Maternal haemoglobin during pregnancy and offspring's educational achievement: a prospective cohort study over 30 years

Fararouei, M., Robertson, C.E., Whittaker, J.C., Sovio, U., Ruokonen, A., Pouta, A., Hartikainen, A.L., Jarvelin, M.R. and Hyppönen, E. 2010. Maternal haemoglobin during pregnancy and offspring's educational achievement: a prospective cohort study over 30 years. British Journal of Nutrition. 104 (9), pp. 1363-1368.

TitleMaternal haemoglobin during pregnancy and offspring's educational achievement: a prospective cohort study over 30 years
AuthorsFararouei, M., Robertson, C.E., Whittaker, J.C., Sovio, U., Ruokonen, A., Pouta, A., Hartikainen, A.L., Jarvelin, M.R. and Hyppönen, E.
Abstract

The aim of the present study was to examine the association between maternal Hb levels during pregnancy and educational achievement of the offspring in later life. We analysed data obtained from the Northern Finnish Birth Cohort Study conducted in 1966, in which, data on mothers and offspring from pregnancy through to the age of 31 years were collected. The cohort comprised 11 656 individuals born from singleton births (51 % males and 49 % females). Maternal Hb levels were available from the third, seventh and ninth gestational months. Educational achievement was measured as school scores (range 4-10) taken at the ages of 14 (self-reported questionnaires) and 16 (school reports) years as well as the highest level of education at the age of 31 years. The present results showed a direct positive association between Hb levels and educational achievement in later life. After adjustment for sex, birth weight, birth month and a wide range of maternal factors (parity, smoking, mental status, whether pregnancy was wanted or not, education, social class and marital status), only maternal Hb levels that were measured at the ninth month were significantly associated with the offspring's school performance. If the levels were ≥ 110 g/l at all the three measurement points, offspring not only had better school scores at the ages of 14 and 16 years (β = 0·048, P = 0·04 and β = 0·68, P = 0·007, respectively), but also had an increased odds of having a higher level of education at the age of 31 years (OR = 1·14, P = 0·04). The present study suggests that low maternal Hb levels at the final stages of pregnancy are linked to the poorer educational achievement of the offspring. If our observation is confirmed, it would suggest that Fe prophylaxis even at fairly late stages of pregnancy may be beneficial for the subsequent health of the offspring. However, more studies are needed to fully establish the potential pathways and the clinical importance of the present findings.

JournalBritish Journal of Nutrition
Journal citation104 (9), pp. 1363-1368
ISSN0007-1145
YearNov 2010
PublisherCambridge University Press
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)doi:10.1017/S0007114510002175
Publication dates
PublishedNov 2010

Related outputs

Dietary Assessment of Undernutrition
Robertson, C.E. 2018. Dietary Assessment of Undernutrition. in: Hickson, M. and Smith, S. (ed.) Advanced Nutrition and Dietetics in Nutrition Support Chichester Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 82-90

Cadherin-5: a biomarker for metastatic breast cancer with optimum efficacy in oestrogen receptor-positive breast cancers with vascular invasion
Fry, S., Robertson, C.E., Swann, R. and Dwek, M. 2016. Cadherin-5: a biomarker for metastatic breast cancer with optimum efficacy in oestrogen receptor-positive breast cancers with vascular invasion. British Journal of Cancer. 114, pp. 1019-1026.

The Breast Cancer Cookbook
Keshtgar, M., Robertson, C.E. and Dwek, M. Keshtgar, M. (ed.) 2015. The Breast Cancer Cookbook. London Quadrille.

An investigation of the protective effect of alpha+-thalassaemia against severe Plasmodium falciparum amongst children in Kumasi, Ghana
Opoku-Okrah, C., Gordge, M.P., Kweku Nakua, E., Abgenyega, T., Parry, M., Robertson, C.E. and Smith, C.L. 2014. An investigation of the protective effect of alpha+-thalassaemia against severe Plasmodium falciparum amongst children in Kumasi, Ghana. International Journal of Laboratory Haematology. 36 (1), pp. 62-70.

The DietCompLyf study: a prospective cohort study of breast cancer survival and phytoestrogen consumption
Swann, R., Perkins, K.A., Velentzis, L.S., Ciria, C., Dutton, S., Mulligan, A.A., Woodside, J., Cantwell, M.M., Leathem, A., Robertson, C.E. and Dwek, M. 2013. The DietCompLyf study: a prospective cohort study of breast cancer survival and phytoestrogen consumption. Maturitas. 75 (3), pp. 232-240.

