Most air travel forecasts predict a long-term rise in demand, with limited consideration of any limits to growth. However for any given population there will be those who have not flown recently (‘infrequent flyers’), as well as non-flyers, and little is known about these and whether they are likely to fly in the future. The aim of this paper is to analyse the characteristics of these groups and the reasons for their travel habits, using the UK as a case study. The findings show that infrequent flyers make up a heterogeneous consumer group whose non-flying is influenced more by budget constraints and personal circumstances than specific aviation factors. Comparisons with Belgian, German and Dutch infrequent flyers indicate some similarities, although there are differences in the relative importance of the reasons for not flying. The findings have implications for the aviation industry and regulators, and policy areas related to consumers and climate change.