Do carers of adolescents at first episode psychosis have distinctive psychological needs? A pilot exploration

McKenna, A., Hazell, C.M., Souray, R., Cai, E., Man, L.C., Brown, L., Floyd, C., Lyons, N., Widuch, K., James, G., Keay, D., Souray, J., Afsharzadegan, R. and Raune, D. 2022. Do carers of adolescents at first episode psychosis have distinctive psychological needs? A pilot exploration. International Journal of Social Psychiatry. 68 (3), pp. 600-609. https://doi.org/10.1177/0020764021992828

TitleDo carers of adolescents at first episode psychosis have distinctive psychological needs? A pilot exploration
TypeJournal article
AuthorsMcKenna, A., Hazell, C.M., Souray, R., Cai, E., Man, L.C., Brown, L., Floyd, C., Lyons, N., Widuch, K., James, G., Keay, D., Souray, J., Afsharzadegan, R. and Raune, D.
Abstract

Background:
Carers of patients experiencing first episode psychosis (FEP) are at an increased risk of mental and physical health problems themselves. However, little is known about how the psychological needs of carers may differ between those caring for an adolescent versus an adult who has FEP.

Aims:
This pilot study aimed to explore any differences in the psychological needs of carers caring for adolescents versus adults with FEP.

Methods:
We surveyed 254 carers of 198 FEP patients (34 carers of adolescents of 24 FEP adolescent patients). Carers completed self-report measures of anxiety, depression, burnout, subjective burden, coping, and key illness beliefs. The sample was divided according to whether the patient was under (adolescent) or over (adult) age 18, and analysed using mixed model logistic regressions.

Results:
Compared to the carers of adult patients, carers of adolescents were more than twice as likely (12% vs. 30%) to experience overall burnout syndrome (all three domains), and to develop it much quicker (19.4 vs. 10.1 months). They were also more likely to adopt behavioural disengagement avoidance as a form of coping. However, there was no difference between carers in terms of anxiety, depression, beliefs and subjective burden. For carers of adolescents, burnout was independently predicted by: a negative belief about the consequences of psychosis for the adolescent patient and an incoherent understanding of the patient’s mental health.

Conclusions:
If our findings can be replicated in a larger sample, then Rapid-Onset-Burnout-Syndrome (ROBS) is a particular problem in carers of adolescents at FEP, suggesting a need for routine screening and possible prophylactic intervention. Carers of adolescent’s use of behavioural escape coping maybe also require early intervention. Theoretically, consideration could be given to the development of an adolescent sub-branch to the cognitive model of caregiving.

KeywordsFirst episode psychosis, caregiver, adolescence, burnout, avoidant coping
JournalInternational Journal of Social Psychiatry
Journal citation68 (3), pp. 600-609
ISSN0020-7640
1741-2854
Year2022
PublisherSage
Accepted author manuscript
File Access Level
Open (open metadata and files)
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1177/0020764021992828
PubMed ID33554710
Web address (URL)https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0020764021992828
Publication dates
Published online07 Feb 2021
Published in printMay 2022

Related outputs

Creating a hierarchy of mental health stigma: testing the effect of psychiatric diagnosis on stigma
Hazell, C.M., Berry, C., Bogen-Johnston, L. and Banerjee, M. 2022. Creating a hierarchy of mental health stigma: testing the effect of psychiatric diagnosis on stigma. BJPsych Open. 8 (5) e174. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjo.2022.578

The psychological therapy preferences of patients who hear voices
Berry, C., Baloc, A-I., Fowler, D., Jones, A-M., Hazell, C.M. and Hayward, M. 2022. The psychological therapy preferences of patients who hear voices. Psychosis. Advanced online publication. https://doi.org/10.1080/17522439.2022.2095000

Is it time to change the approach of mental health stigma campaigns? An experimental investigation of the effect of campaign wording on stigma and help-seeking intentions
Hazell, C.M., Fixsen, Alison and Berry, C. 2022. Is it time to change the approach of mental health stigma campaigns? An experimental investigation of the effect of campaign wording on stigma and help-seeking intentions. PLoS ONE. 17 (8) e0273254. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0273254

Pilot evaluation of a brief training video aimed at reducing mental health stigma amongst emergency first responders (the ENHANcE II study)
Hazell, C.M., Fielding-Smith, S., Koc, Y. and Hayward, M. 2022. Pilot evaluation of a brief training video aimed at reducing mental health stigma amongst emergency first responders (the ENHANcE II study). Journal of Mental Health. Advanced online publication. https://doi.org/10.1080/09638237.2022.2069707