Relationship of dietary monounsaturated fatty acids to blood pressure: the international study of macro/micronutrients and blood pressure
Miura, K., Stamler, J., Brown, I.J., Ueshima, H., Nakagawa, H., Sakurai, M., Chan, Q., Appel, L.J., Okayama, A., Okuda, N., Curb, J.D., Rodriguez, B.L., Robertson, C.E., Zhao, L. and Elliott, P. 2013. Relationship of dietary monounsaturated fatty acids to blood pressure: the international study of macro/micronutrients and blood pressure. Journal of Hypertension. 31 (6), pp. 1144-1150.

Maternal nutrition: building foundations of long term good health
Salisbury, C. and Robertson, C.E. 2013. Maternal nutrition: building foundations of long term good health. Nutrition Bulletin. 38 (2), pp. 249-253.

The DietCompLyf study: a prospective longitudinal study of breast cancer survival
Swann, R., Perkins, A., Velentzis, L.S., Mulligan, A.M., Woodside, J., Cantwell, M.M., Dutton, S., Leathem, A., Robertson, C.E. and Dwek, M. 2012. The DietCompLyf study: a prospective longitudinal study of breast cancer survival. European Journal of Cancer. 48 (5), p. S216.

DietCompLyf study: a multi-centre UK study on breast cancer. What are the dietary and lifestyle changes following diagnosis?
Perkins, A., Swann, R., Woodside, J., Robertson, C.E., Dutton, S., Mulligan, A.M., Velentzis, L.S., Keshtgar, M.R., Leathem, A. and Dwek, M. 2012. DietCompLyf study: a multi-centre UK study on breast cancer. What are the dietary and lifestyle changes following diagnosis? European Journal of Cancer. 48 (5), p. S282.

Do public health messages impact on knowledge, diet and lifestyle choices of women during pregnancy?
Salisbury, C. and Robertson, C.E. 2012. Do public health messages impact on knowledge, diet and lifestyle choices of women during pregnancy? International Journal of Food, Nutrition and Public Health. 5 (4), pp. 225-247.

Alpha thalassaemia and the severity of Plasmodium falciparum infection in microcytic children from the Ashanti region of Ghana
Opoku-Okrah, C., Smith, C.L., Gordge, M.P., Parry, M., Robertson, C.E., Abgenyega, T. and Nakua, E. 2012. Alpha thalassaemia and the severity of Plasmodium falciparum infection in microcytic children from the Ashanti region of Ghana. British Society for Haematology 52nd meeting. Glasgow 16-18 April 2012

A comparison of self-reported analgesic use and detection of urinary ibuprofen and acetaminophen metabolites by means of metabonomics
Loo, R.L., Chan, Q., Brown, I.J., Robertson, C.E., Stamler, J., Nicholson, J.K., Holmes, E. and Elliott, P. 2012. A comparison of self-reported analgesic use and detection of urinary ibuprofen and acetaminophen metabolites by means of metabonomics. American Journal of Epidemiology. 175 (4), pp. 348-358.

Sugar-sweetened beverage, sugar intake of individuals, and their blood pressure: international study of macro/micronutrients and blood pressure
Brown, I.J., Stamler, J., Van Horn, L., Robertson, C.E., Chan, Q., Dyer, A.R., Huang, C.C., Rodriguez, B.L., Zhao, L., Daviglus, M.L., Ueshima, H. and Elliott, P. 2011. Sugar-sweetened beverage, sugar intake of individuals, and their blood pressure: international study of macro/micronutrients and blood pressure. Hypertension. 57 (4), pp. 695-701.

Abstract B76 - An overview of the DietCompLyf study - a multicentre UK study to evaluate the role of diet, lifestyle and complementary medicine use on breast cancer recurrence
Swann, R., Perkins, A., Dahya, P., Woodside, J., Dutton, S., Robertson, C.E., Velentzis, L.S., Leathem, A. and Dwek, M. 2011. Abstract B76 - An overview of the DietCompLyf study - a multicentre UK study to evaluate the role of diet, lifestyle and complementary medicine use on breast cancer recurrence. National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) Cancer Conference 2011. BT Convention Centre, Liverpool, UK 06 - 09 Nov 2011

High-dose vitamin D supplements are not associated with linear growth in a large Finnish cohort
Hyppönen, E., Fararouei, M., Sovio, U., Hartikainen, A.L., Pouta, A., Robertson, C.E., Whittaker, J.C. and Jarvelin, M.R. 2011. High-dose vitamin D supplements are not associated with linear growth in a large Finnish cohort. Journal of Nutrition. 141 (5), pp. 843-848.

