Comparison study of iron preparations using a human intestinal model

Zariwala, M.G., Somavarapu, S., Farnaud, S. and Renshaw, D. 2013. Comparison study of iron preparations using a human intestinal model. Scientia Pharmaceutica. 81 (4), pp. 1123-1139. doi:10.3797/scipharm.1304-03

TitleComparison study of iron preparations using a human intestinal model
AuthorsZariwala, M.G., Somavarapu, S., Farnaud, S. and Renshaw, D.
Abstract

Iron deficiency and related iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) are the most prevalent nutritional disorders worldwide. The standard treatment involves supple-mentation with solid or liquid iron supplement preparations, usually based on a ferrous salt such as ferrous sulphate, ferrous fumarate, or ferrous gluconate. In the present study, we compared iron uptake and absorption from various solid and liquid iron supplement preparations currently available in the United Kingdom using the well-characterised human epithelial adenocarcinoma cell line Caco-2. Intracellular ferritin protein formation by the Caco-2 cell was considered an indicator of cellular iron uptake and absorption. We investigated the effects of formulation ingredients at a defined pH on iron uptake and absorption, and designed a novel two-stage dissolution-absorption protocol that mimicked physiological conditions. Our experiments revealed wide variations in the rate of dissolution between the various solid iron preparations. Conventional-release ferrous iron tablets dissolved rapidly (48 ± 4 mins to 64 ± 4 mins), whereas modified-released tablets and capsules took significantly longer to undergo complete dissolution (274 ± 8 to 256 ± 8 mins). Among the solid iron preparations, ferrous sulphate conventional-release tablets demon-strated the highest iron absorption, whereas modified-release ferrous prepa-rations demonstrated uniformly low iron absorption, as compared to the control (P < 0.05). Taken together, our results demonstrate that there are wide-ranging variations in dissolution times and iron uptake from oral iron preparations, with the physical characteristics of the preparation as well as the form of iron playing a key role.

JournalScientia Pharmaceutica
Journal citation81 (4), pp. 1123-1139
ISSN0036-8709
Year2013
PublisherScientia Pharmaceutica
FileZariwala_et_al_2013_as_published.pdf
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)doi:10.3797/scipharm.1304-03
Publication dates
Published2013

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Structure/function overview of proteins involved in iron storage and transport
Sargent, P.J., Farnaud, S. and Evans, R.W. 2005. Structure/function overview of proteins involved in iron storage and transport. Current Medicinal Chemistry. 12 (23), pp. 2683-2693. doi:10.2174/092986705774462969

Comparative immunomodulatory properties of a chitosan-MDP adjuvant combination following intranasal or intramuscular immunisation
Moschos, S.A., Bramwell, V.W., Somavarapu, S. and Alpar, H.O. 2005. Comparative immunomodulatory properties of a chitosan-MDP adjuvant combination following intranasal or intramuscular immunisation. Vaccine. 23 (16), pp. 1923-1930. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2004.10.016

Lactoferrin: the conductor of the immunological system?
Farnaud, S. and Evans, R.W. 2005. Lactoferrin: the conductor of the immunological system? in: Veskler, B.A. (ed.) New research on immunology New York Nova Science Publishers.

Adjuvant synergy: the effects of nasal coadministration of adjuvants
Moschos, S.A., Bramwell, V.W., Somavarapu, S. and Alpar, H.O. 2004. Adjuvant synergy: the effects of nasal coadministration of adjuvants. Immunology and Cell Biology. 82 (6), pp. 628-637. doi:10.1111/j.0818-9641.2004.01280.x

Variation in antimicrobial activity of lactoferricin-derived peptides explained by structure modelling
Farnaud, S., Patel, A., Odell, E.W. and Evans, R.W. 2004. Variation in antimicrobial activity of lactoferricin-derived peptides explained by structure modelling. FEMS Microbiology Letters. 238 (1), pp. 221-226. doi:10.1111/j.1574-6968.2004.tb09759.x

The plug domain of a neisserial TonB-dependent transporter retains structural integrity in the absence of its transmembrane β-barrel
Oke, M., Sarra, R., Ghirlando, R., Farnaud, S., Gorringe, A.R., Evans, R.W. and Buchanan, S.K. 2004. The plug domain of a neisserial TonB-dependent transporter retains structural integrity in the absence of its transmembrane β-barrel. FEBS Letters. 564 (3), pp. 294-300. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(04)00196-6

Interactions of lactoferricin-derived peptides with LPS and antimicrobial activity
Farnaud, S., Spiller, C., Moriarty, L.C., Patel, A., Gant, V., Odell, E.W. and Evans, R.W. 2004. Interactions of lactoferricin-derived peptides with LPS and antimicrobial activity. FEMS Microbiology Letters. 233 (2/29), pp. 193-199. doi:10.1111/j.1574-6968.2004.tb09482.x

New strategies in vaccine research: targeting quorum sensing pathways for prophylaxis against antibiotic-resistant S. aureus infections
Moschos, S.A., Pandit, S., Somavarapu, S., Balaban, N. and Alpar, H.O. 2004. New strategies in vaccine research: targeting quorum sensing pathways for prophylaxis against antibiotic-resistant S. aureus infections. Proceedings of the 31st International Symposium for the Controlled Release of Bioactive Materials 2004. Honolulu, USA 12 - 16 Jun 2004 pp. 526

