

Exercise-induced cardiac troponin elevation: Evidence mechanisms and implications
Shave, R., Baggish, R., George, K., Wood, M., Scharhag, J., Whyte, G., Gaze, D.C. and Thompson, P.D. 2010. Exercise-induced cardiac troponin elevation: Evidence mechanisms and implications. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 56 (3), pp. 169-176. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2010.03.037

High-Sensitivity Cardiac Troponin: Seeing the Wood from the Trees
Gaze, D.C. and Collinson, P.O. 2010. High-Sensitivity Cardiac Troponin: Seeing the Wood from the Trees. Clinical Chemistry. 56 (7), p. 1197–1198. https://doi.org/10.1373/clinchem.2010.147215

Sensitive Cardiac Troponin Assays: Myth and Magic or a Practical Way Forward?
Gaze, D.C. 2010. Sensitive Cardiac Troponin Assays: Myth and Magic or a Practical Way Forward? Journal of Medical Biochemistry. 29 (4). https://doi.org/10.2478/v10011-010-0034-7

The use of cardiovascular biomarkers for the assessment of heart disease in men
Gaze, D.C. 2009. The use of cardiovascular biomarkers for the assessment of heart disease in men. in: Heart Disease in Men Nova Science Publishers. pp. 167-182

Alterations in left ventricular function and cardiac biomarkers as a consequence of repetitive endurance cycling
Williams, K., Gregson, W., Robertson, C., Datson, N., Whyte, G., Murrell, C., Wilson, L., Ainslie, P., Ross, E., Shave, R., Gaze, D.C. and George, K. 2009. Alterations in left ventricular function and cardiac biomarkers as a consequence of repetitive endurance cycling. European Journal of Sport Science. 9 (2), pp. 97-105. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461390902763391

Left ventricular wall segment motion after ultra-endurance exercise in humans assessed by myocardial speckle tracking
George, K., Shave, R., Oxborough, D., Cable, T., Dawson, E., Artis, N., Gaze, D.C., Hew-Butler, T., Sharwood, K. and Noakes, T. 2009. Left ventricular wall segment motion after ultra-endurance exercise in humans assessed by myocardial speckle tracking. European Journal of Echocardiography. 10 (2), p. 238–243. https://doi.org/10.1093/ejechocard/jen207

Cardiac troponin elevations in patients presenting with emergency orthopaedic trauma
Gaze, D.C. 2009. Cardiac troponin elevations in patients presenting with emergency orthopaedic trauma. Injury. 40 (3), p. 338. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.injury.2008.10.031

The diagnostic and prognostic value of tissue Doppler imaging during dobutamine stress echocardiography in end-stage renal disease
Sharma, R., Mehta, R.L., Brecker, S.J.D., Gaze, D.C., Gregson, H., Streather, C.P., Collinson, P.O. and Pellerin, D. 2009. The diagnostic and prognostic value of tissue Doppler imaging during dobutamine stress echocardiography in end-stage renal disease. Coronary Artery Disease. 20 (3), pp. 230-237. https://doi.org/10.1097/mca.0b013e32832ac5eb

Assay imprecision and 99th-percentile reference value of a high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I assay
Collinson, P.O., Clifford-Mobley, O., Gaze, D.C., Boa, F. and Senior, R. 2009. Assay imprecision and 99th-percentile reference value of a high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I assay. Clinical Chemistry. 55 (7), p. 1433–1434. https://doi.org/10.1373/clinchem.2009.124925

Rosiglitazone reduces the development and rupture of experimental aortic aneurysms
Jones, A., Deb, R., Torsney, E., Howe, F., Dunkley, M., Gnaneswaran, Y., Gaze, D.C., Nasr, H., Loftus, I.M., Thompson, M.M. and Cockerill, G.W. 2009. Rosiglitazone reduces the development and rupture of experimental aortic aneurysms. Circulation. 119, p. 3125–3132. https://doi.org/10.1161/circulationaha.109.852467

Cardiac troponins in patients with renal failure. What are we measuring and when should we measure it?
Collinson, P.O. and Gaze, D.C. 2009. Cardiac troponins in patients with renal failure. What are we measuring and when should we measure it? Annals of Clinical Biochemistry. 46 (4), pp. 269-270. https://doi.org/10.1258/acb.2009.009058

Ischemia Modified Albumin: A Novel Biomarker for the Detection of Cardiac Ischemia
Gaze, D.C. 2009. Ischemia Modified Albumin: A Novel Biomarker for the Detection of Cardiac Ischemia. European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics. 24 (4), pp. 333-341. https://doi.org/10.2133/dmpk.24.333

The use of cardiac markers for the assessment of heart disease in men
Gaze, D.C. 2009. The use of cardiac markers for the assessment of heart disease in men. in: Todd, A.B. and Mosley, M.H. (ed.) Heart Disease in Men New York Nova Science Publishers. pp. 167-182