A new food frequency questionnaire designed to measure the intake of fatty acids and antioxidants in children
Stiegler, P., Sausenthaler, S., Buyken, A.E., Rzehak, P., Czech, D., Linseisen, J., Kroke, A., Gedrich, K., Robertson, C.E. and Heinrich, J. 2010. A new food frequency questionnaire designed to measure the intake of fatty acids and antioxidants in children. Public Health Nutrition. 13 (1), pp. 38-46.

Dietary starch intake of individuals and their blood pressure: the international study of macronutrients and micronutrients and blood pressure
Brown, I.J., Elliott, P., Robertson, C.E., Chan, Q., Daviglus, M.L., Dyer, A.R., Huang, C.C., Rodriguez, B.L., Sakata, K., Ueshima, H., Van Horn, L., Zhao, L. and Stamler, J. 2009. Dietary starch intake of individuals and their blood pressure: the international study of macronutrients and micronutrients and blood pressure. Journal of Hypertension. 27 (2), pp. 231-236.

Relationship of dietary linoleic acid to blood pressure: the international study of macro-micronutrients and blood pressure study
Miura, K., Stamler, J., Nakagawa, H., Elliott, P., Ueshima, H., Chan, Q., Brown, I.J., Tzoulaki, I., Saitoh, S., Dyer, A.R., Daviglus, M.L., Kesteloot, H., Okayama, A., Curb, J.D., Rodriguez, B.L., Elmer, P.J., Steffen, L.M., Robertson, C.E. and Zhao, L. 2008. Relationship of dietary linoleic acid to blood pressure: the international study of macro-micronutrients and blood pressure study. Hypertension. 52 (2), pp. 408-414.

Dietary and supplemental iron, red meat, and blood pressure: INTERMAP study
Tzoulaki, I., Brown, I.J., Chan, Q., van Horn, L., Robertson, C.E., Stamler, J. and Elliott, P. 2008. Dietary and supplemental iron, red meat, and blood pressure: INTERMAP study. 48th Cardiovascular Disease Epidemiology and Prevention Conference. The Broadmoor Hotel - Colorado Springs, CO 13 - 15 Mar 2008

The application of post-market monitoring to novel foods
Hepburn, P., Boeing, H., Cockburn, A., Constable, A., Davi, A., de Jong, N., Howlett, J., Moseley, B., Oberdorfer, R., Robertson, C.E., Wal, J.M., Samuels, F. and de Sesmaisons, A. 2008. The application of post-market monitoring to novel foods. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 46 (1), pp. 9-33.

Relationship of glycaemic index with cardiovascular risk factors: analysis of the National Diet and Nutrition Survey for people aged 65 and older
Milton, J.E., Briche, B., Brown, I.J., Hickson, M., Robertson, C.E. and Frost, G.S. 2007. Relationship of glycaemic index with cardiovascular risk factors: analysis of the National Diet and Nutrition Survey for people aged 65 and older. Public Health Nutrition. 10 (11), pp. 1321-1335.

Dietary carbohydrate intake of individuals (total, starch, total sugar) and their blood pressure: INTERMAP study
Brown, I.J., Elliott, P., Chan, Q., Daviglus, M.L., Dyer, A.R., Huang, S., Rodriguez, B.L., Sakata, K., Ueshima, H., Van Horn, L., Stamler, J. and Robertson, C.E. 2007. Dietary carbohydrate intake of individuals (total, starch, total sugar) and their blood pressure: INTERMAP study. 47th Annual Conference on Cardiovascular Disease Epidemiology and Prevention in association with the Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism. Buena Vista Palace - Orlando, FL 28 Feb - 03 Mar 2007 Nature Publishing Group.

Post-market monitoring: Why? What? How?
Robertson, C.E. 2006. Post-market monitoring: Why? What? How? FoodInfo: the newsletter of the International Food Information Service.

Biomarkers for nutrient-gene interactions
Robertson, C.E. and Vineis, P. 2006. Biomarkers for nutrient-gene interactions. in: Choi, S.W. and Friso, S. (ed.) Nutrient-gene interactions in cancer London, UK CRC Press, Taylor & Francis. pp. 37-55

Attainment of precision in implementation of 24 h dietary recalls: INTERMAP UK
Robertson, C.E., Conway, R., Dennis, B.H., Yarnell, J., Stamler, J. and Elliott, P. 2005. Attainment of precision in implementation of 24 h dietary recalls: INTERMAP UK. British Journal of Nutrition. 94 (4), pp. 588-594.