The cognitive-phenomenological assessment of delusions and hallucinations at the early intervention in psychosis service stage: The results of a quality improvement project
Isaacson, Maria, Hazell, Cassie M., Cape, John, Hickson, Emily, Islam, Faaizah, Gill, Amber, Simon, Kathleen, Patel, Ruchit, Souray, Jonathan and Raune, David 2022. The cognitive-phenomenological assessment of delusions and hallucinations at the early intervention in psychosis service stage: The results of a quality improvement project. Early Intervention in Psychiatry. Advanced online publication. https://doi.org/10.1111/eip.13283

A Systematic Review of the Effects of Urban Living on Suicidality and Self-Harm in the UK and Ireland
Satherley, R. M., Hazell, C.M., Jones, C. J. and Hanna, P 2022. A Systematic Review of the Effects of Urban Living on Suicidality and Self-Harm in the UK and Ireland. Journal of Urban Health. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11524-022-00611-z

A cross-sectional study of auditory verbal hallucinations experienced by people with a diagnosis of borderline personality disorder
Hayward M, Jones, A M, Strawson, W H, Quadt, L, Larsson, D E O, Silva, M, Davies, G, Fielding-Smith, S, Hazell, C.M., Critchley, H D and Garfinkel, S N 2022. A cross-sectional study of auditory verbal hallucinations experienced by people with a diagnosis of borderline personality disorder. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy. 29 (2), pp. 631-641. https://doi.org/10.1002/cpp.2655

The Staff Views About Assessing Voices Questionnaire: Piloting a Novel Socratic Method of Evaluating and Training Multidisciplinary Staff's Cognitive Assessment of Patients' Distressing Voices.
Raune, David, Perkins, Sarah, Paradisopoulos, Daphne, Zsofia Bote, Orsoyla, Skacel, Patricia, Souray, Jonathan and Hazell, C. 2022. The Staff Views About Assessing Voices Questionnaire: Piloting a Novel Socratic Method of Evaluating and Training Multidisciplinary Staff's Cognitive Assessment of Patients' Distressing Voices. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy. 35 (1). https://doi.org/10.1891/JCPSY-D-20-00021

Understanding suicidality and reasons for living amongst Doctoral Researchers: A thematic analysis of qualitative U‐DOC survey data
Hazell, C.M., Berry, C., Niven, Jeremy E. and Mackenzie, Jay‐Marie 2021. Understanding suicidality and reasons for living amongst Doctoral Researchers: A thematic analysis of qualitative U‐DOC survey data. Counselling and Psychotherapy Research. https://doi.org/10.1002/capr.12437

Nationwide assessment of the mental health of UK Doctoral Researchers
Hazell, C.M., Niven, J. E., Chapman, L, Roberts, P. E., Cartwright-Hatton, S, Valeix, S and Berry, C 2021. Nationwide assessment of the mental health of UK Doctoral Researchers. Humanities and Social Sciences Communications. 8 305. https://doi.org/10.1057/s41599-021-00983-8

Personal, social and relational predictors of UK postgraduate researcher mental health problems
Berry, C., Niven J.E. and Hazell, C.M. 2021. Personal, social and relational predictors of UK postgraduate researcher mental health problems. BJPsych Open. 7 (6), p. e205. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjo.2021.1041

Measurement practices in hallucinations research
Smailes, D., Alderson-Day, B., Hazell, C.M., Wright, A. and Moseley, P. 2021. Measurement practices in hallucinations research. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry. 27 (2-3), pp. 183-198. https://doi.org/10.1080/13546805.2021.1999224

Understanding suicidality and reasons for living amongst Doctoral Researchers: A thematic analysis of qualitative U-DOC survey data
Hazell, C.M., Berry, C., Niven, J. E. and Mackenzie, J.-M. 2021. Understanding suicidality and reasons for living amongst Doctoral Researchers: A thematic analysis of qualitative U-DOC survey data. Counselling and Psychotherapy Research. 21 (4), pp. 757-767. https://doi.org/10.1002/capr.12437

Increasing access to cognitive–behavioural therapy for patients with psychosis by evaluating the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial of brief, targeted cognitive–behavioural therapy for distressing voices delivered by assistant psychologists: the GiVE2 trial
Hayward, M., Berry, K., Bremner, S., Jones, A., Robertson, S., Cavanagh, K., Gage, H., Berry, C., Neumann, S., Hazell, C.M., Fowler, D., Greenwood, K. and Strauss, C. 2021. Increasing access to cognitive–behavioural therapy for patients with psychosis by evaluating the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial of brief, targeted cognitive–behavioural therapy for distressing voices delivered by assistant psychologists: the GiVE2 trial. BJPsych Open. 7 e152. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjo.2021.983

Enhancing mental health awareness in emergency services (the ENHANcE I project): cross-sectional survey on mental health stigma among emergency services staff
Hazell, C.M., Koc, Y, O'Brien, S, Fielding-Smith, S and Hayward, M 2021. Enhancing mental health awareness in emergency services (the ENHANcE I project): cross-sectional survey on mental health stigma among emergency services staff. BJPsych Open. 7 (3) e77. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjo.2021.37