Defective endovascular trophoblast invasion in the first trimester is associated with increased maternal serum ischemia-modified albumin
Papageorghiou, A.T., Prefumo F, Leslie, K., Gaze, D.C., Collinson, P.O. and Thilaganathan B. 2008. Defective endovascular trophoblast invasion in the first trimester is associated with increased maternal serum ischemia-modified albumin. Human Reproduction. 23 (4), pp. 803-806. https://doi.org/10.1093/humrep/den029

Cardiac troponin I measurement using the ACS:180 to predict four-year cardiac event rate
Collinson, P.O., Gaynor, G.H. and Gaze, D.C. 2008. Cardiac troponin I measurement using the ACS:180 to predict four-year cardiac event rate. Annals of Clinical Biochemistry: International Journal of Laboratory Medicine. 45 (2), pp. 184-188. https://doi.org/10.1258/acb.2007.007050

Ischemia-modified albumin predicts short-term outcome and 1-year mortality in patients attending the emergency department for acute ischemic chest pain
Consuegra-Sanchez, L., Bouzas-Mosquera, A., Sinha, M.K., Collinson, P.O., Gaze, D.C. and Kaski, J.C. 2008. Ischemia-modified albumin predicts short-term outcome and 1-year mortality in patients attending the emergency department for acute ischemic chest pain. Heart and Vessels. 23 (3), p. 174–180. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00380-007-1031-8

Cardiac biomarkers in chronic renal disease
Gaze, D.C. and Collinson, P.O. 2008. Cardiac biomarkers in chronic renal disease. Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation. 68 (241), pp. 104-108. https://doi.org/10.1080/00365510802150265

Multiple molecular forms of circulating cardiac troponin: Analytical and clinical significance
Gaze, D.C. and Collinson, P.O. 2008. Multiple molecular forms of circulating cardiac troponin: Analytical and clinical significance. Annals of Clinical Biochemistry: International Journal of Laboratory Medicine. 45 (4), pp. 349-355. https://doi.org/10.1258/acb.2007.007229

Changes in vascular and cardiac function after prolonged strenuous exercise in humans
Dawson, E.A., Whyte, G., Black, M. A., Jones, H., Hopkins, N., Oxborough, D., Gaze, D.C., Shave, R., Wilson, M., George, K. and Green, D.J. 2008. Changes in vascular and cardiac function after prolonged strenuous exercise in humans. Journal of Applied Physiology. 105 (5), pp. 1562-1568. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.90837.2008

Ischaemia-modified albumin: Clinical utility and pitfalls in measurement
Gaze, D.C. and Collinson, P.O. 2008. Ischaemia-modified albumin: Clinical utility and pitfalls in measurement. Journal of Clinical Pathology. 61 (9), pp. 1025-1028. https://doi.org/10.1136/jcp.2007.053363

Cardiac troponin T release is stimulated by endurance exercise in healthy humans
Middleton, N., George, K., Whyte, G., Gaze, D.C., Collinson, P.O. and Shave, R. 2008. Cardiac troponin T release is stimulated by endurance exercise in healthy humans. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 52 (22), pp. 1813-1814. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2008.03.069

Mechanisms of orthostatic intolerance following very prolonged exercise
Lucas, S.J.E., Cotter, J.D., Murrell, C., Wilson, L., Anson, J.G., Gaze, D.C., George, K. and Ainslie, P.N. 2008. Mechanisms of orthostatic intolerance following very prolonged exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology. 105 (1), pp. 213-225. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00175.2008

Cardiac troponin in cerebral injury: understanding your laboratory reports
Gaze, D.C. 2008. Cardiac troponin in cerebral injury: understanding your laboratory reports. Biomarkers in Medicine. 2 (5), pp. 433-455. https://doi.org/10.2217/17520363.2.5.433

Maternal cardiac function in early pregnancies with high uterine artery resistance
Prefumo, F., Sharma, R., Brecker, S. J., Gaze, D.C., Collinson, P.O. and Thilaganathan, B. 2007. Maternal cardiac function in early pregnancies with high uterine artery resistance. Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology. 29 (1), pp. 58-64. https://doi.org/10.1002/uog.3878

Cardiac troponin in the forensic detection of cardiac contusion
Gaze, D.C, Collinson, P.O. and Davies, S.J. 2007. Cardiac troponin in the forensic detection of cardiac contusion. Forensic Science International. 169 (2-3), p. 276. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2006.05.005

Impact of repeated prolonged exercise bouts on Cardiac function and biomarkers
Middleton, N., Shave, R., George, K., Whyte, G., Simpson, R., Florida-James, G. and Gaze, D.C. 2007. Impact of repeated prolonged exercise bouts on Cardiac function and biomarkers. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 39 (1), pp. 83-90. https://doi.org/10.1249/01.mss.0000239395.93578.60