Salt intake and cardiovascular health in adults: analysis of INTERMAP study and NDNS
Robertson, C.E., Hurley, J. and Elliott, P. 2005. Salt intake and cardiovascular health in adults: analysis of INTERMAP study and NDNS. London, UK Food Standards Agency.

Post-market surveillance of novel foods
Robertson, C.E. 2005. Post-market surveillance of novel foods. Food Science & Technology. 19 (2), pp. 35-37.

Book review: When food kills: BSE, E coli and disaster science
Robertson, C.E. 2005. Book review: When food kills: BSE, E coli and disaster science. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health. 59 (3), p. 250.

Standardised coding of diet records: experiences from INTERMAP UK
Conway, R., Robertson, C.E., Dennis, B.H., Stamler, J. and Elliott, P. 2004. Standardised coding of diet records: experiences from INTERMAP UK. British Journal of Nutrition. 91 (5), pp. 765-771.

Surveillance and post market monitoring of potential health effects of novel (including GM) foods: feasibility study
Elliott, P., Robertson, C.E., Diamond, J. and Best, N. 2004. Surveillance and post market monitoring of potential health effects of novel (including GM) foods: feasibility study. London, UK Food Standards Agency.

Nutrient intakes of middle-aged men and women in China, Japan, United Kingdom, and United States in the late 1990s: the INTERMAP study
Zhou, B.F., Stamler, J., Dennis, B.H., Moag-Stahlberg, A., Okuda, N., Robertson, C.E., Zhao, L., Chan, Q. and Elliott, P. 2003. Nutrient intakes of middle-aged men and women in China, Japan, United Kingdom, and United States in the late 1990s: the INTERMAP study. Journal of Human Hypertension. 17 (9), pp. 623-630.

Higher blood pressure in middle-aged American adults with less education - role of multiple dietary factors: the INTERMAP study
Stamler, J., Elliott, P., Appel, L.J., Chan, Q., Buzzard, M., Dennis, B.H., Dyer, A.R., Elmer, P.J., Greenland, P., Jones, D., Kesteloot, H., Kuller, L., Labarthe, D., Liu, K., Moag-Stahlberg, A., Nichaman, M., Okayama, A., Okuda, N., Robertson, C.E., Rodriguez, B.L., Stevens, M., Ueshima, H., Van Horn, L. and Zhou, B.F. 2003. Higher blood pressure in middle-aged American adults with less education - role of multiple dietary factors: the INTERMAP study. Journal of Human Hypertension. 17 (9), pp. 655-664.

INTERMAP: the dietary data - process and quality control
Dennis, B.H., Stamler, J., Buzzard, M., Conway, R., Elliott, P., Moag-Stahlberg, A., Okayama, A., Okuda, N., Robertson, C.E., Robinson, F., Schakel, S.F., Stevens, M., Van Heel, N., Zhao, L. and Zhou, B.F. 2003. INTERMAP: the dietary data - process and quality control. Journal of Human Hypertension. 17 (9), pp. 609-622.

Enhancing data on nutrient composition of foods eaten by participants in the INTERMAP study in China, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States
Schakel, S.F., Dennis, B.H., Wold, A.C., Conway, R., Zhao, L., Okuda, N., Okayama, A., Moag-Stahlberg, A., Robertson, C.E., Van Heel, N., Buzzard, M. and Stamler, J. 2003. Enhancing data on nutrient composition of foods eaten by participants in the INTERMAP study in China, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 16 (3), pp. 395-408.

Tracing ingestion of 'novel' foods in UK diets for possible health surveillance: a feasibility study
Robertson, C.E., Best, N., Diamond, J. and Elliott, P. 2003. Tracing ingestion of 'novel' foods in UK diets for possible health surveillance: a feasibility study. Public Health Nutrition. 7 (2), pp. 345-352.

Book review: McCance and Widdowson's the composition of foods - sixth summary edition
Robertson, C.E. 2003. Book review: McCance and Widdowson's the composition of foods - sixth summary edition. Nutrition Bulletin. 28 (1), pp. 81-83.

Permalink - https://westminsterresearch.westminster.ac.uk/item/90169/maternal-haemoglobin-during-pregnancy-and-offspring-s-educational-achievement-a-prospective-cohort-study-over-30-years


Share this
Tweet
Email