Lactoferrin: a multifunctional protein with antimicrobial properties
Farnaud, S. and Evans, R.W. 2003. Lactoferrin: a multifunctional protein with antimicrobial properties. Molecular Immunology. 40 (7), pp. 395-405. doi:10.1016/S0161-5890(03)00152-4

Bacterial lipopolysaccharide directly stimulates cortisol secretion in human adrenal cells
Vakharia, K., Renshaw, D. and Hinson, J.P. 2002. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide directly stimulates cortisol secretion in human adrenal cells. Endocrine Research. 28 (4), pp. 357-361. doi:10.1081/ERC-120016809

Bacterial Lipopolysaccharide directly stimulates cortisol secretion in human adrenal cells
Vakharia, K., Renshaw, D. and Hinson, J.P. 2002. Bacterial Lipopolysaccharide directly stimulates cortisol secretion in human adrenal cells. Endocrine Research. 28 (4), pp. 357-361. doi:10.1081/ERC-120016809

Support for a three-dimensional structure predicting a Cys-Glu-Lys catalytic triad for Pseudomonas aeruginosa amidase comes from site-directed mutagenesis and mutations altering substrate specificity
Novo, C., Farnaud, S., Tata, R., Clemente, A. and Brown, P.R. 2002. Support for a three-dimensional structure predicting a Cys-Glu-Lys catalytic triad for Pseudomonas aeruginosa amidase comes from site-directed mutagenesis and mutations altering substrate specificity. Biochemical Journal. 365 (3), pp. 731-738. doi:10.1042/BJ20011714

Regulation of rat adrenal vasoactive intestinal peptide content: effects of adrenocorticotropic hormone treatment and changes in dietary sodium intake
Hinson, J.P., Renshaw, D., Carroll, M. and Kapas, S. 2001. Regulation of rat adrenal vasoactive intestinal peptide content: effects of adrenocorticotropic hormone treatment and changes in dietary sodium intake. Journal of Neuroendocrinology. 13 (9), pp. 769-773. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2826.2001.00692.x

Immunogenicity of adjuvanted recombinant urease administered intranasally
Moschos, S.A., Somavarapu, S., Singh, J., Bramwell, V.W., Randall, L., Guy, B. and Alpar, H.O. 2001. Immunogenicity of adjuvanted recombinant urease administered intranasally. Proceedings of the 28th International Symposium for the Controlled Release of Bioactive Materials. San Diego, USA 23 - 27 Jun 2001 pp. 7033

Immunogenicity of adjuvanted recombinant urease administered intra-muscularly
Moschos, S.A., Somavarapu, S., Eyles, J.E., McHugh, C., Bramwell, V.W., Randall, L., Guy, B. and Alpar, H.O. 2001. Immunogenicity of adjuvanted recombinant urease administered intra-muscularly. Proceedings of the 28th International Symposium for the Controlled Release of Bioactive Materials. San Diego, USA 23 - 27 Jun 2001 pp. 7033

Evaluation of adjuvanted recombinant urease for effective immunization against Helicobacter pylori
Moschos, S.A., Somavarapu, S., Eyles, J.E., McHugh, C., Bramwell, V.W., Randall, L., Guy, B. and Alpar, H.O. 2001. Evaluation of adjuvanted recombinant urease for effective immunization against Helicobacter pylori. Immunology. 104 (s1), p. 98. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2567.2001.1040s1070.x

Quil-A and MDP enhances the adjuvanticity of alum for intramuscular delivery of rURE
Moschos, S.A., Somavarapu, S., Bramwell, V.W., Randall, L., Guy, B. and Alpar, H.O. 2001. Quil-A and MDP enhances the adjuvanticity of alum for intramuscular delivery of rURE. Immunology. 104 (s1), p. 98. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2567.2001.1040s1070.x

Microsphere encapsulated Diphtheria Toxoid induces protein secretion from in-vitro Peyers’ patches and in vivo
Turner, J.J., Somavarapu, S., Moschos, S.A., Randall, L., Simpkin, G. and Alpar, H.O. 2000. Microsphere encapsulated Diphtheria Toxoid induces protein secretion from in-vitro Peyers’ patches and in vivo. Proceedings of the 3rd World Meeting APV/APGI 2000. Berlin, Germany 3 - 6 Apr 2000 pp. 389-390

Novel protein secretion from both ex-vivo Peyers’ patches and in-vivo; induction by microsphere encapsulated diphtheria toxoid
Moschos, S.A., Somavarapu, S., Singh, J., Bramwell, V.W., Randall, L., Guy, B. and Alpar, H.O. 2000. Novel protein secretion from both ex-vivo Peyers’ patches and in-vivo; induction by microsphere encapsulated diphtheria toxoid. Proceedings of the 27th International Symposium for the Controlled Release of Bioactive Materials. Paris, France 09 - 13 Jul 2001 pp. 562-563

Evidence that cysteine-166 is the active-site nucleophile of Pseudomonas aeruginosa amidase: crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the enzyme
Farnaud, S., Tata, R., Sohi, M.K., Wan, T., Brown, P.R. and Sutton, B.J. 1999. Evidence that cysteine-166 is the active-site nucleophile of Pseudomonas aeruginosa amidase: crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the enzyme. Biochemical Journal. 340 (3), pp. 711-714.

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