Evidence of Cardiomyocyte Necrosis in Glycogen Storage Disease type-II
Gaze, D.C., Lawson, G. J., Harris, A. and Collinson, P.O. 2007. Evidence of Cardiomyocyte Necrosis in Glycogen Storage Disease type-II. Annals of Clinical Biochemistry: International Journal of Laboratory Medicine. 44 (1), pp. 86-88. https://doi.org/10.1258/000456307779596048

Markers of muscle ischaemia, necrosis and inflammation following uterine artery embolisation in the treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids
Banu, N.S., Gaze, D.C., Bruce, H., Collinson, P.O., Belli, A. and Manyonda, I.T. 2007. Markers of muscle ischaemia, necrosis and inflammation following uterine artery embolisation in the treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology. 196 (3), pp. P213.E1-213.E5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2006.10.888

Altered left ventricular diastolic filling following a marathon is a reproducible phenomenon
Middleton, N., Shave, R., George, K., Oxborough, D., Forster, J. and Gaze, D.C. 2007. Altered left ventricular diastolic filling following a marathon is a reproducible phenomenon. International Journal of Cardiology. 122 (1), pp. 87-89. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2006.11.042

Evaluation of ischaemia-modified albumin as a marker of myocardial ischaemia in end-stage renal disease
Sharma, R., Gaze, D.C., Pellerin, D., Mehta, R.L., Gregson, H., Streather, C.P., Collinson, P.O. and Brecker, S.J.D. 2007. Evaluation of ischaemia-modified albumin as a marker of myocardial ischaemia in end-stage renal disease. Clinical Science. 113 (1), p. 25–32. https://doi.org/10.1042/cs20070015

First trimester material serum ischaemia-modified albumin: a marker of hypoxia-ischaemia-driven early trophoblast development
Prefumo, F., Gaze, D.C., Papageorghiou, A. T., Collinson, P.O. and Thilaganathan, B. 2007. First trimester material serum ischaemia-modified albumin: a marker of hypoxia-ischaemia-driven early trophoblast development. Human Reproduction. 22 (7), p. 2029–2032. https://doi.org/10.1093/humrep/dem095

Comparison of the clinical utility of atrial and B type natriuretic peptide measurement for the diagnosis of systolic dysfunction in a low-risk population
Galasko, G., Collinson, P.O., Barnes, S.C., Gaze, D.C., Lahiri, A. and Senior, R. 2007. Comparison of the clinical utility of atrial and B type natriuretic peptide measurement for the diagnosis of systolic dysfunction in a low-risk population. Journal of Clinical Pathology. 60 (5), pp. 570-572. https://doi.org/10.1136/jcp.2005.034306

Biomarkers of cardiovascular damage
Collinson, P.O. and Gaze, D.C. 2007. Biomarkers of cardiovascular damage. Medical Principles and Practice. 16 (4), pp. 247-261. https://doi.org/10.1159/000102146

Independent value of echocardiography and N-terminal pro-natriuretic peptide for prediction of major outcome in patients with suspected heart failure
Lim, T.K., Hayat, S.A., Gaze, D.C., Celik, E., Collinson, P.O. and Senior, R. 2007. Independent value of echocardiography and N-terminal pro-natriuretic peptide for prediction of major outcome in patients with suspected heart failure. The American Journal of Cardiology. 100 (5), pp. 870-875. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2007.04.027

The influence of exercise upon cardiac biomarkers: a practical guide for clinicians and scientists
Shave, R., George, K. and Gaze, D.C. 2007. The influence of exercise upon cardiac biomarkers: a practical guide for clinicians and scientists. Current Medicinal Chemistry. 14 (13), pp. 1427-1436. https://doi.org/10.2174/092986707780831177

The role of existing and novel cardiac biomarkers for cardioprotection
Gaze, D.C. 2007. The role of existing and novel cardiac biomarkers for cardioprotection. Current Opinion in Investigational Drugs. 8 (9), pp. 711-717.

Biomarkers of cardiovascular damage and dysfunction – An overview
Collinson, P.O. and Gaze, D.C. 2007. Biomarkers of cardiovascular damage and dysfunction – An overview. Heart, Lung & Circulation. 16 (3), pp. S71-S82. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hlc.2007.05.006

Exercise-induced cardiac troponin T release: A meta-analysis
Shave, R., George, K., Atkinson, G., Hart, E, Middleton, N., Whyte, G., Gaze, D.C. and Collinson, P.O. 2007. Exercise-induced cardiac troponin T release: A meta-analysis. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 39 (12), pp. 2099-2106. https://doi.org/10.1249/mss.0b013e318153ff78

Multicentre evaluation of a new point-of-care test for the determination of NT-proBNP in whole blood
Zugck, C., Nelles, M., Katus, H.A., Collinson, P.O., Gaze, D.C., Dikkeschei, B., Gurr, E., Hayen, W., Haass, M., Hechler, C., Van Hoof, V., Guerti, K., Van Waes, C., Printzen, G., Klopprogge, K., Schulz, I. and Zerback, R. 2006. Multicentre evaluation of a new point-of-care test for the determination of NT-proBNP in whole blood. Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine . 44 (10), pp. 1269-1277. https://doi.org/10.1515/cclm.2006.215