A mixed-methods investigation of mental health stigma, absenteeism and presenteeism among UK postgraduate researchers
Berry, C., Niven, J.E., Chapman, L., Valeix, S., Roberts, P.E. and Hazell, C.M. 2021. A mixed-methods investigation of mental health stigma, absenteeism and presenteeism among UK postgraduate researchers. Studies in Graduate and Postgraduate Education. 12 (1), pp. 145-170. https://doi.org/10.1108/SGPE-06-2020-0034

Enhancing mental health awareness in emergency services (the ENHANcE I project): cross-sectional survey on mental health stigma among emergency services staff.
Hazell, Cassie M, Koc, Yasin, O'Brien, Sorcha, Fielding-Smith, Sarah and Hayward, M. 2021. Enhancing mental health awareness in emergency services (the ENHANcE I project): cross-sectional survey on mental health stigma among emergency services staff. BJPsych Open. 7 (3), p. e77. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjo.2021.37

Patient experience of Guided self-help CBT intervention for VoicEs (GiVE) delivered within a pilot randomized controlled trial
Hazell, C.M., Kelly, O., O'Brien, S., Strauss, C., Cavanagh, K. and Hayward, M. 2020. Patient experience of Guided self-help CBT intervention for VoicEs (GiVE) delivered within a pilot randomized controlled trial. Cognitive Behaviour Therapist. 13 e40. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1754470X20000458

Understanding the mental health of doctoral researchers: a mixed methods systematic review with meta-analysis and meta-synthesis.
Hazell, C.M., Chapman, Laura, Valeix, Sophie F, Roberts, Paul, Niven, Jeremy E and Berry, Clio 2020. Understanding the mental health of doctoral researchers: a mixed methods systematic review with meta-analysis and meta-synthesis. Systematic Reviews. 9 (1), p. 197 197. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13643-020-01443-1

Service evaluation of a sole-session psychoeducational intervention to improve caregivers’ key illness beliefs after first episode psychosis (FEP)
Hazell, C. M., Lyons, N, Owumere, J, Schulz, J, Glover, N, Whittaker, S, Chu Man, L, Floyd, C, Brown, L, James, G, Afshardazegan, R, Seneviratne, S, Rahim, S, Souray, J and Raune, D 2020. Service evaluation of a sole-session psychoeducational intervention to improve caregivers’ key illness beliefs after first episode psychosis (FEP). Cognitive Behaviour Therapist. 13 carers. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1754470X20000264

Is the content of patient’s written emotional disclosure associated with improved health outcomes for asthma patients?
Hazell, C. M., Jones, J. C., McLachlan, E. M. and Smith, H. E. 2020. Is the content of patient’s written emotional disclosure associated with improved health outcomes for asthma patients? Health Psychology Update. 29 (2), pp. 31-42.

Hanging in the balance: Conceptualising doctoral researcher mental health as a dynamic balance across key tensions characterising the PhD experience
Berry, C, Valeix, S, Niven, J.E., Chapman, L., Roberts, P.E. and Hazell, C.M. 2020. Hanging in the balance: Conceptualising doctoral researcher mental health as a dynamic balance across key tensions characterising the PhD experience. International Journal of Educational Research. 102, p. 101575 101575. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijer.2020.101575

Demographic predictors of wellbeing in Carers of people with psychosis: secondary analysis of trial data
Hazell, C.M., Hayward, M., Lobban, F., Pandey, A., Pinfold, V., Smith, H.E. and Jones, C.J. 2020. Demographic predictors of wellbeing in Carers of people with psychosis: secondary analysis of trial data. BMC Psychiatry. 20 269. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-020-02691-0

Helping parents to help children overcome fear: The influence of a short video tutorial
Ewing, D., Pike, A., Dash, S., Hughes, Z., Thompson, E.J., Hazell, C., Ang, C.M., Kucuk, N., Laine, A. and Cartwright‐Hatton, S. 2020. Helping parents to help children overcome fear: The influence of a short video tutorial. British Journal of Clinical Psychology. 59 (1), pp. 80-95. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjc.12233

The Blurred Line between Physical Ageing and Mental Health in Older Adults: Implications for the Measurement of Depression
Hazell, C., Smith, Helen E and Jones, C. 2019. The Blurred Line between Physical Ageing and Mental Health in Older Adults: Implications for the Measurement of Depression. Clinical Medicine Insights: Psychiatry. 10. https://doi.org/10.1177/1179557319885634

Barriers to recruiting and retaining psychosis carers: a case study on the lessons learned from the Caring for Caregivers (C4C) trial
Hazell, C.M., Jones, C.J., Pandey, A and Smith, H.E 2019. Barriers to recruiting and retaining psychosis carers: a case study on the lessons learned from the Caring for Caregivers (C4C) trial. BMC Research Notes. 12, p. 810 810. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13104-019-4832-9

