Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are a family of prokaryotic-derived biodegradable and biocompatible natural polymers known to exhibit neuroregenerative properties. In this work, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate), P(3HB) and poly(3-hydroxyoctanoate), P(3HO), have been combined to form blend fibres for directional guidance of neuronal cell growth and differentiation. A 25:75 P(3HO)/P(3HB) blend (PHA blend) was used for the manufacturing of electrospun fibres as resorbable scaffolds to be used as internal guidance lumen structures in nerve conduits. The biocompatibility of these fibres was studied using neuronal and Schwann cells. Highly aligned and uniform fibres with varying diameters were fabricated by controlling electrospinning parameters. The resulting fibre diameters were 2.4 ± 0.3 µm, 3.7 ± 0.3 µm and 13.5 ± 2.3 µm for small, medium and large diameter fibres respectively. The cell response to these electrospun fibres was investigated with respect to growth and differentiation. Cell migration observed on the electrospun fibres showed topographical guidance in accordance with the direction of the fibres. The correlation between fibre diameter and neuronal growth under two conditions; individually and in co-culture with Schwann cells was evaluated. Results obtained from both assays revealed that all PHA blend fibre groups were able to support growth and guide aligned distribution of neuronal cells and there was a direct correlation between the fibre diameter and neuronal growth and differentiation. This work has led to the development of a family of unique biodegradable and highly biocompatible 3D substrates capable of guiding and facilitating the growth, proliferation and differentiation of neuronal cells as internal structures within nerve conduits.