Interpretation of cardiac troponin measurements in neonates – the devil is in the details
Gaze, D.C. and Collinson, P.O. 2006. Interpretation of cardiac troponin measurements in neonates – the devil is in the details. Neonatology. 89 (3), p. 194–196. https://doi.org/10.1159/000089549

Role of reactive oxygen species on the formation of the novel diagnostic marker ischaemia modified albumin
Roy, D., Quiles, J., Gaze, D.C., Collinson, P.O., Kaski, J. C. and Baxter, G. F. 2006. Role of reactive oxygen species on the formation of the novel diagnostic marker ischaemia modified albumin. Heart. 92 (1), pp. 113-114. https://doi.org/10.1136/hrt.2004.049643

Clinical effect of recalibration of the Roche cardiac troponin T assay
Gaze, D.C. and Collinson, P.O. 2006. Clinical effect of recalibration of the Roche cardiac troponin T assay. Medical Principles and Practice. 15 (1), p. 29–32. https://doi.org/10.1159/000089382

Risk stratification of chest pain patients by point-of-care cardiac troponin T and myoglobin measured in the emergency department
Ordóñez-Llanos, J., Santaló-Bel, M., Mercé-Muntañola J., Gaze, D.C., Collinson, P.O., Haass, M., Katus, H.A., Chwallek, F., Hirschl, M.M., Derhaschnig, U., Mueller-Bardorff, M., Kellett, J., Sylvén, C., Schulz, I. and Zerback, R. 2006. Risk stratification of chest pain patients by point-of-care cardiac troponin T and myoglobin measured in the emergency department. Clinica Chimica Acta. 365 (1-2), pp. 93-97. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cca.2005.07.035

Dynamic left ventricular obstruction: A potential cause of angina in end stage renal disease
Sharma, R., Pellerin, D., Gaze, D., Streather, C.P., Collinson, P.O. and Brecker, S.J.D. 2006. Dynamic left ventricular obstruction: A potential cause of angina in end stage renal disease . International Journal of Cardiology. 112 (3), pp. 295-301. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2005.09.023

Novel application of flow propagation velocity and ischaemia modified albumin in analysis of post-exercise cardiac function in man
Middleton, N., Shave, R., George, K., Whyte, G., Forster, J., Oxborough, D., Gaze, D.C. and Collinson, P.O. 2006. Novel application of flow propagation velocity and ischaemia modified albumin in analysis of post-exercise cardiac function in man. Experimental Physiology. 91 (3), pp. 511-519. https://doi.org/10.1113/expphysiol.2005.032631

Ischemia-modified albumin predicts mortality in ESRD
Sharma, R., Gaze, D.C., Pellerin, D., Mehta, R.L., Gregson, H., Streather, C.P., Collinson, P.O. and Brecker, S.J.D. 2006. Ischemia-modified albumin predicts mortality in ESRD. American Journal of Kidney Diseases. 47 (3), pp. 493-502. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2005.11.026

Mitral peak Doppler E-wave to peak mitral annulus velocity ratio is an accurate estimate of left ventricular filling pressure and predicts mortality in end-stage renal disease
Sharma, R., Pellerin. D., Gaze, D.C., Mehta, R.L., Gregson, H., Streather, C.P., Collinson, P.O. and Brecker, S.J.D. 2006. Mitral peak Doppler E-wave to peak mitral annulus velocity ratio is an accurate estimate of left ventricular filling pressure and predicts mortality in end-stage renal disease. Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography. 19 (3), pp. 266-273. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.echo.2005.10.006

Utility of admission cardiac troponin and ‘Ischaemia Modified Albumin’ measurements for rapid evaluation and rule out of suspected acute myocardial infarction in the emergency department
Collinson, P.O., Gaze, D.C., Bainbridge, K., Morris, F., Morris, B., Price, A. and Goodacre, S. 2006. Utility of admission cardiac troponin and ‘Ischaemia Modified Albumin’ measurements for rapid evaluation and rule out of suspected acute myocardial infarction in the emergency department. Emergency Medicine Journal. 23 (4), pp. 256-261. https://doi.org/10.1136/emj.2005.028241

Diagnostic and prognostic role of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) measured on the DPC Immulite.
Collinson, P.O., Gaze, D.C., Stubbs, P. J., Swinburn, J., Khan, M., Senior, R. and Lahiri, A. 2006. Diagnostic and prognostic role of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) measured on the DPC Immulite. Clinical Biochemistry. 39 (7), pp. 692-696. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2006.02.006