Preventing Family Transmission of Anxiety: Feasibility RCT of a Brief Intervention for Parents
Cartwright-Hatton, S., Ewing, D.L., Dash, S., Hughes, Z., Thompson, E.J., Hazell, C.M., Field, A.P. and Startup, H.M. 2018. Preventing Family Transmission of Anxiety: Feasibility RCT of a Brief Intervention for Parents. British Journal of Clinical Psychology. 57 (3), pp. 351-366. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjc.12177

Understanding the Barriers to Accessing Symptom-Specific Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) for Distressing Voices: Reflecting on and Extending the Lessons Learnt From the CBT for Psychosis Literature
Hazell, C.M., Greenwood, K., Fielding-Smith, S., Rammou, A., Bogen-Johnston, L., Berry, C., Jones, A. and Hayward, M. 2018. Understanding the Barriers to Accessing Symptom-Specific Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) for Distressing Voices: Reflecting on and Extending the Lessons Learnt From the CBT for Psychosis Literature. Frontiers in Psychology. 9 727. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00727

Guided self-help cognitive- behaviour Intervention for VoicEs (GiVE): Results from a pilot randomised controlled trial in a transdiagnostic sample
Hazell, C.M., Hayward, M., Cavanagh, K., Jones, A. and Strauss, C. 2018. Guided self-help cognitive- behaviour Intervention for VoicEs (GiVE): Results from a pilot randomised controlled trial in a transdiagnostic sample. Schizophrenia Research. 195, pp. 441-447. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2017.10.004

An Introduction to Self-help for Distressing Voices
Hazell, C.M., Hayward, M., Strauss, C. and Kingdon, D. 2018. An Introduction to Self-help for Distressing Voices. London Little Brown Book Group.

Caring for Caregivers (C4C): study protocol for a pilot feasibility randomised control trial of Positive Written Disclosure for older adult caregivers of people with psychosis
Hazell, C.M., Jones, C.J., Hayward, M., Bremner, S.A., O'Connor, D.B., Pinfold, V. and Smith, H.E. 2017. Caring for Caregivers (C4C): study protocol for a pilot feasibility randomised control trial of Positive Written Disclosure for older adult caregivers of people with psychosis. Pilot and Feasibility Studies. 3, p. 63. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40814-017-0206-z

Barriers to disseminating brief CBT for voices from a lived experience and clinician perspective
Hazell, C.M., Strauss, C., Cavanagh, K. and Hayward, M. 2017. Barriers to disseminating brief CBT for voices from a lived experience and clinician perspective. PLoS ONE. 12 (6) e0178715. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0178715

Understanding clinician attitudes towards implementation of guided self-help cognitive behaviour therapy for those who hear distressing voices: using factor analysis to test normalisation process theory
Hazell, C.M., Strauss, C., Hayward, M. and Cavanagh, K. 2017. Understanding clinician attitudes towards implementation of guided self-help cognitive behaviour therapy for those who hear distressing voices: using factor analysis to test normalisation process theory. BMC Health Services Research. 17, p. 507 507. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-017-2449-z

A systematic review and meta- analysis of low intensity CBT for psychosis
Hazell, C.M., Hayward, M., Cavanagh, K. and Strauss, C. 2016. A systematic review and meta- analysis of low intensity CBT for psychosis. Clinical Psychology Review. 45, pp. 183-192. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2016.03.004

Guided self-help cognitive behavioural intervention for VoicEs (GiVE): study protocol for a pilot randomized controlled trial
Hazell, C.M., Hayward, M., Cavanagh, K., Jones, A.M. and Strauss, C. 2016. Guided self-help cognitive behavioural intervention for VoicEs (GiVE): study protocol for a pilot randomized controlled trial. Trials. 17, p. 351 351. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13063-016-1494-y

No Significant Evidence of Cognitive Biases for Emotional Stimuli in Children At-Risk of Developing Anxiety Disorders.
Ewing, D.L., Dash, S., Thompson, E.J., Hazell, C.M., Hughes, Z., Lester, K.J. and Cartwright-Hatton, S. 2016. No Significant Evidence of Cognitive Biases for Emotional Stimuli in Children At-Risk of Developing Anxiety Disorders. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. 44 (7), pp. 1243-1252. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-015-0122-8

Permalink - https://westminsterresearch.westminster.ac.uk/item/v6797/do-carers-of-adolescents-at-first-episode-psychosis-have-distinctive-psychological-needs-a-pilot-exploration


Share this

Usage statistics

38 total views
123 total downloads
These values cover views and downloads from WestminsterResearch and are for the period from September 2nd 2018, when this repository was created.