Raised plasma N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide concentrations predict mortality and cardiac disease in end-stage renal disease
Sharma, R., Gaze, D.C., Pellerin, D., Mehta, R.L., Gregson, H., Streather, C.P., Collinson, P.O. and Brecker, S.J.D. 2006. Raised plasma N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide concentrations predict mortality and cardiac disease in end-stage renal disease. Heart. 92 (10), pp. 1518-1519. https://doi.org/10.1136/hrt.2005.082313

Comparison of biomarker strategies for rapid rule out of myocardial infarction in the emergency department using ACC/ESC diagnostic criteria
Collinson, P.O., Gaze, D.C., Morris, F., Morris, B., Price, A. and Goodacre, S. 2006. Comparison of biomarker strategies for rapid rule out of myocardial infarction in the emergency department using ACC/ESC diagnostic criteria. Annals of Clinical Biochemistry: International Journal of Laboratory Medicine. 43 (4), pp. 273-280. https://doi.org/10.1258/000456306777695555

Ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) should be interpreted with caution in patients with low serum albumin concentrations
Gaze, D.C., Crompton, L. and Collinson, P.O. 2006. Ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) should be interpreted with caution in patients with low serum albumin concentrations. Medical Principles and Practice. 15 (4), pp. 322-324. https://doi.org/10.1159/000093000

Mitral annular calcification predicts mortality and coronary art ery disease in end stage renal disease
Sharma, R., Pellerin, D., Gaze, D.C., Metha, R.L., Gregson. H., Streather, C., Collinson, P.O. and Brecker, J.D. 2006. Mitral annular calcification predicts mortality and coronary art ery disease in end stage renal disease. Atherosclerosis. 191 (2), pp. 348-354. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2006.03.033

Effects of Balloon occlusion during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) on plasma levels of ischemia modified albumin (IMA) and transmyocardial lactate extraction
Sinha, M.K., Vazquez, J.M., Calvino, R., Gaze, D.C., Collinson, P.O. and Kaski, J.C. 2006. Effects of Balloon occlusion during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) on plasma levels of ischemia modified albumin (IMA) and transmyocardial lactate extraction. Heart. 92 (12), p. 1852–1853. https://doi.org/10.1136/hrt.2005.078089

Value of primary care electrocardiography for the prediction of left ventricular systolic dysfunction in patients with suspected heart failure
Lim, T. K., Collinson, P.O., Celik, E., Gaze, D.C. and Senior, R. 2006. Value of primary care electrocardiography for the prediction of left ventricular systolic dysfunction in patients with suspected heart failure. International Journal of Cardiology. 115 (1), pp. 73-74. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2006.01.012

Impact of marathon running on cardiac structure and function in recreational runners
Whyte, G., George, K., Shave, R., Dawson, E., Stephenson, C., Edwards, B., Gaze, D.C., Oxborough, D., Forster, J. and Simspon, R. 2005. Impact of marathon running on cardiac structure and function in recreational runners. Clinical Science. 108 (1), p. 73–80. https://doi.org/10.1042/cs20040186

Cardiac drift during prolonged exercise with echocardiographic evidence of reduced diastolic function of the heart
Dawson, E. A., Shave, R., George, K., Whyte, G., Ball, D., Gaze, D.C. and Collinson, P.O. 2005. Cardiac drift during prolonged exercise with echocardiographic evidence of reduced diastolic function of the heart. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 94, pp. 305-309. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-005-1318-3

Prolonged exercise should be considered alongside typical symptoms of AMI when evaluating elevations in troponin T
Shave, R.E., Whyte, G.P., George, K., Gaze, D.C. and Collinson, P.O. 2005. Prolonged exercise should be considered alongside typical symptoms of AMI when evaluating elevations in troponin T. Heart. 91 (9), pp. 1219-1220. https://doi.org/10.1136/hrt.2004.046052

Cardiac troponin in intensive care
Collinson, P.O. and Gaze, D.C. 2005. Cardiac troponin in intensive care. Critical Care. 9, pp. 345-346. https://doi.org/10.1186/cc3776

The efficacy of ice massage in the treatment of exercise-induced muscle damage
Howatson, G., Gaze, D.C. and Van Someren, K.A. 2005. The efficacy of ice massage in the treatment of exercise-induced muscle damage. The Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports . 15 (6), pp. 416-422. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.2005.00437.x

Investigation of cardiac troponins in postmortem subjects: comparing antemortem and postmortem levels
Davies, S. J., Gaze, D.C. and Collinson, P.O. 2005. Investigation of cardiac troponins in postmortem subjects: comparing antemortem and postmortem levels. The American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology. 26 (3), pp. 213-215. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.paf.0000164230.50871.ce

Dobutamine stress echocardiography and the resting but not exercise electrocardiograph predict severe coronary artery disease in renal transplant candidates
Sharma, R., Pellerin, D., Gaze, D.C., Gregson, H., Streather, C.P., Collinson, P.O. and Brecker, S.J.D. 2005. Dobutamine stress echocardiography and the resting but not exercise electrocardiograph predict severe coronary artery disease in renal transplant candidates. Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation. 6 (5), p. 327–335. https://doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfi005

Cardiac structural and functional abnormalities in end stage renal disease patients with elevated cardiac troponin T
Sharma, R., Gaze, D.C., Pellerin, D., Mehta, R.L, Gregson, H., Streather, C.P., Collinson, P.O. and Brecker, S.J.D. 2005. Cardiac structural and functional abnormalities in end stage renal disease patients with elevated cardiac troponin T. Heart. 92 (6), pp. 804-809. https://doi.org/10.1136/hrt.2005.069666

Mitral annular myocardial velocity assessment of segmental left ventricular diastolic function after prolonged exercise in humans
George, K., Oxborough, D., Forster, J., Whyte, G., Shave, R., Dawson, E., Stephenson, C., Dugdill, L., Edwards, B. and Gaze, D.C. 2005. Mitral annular myocardial velocity assessment of segmental left ventricular diastolic function after prolonged exercise in humans. Journal of Physiology. 569 (1), pp. 305-313. https://doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2005.095588

The effect of weightlifting upon left ventricular function and markers of cardiomyocyte damage
Stephenson, C., McCarthy, J., Vikelis, J., Shave, R., Whyte, G., Gaze, D.C. and George, K. 2005. The effect of weightlifting upon left ventricular function and markers of cardiomyocyte damage. Ergonomics. 48 (11-14), pp. 1585-1593. https://doi.org/10.1080/00140130500101114

Cardiac troponins as biomarkers of drug and toxin induced cardiac toxicity and cardioprotection
Gaze, D.C. and Collinson, P.O. 2005. Cardiac troponins as biomarkers of drug and toxin induced cardiac toxicity and cardioprotection. Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology. 1 (4), pp. 715-725. https://doi.org/10.1517/17425255.1.4.715

Bedside Testing of Cardiac Troponin T and Myoglobin for the Detection of Acute Myocardial Infarction in Patients with a Nondiagnostic Electrocardiogram in the Emergency Department
Kellett, J., Hirschl, M.M., Derhaschnig, U., Collinson, P.O., Gaze, D.C., Haass, M., Katus, H.A., Chwallek, F., Mueller-Bardorff, M., Ordóñez-Llanos, J., Mercé-Muntañola, J., Santaló-Bell, M., Sylvén, C., Schulz, I. and Zerback, R. 2004. Bedside Testing of Cardiac Troponin T and Myoglobin for the Detection of Acute Myocardial Infarction in Patients with a Nondiagnostic Electrocardiogram in the Emergency Department. Plastic Surgical Nursing. 3 (4), pp. 159-161. https://doi.org/10.1097/00134384-200412000-00004

Comparison of ischemia-modified albumin levels in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention for unstable angina pectoris with versus without coronary collaterals
Garrido, I.P., Roy, D., Calviño, R., Vazquez-Rodriguez, J.M., Aldama, G., Cosin-Sales, J., Quiles, J., Gaze, D.C. and Kaski, J.C. 2004. Comparison of ischemia-modified albumin levels in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention for unstable angina pectoris with versus without coronary collaterals. American Journal of Cardiology. 93 (1), pp. 88-90. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2003.09.019

Role of Ischemia Modified Albumin, a new biochemical marker of myocardial ischaemia in the early diagnosis of acute coronary syndromes
Sinha, M., Roy, D., Gaze, D.C., Collinson, P.O. and Kaski, J.C. 2004. Role of Ischemia Modified Albumin, a new biochemical marker of myocardial ischaemia in the early diagnosis of acute coronary syndromes. Emergency Medicine Journal. 21 (1), pp. 29-34. https://doi.org/10.1136/emj.2003.006007

Effect of direct-current cardioversion on Ischemia-Modified Albumin levels in patients with atrial fibrillation
Roy, D., Quiles, J., Sinha, M., Aldama, G., Gaze, D.C. and Kaski, J. C. 2004. Effect of direct-current cardioversion on Ischemia-Modified Albumin levels in patients with atrial fibrillation. The American Journal of Cardiology. 93 (3), pp. 366-368. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2003.10.023

Effect of prolonged exercise in a hypoxic environment on cardiac function and cardiac troponin T
Shave, R., Dawson, E., Whyte, G., George, K., Gaze, D.C. and Collinson, P.O. 2004. Effect of prolonged exercise in a hypoxic environment on cardiac function and cardiac troponin T. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 38 (1), pp. 86-88. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2002.002832

Analytical performance of the N terminal pro B type natriuretic peptide (NT-ProBNP) assay on the ElecsysTM 1010 and 2010 analysers
Collinson, P.O., Barnes, S. C., Gaze, D.C., Galasko, G., Lahiri, A. and Senior, R. 2004. Analytical performance of the N terminal pro B type natriuretic peptide (NT-ProBNP) assay on the ElecsysTM 1010 and 2010 analysers. European Journal of Heart Failure. 6 (3), pp. 365-368. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejheart.2004.01.011

Altered cardiac function and minimal cardiac damage during prolonged exercise
Shave, R., Dawson, E., Whyte, G., George, K., Gaze, D.C. and Collinson, P.O. 2004. Altered cardiac function and minimal cardiac damage during prolonged exercise. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 36 (7), pp. 1098-1103. https://doi.org/10.1249/01.mss.0000131958.18154.1e

Effect of radiofrequency catheter ablation on the biochemical marker ischemia modified albumin
Roy, D., Quiles, J., Sinha, M., Floros, D., Gaze, D., Collinson, P.O., Baxter, G.F. and Kaski, J.C. 2004. Effect of radiofrequency catheter ablation on the biochemical marker ischemia modified albumin. The American Journal of Cardiology. 94 (2), pp. 234-236. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2004.03.073

Left ventricular systolic function and diastolic filling after intermittent high-intensity team sports
George, K., Dawson, E., Shave, R., Whyte, G., Jones, M., Hare, E., Gaze, D.C. and Collinson, P.O. 2004. Left ventricular systolic function and diastolic filling after intermittent high-intensity team sports. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 38 (4), p. 452–456. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2003.004788

Ischemia-Modified albumin concentrations in patients with peripheral vascular disease and exercise-induced skeletal muscle ischemia
Roy, D., Quiles, J., Sharma, R., Sinha, M., Avanzas, P., Gaze, D.C. and Kaski, J.C. 2004. Ischemia-Modified albumin concentrations in patients with peripheral vascular disease and exercise-induced skeletal muscle ischemia. Clinical Chemistry. 50 (9), pp. 1656-1660. https://doi.org/10.1373/clinchem.2004.031690

The impact of prolonged exercise in a cold environment upon cardiac function
Shave, R., Dawson, E., Whyte, G., George, K., Nimmo, M., Layden, J., Collinson, P. and Gaze, D.C. 2004. The impact of prolonged exercise in a cold environment upon cardiac function. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 36 (9), pp. 1522-1527. https://doi.org/10.1249/01.mss.0000139801.84445.18

Diagnostic Efficiency of a Point-of-Care System for Quantitative Determination of Troponin T and Myoglobin in the Coronary Care Unit
Hirschl, M.M., Derhaschnig, U., Collinson, P.O., Gaze, D.C., Haass, M., Katus, H.A., Chwallek, F., Mueller-Bardorff, M., Kellett, J., Ordóñez-Llanos, J., Mercé-Muntañola, J., Santaló-Bell, M., Sylvén, C., Schulz, I. and Zerback, R. 2004. Diagnostic Efficiency of a Point-of-Care System for Quantitative Determination of Troponin T and Myoglobin in the Coronary Care Unit. Plastic Surgical Nursing. 3 (4), pp. 162-164. https://doi.org/10.1097/00134384-200412000-00005

Ischemia Modified Albumin for the Assessment of Patients Presenting to the Emergency Department with Acute Chest Pain but Normal or Non-Diagnostic 12-lead Electrocardiograms and Negative Cardiac Troponin T
Roy, D., Quiles, J., Aldama, G., Sinha, M., Avanzas, P., Arroyo-Espliguero, R., Gaze, D.C., Collinson, P.O. and Kaski, J.C. 2004. Ischemia Modified Albumin for the Assessment of Patients Presenting to the Emergency Department with Acute Chest Pain but Normal or Non-Diagnostic 12-lead Electrocardiograms and Negative Cardiac Troponin T . International Journal of Cardiology. 97 (2), pp. 297-301. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2004.05.042

Letter to the Editor: Cardiac troponin I should be interpreted with caution in paediatric neonatal patients
Gaze, D.C. and Collinson, P.O. 2004. Letter to the Editor: Cardiac troponin I should be interpreted with caution in paediatric neonatal patients. Neonatology. 86, pp. 131-137. https://doi.org/10.1159/000080890

Use of a quantitative point-of-care system greatly reduces the turnaround time of cardiac marker determination
Gaze, D.C., Collinson, P.O., Haass, M., Derhaschnig, U., Hirschl, M.M., Katus, H.A., Chwallek, F., Mueller-Bardorff, M., Kellett, J., Ordóñez-Llanos, J., Santaló-Bel, M., Mercé-Muntañola, J., Sylvén, C., Schulz, I. and Zerback, R. 2004. Use of a quantitative point-of-care system greatly reduces the turnaround time of cardiac marker determination. Point of Care The Journal of Near-Patient Testing & Technology. 3 (4), pp. 156-158. https://doi.org/10.1097/00134384-200412000-00003

Ischemia modified albumin is a sensitive marker of myocardial ischemia after percutaneous coronary intervention
Sinha, M.K., Gaze, D.C., Tippins, J.R., Collinson, P.O. and Kaski, J.C. 2003. Ischemia modified albumin is a sensitive marker of myocardial ischemia after percutaneous coronary intervention. Circulation. 107, p. 2403–2405. https://doi.org/10.1161/01.cir.0000072764.18315.6b

Cardiac troponin T in female athletes during a two-day mountain marathon
Shave, R, Dawson, E., Whyte, G., George, K., Ball, D., Gaze, D. and Collinson, P.O. 2003. Cardiac troponin T in female athletes during a two-day mountain marathon. Scottish Medical Journal. 48 (2), p. 41–42. https://doi.org/10.1177/003693300304800204

Relation of ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) levels following elective angioplasty for stable angina pectoris to duration of balloon-induced myocardial ischemia
Quiles, J., Roy, D., Gaze, D.C., Garrido, I.P., Avanzas, P., Sinha, M. and Kaski, J.C. 2003. Relation of ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) levels following elective angioplasty for stable angina pectoris to duration of balloon-induced myocardial ischemia. The American Journal of Cardiology. 92 (3), pp. 322-324. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0002-9149(03)00638-6

The cardiospecificity of the third-generation cTnT assay after exercise-induced muscle damage
Shave, R., Dawson, E., Whyte, G., George, K., Ball, D., Collinson, P. and Gaze, D.C. 2002. The cardiospecificity of the third-generation cTnT assay after exercise-induced muscle damage. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 34 (4), pp. 651-654. https://doi.org/10.1249/00005768-200204000-00014

Cardiac Troponin T and Creatine Kinase MB Content in Skeletal Muscle of the Uremic Rat
Fredericks, S., Murray, J.F., Carter, N.D., Chesser, A.M.S., Papachristou, S., Yaqoob, M.M., Collinson, P.O., Gaze, D. and Holt, D.W. 2002. Cardiac Troponin T and Creatine Kinase MB Content in Skeletal Muscle of the Uremic Rat. Clinical Chemistry. 48 (6), p. 859–868. https://doi.org/10.1093/clinchem/48.6.859

Cardiac troponin-I content of skeletal muscle in patients with renal failure
Fredericks, S., Bainbridge, K., Fenske, C. D., Gaze, D., Collinson, P.O., Carter, N. D. and Holt, D.W. 2002. Cardiac troponin-I content of skeletal muscle in patients with renal failure. Clinical Biochemistry. 35 (5), pp. 421-423. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0009-9120(02)00324-7

Evidence of exercise induced cardiac dysfunction and elevated cTnT in separate cohorts competing in an ultra-endurance mountain marathon race
Shave, R., Dawson, E., Whyte, G., George, K., Ball, D., Gaze, D.C. and Collinson, P.O. 2002. Evidence of exercise induced cardiac dysfunction and elevated cTnT in separate cohorts competing in an ultra-endurance mountain marathon race. International Journal of Sports Medicine. 23 (7), pp. 489-494. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2002-35069

Serum selenium levels and blood glutathione peroxidase activities in vitiligo
Beazley, W.D., Gaze, D.C., Panske, A., Panzig, E. and Schallreuter, K.U. 2001. Serum selenium levels and blood glutathione peroxidase activities in vitiligo. British Journal of Dermatology. 141 (2), pp. 301-303. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2133.1999.02980.x

Circulating cardiac troponin-T in patients before and after renal transplantation
Fredericks, S., Chang, R., Gregson, H., Bewick, M., Collinson, P.O., Gaze, D.C., Carter, N.D. and Holt, D.W. 2001. Circulating cardiac troponin-T in patients before and after renal transplantation. Clinica Chimica Acta. 310 (2), pp. 199-203. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0009-8981(01)00547-2

Measurement of cardiac troponins
Collinson, P.O., Boa, F.G. and Gaze, D.C. 2001. Measurement of cardiac troponins. Annals of Clinical Biochemistry. 38 (5), pp. 423-449. https://doi.org/10.1258/0004563011901109

Clinical evaluation of the ACS:180 cardiac troponin I assay
Collinson, P.O., Wiggins, N. and Gaze, D.C. 2001. Clinical evaluation of the ACS:180 cardiac troponin I assay. Annals of Clinical Biochemistry. 38 (5), pp. 509-519. https://doi.org/10.1258/0004563011901325

In vivo and in vitro evidence for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation in the epidermis of patients with vitiligo and its successful removal by a UVB-activated pseudocatalase
Schallreuter, K.U., Moore, J., Wood, J.M., Beazley, W.D., Gaze, D.C., Tobin, D.J., Marshall, H.S., Panske, A., Panzig, E. and Hibberts, N.A. 1999. In vivo and in vitro evidence for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation in the epidermis of patients with vitiligo and its successful removal by a UVB-activated pseudocatalase. Journal of Investigative Dermatology Symposium Proceedings. 4 (1), pp. 91-96. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.jidsp.5640189

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