Populated Collagen Hydrogel and Polyhydroxyalkanoate Composites: Novel Matrices for Cartilage Repair and Regeneration?

De Pascale, C., Marcello, E., Getting, S.J., Roy, I. and Locke, I.C. Populated Collagen Hydrogel and Polyhydroxyalkanoate Composites: Novel Matrices for Cartilage Repair and Regeneration? OARSI World Congress on Osteoarthritis . Toronto, Canada 02 Mar - 05 May 2019

TitlePopulated Collagen Hydrogel and Polyhydroxyalkanoate Composites: Novel Matrices for Cartilage Repair and Regeneration?
AuthorsDe Pascale, C., Marcello, E., Getting, S.J., Roy, I. and Locke, I.C.
TypeConference poster
Abstract

Purpose
Articular cartilage is an avascular connective tissue present in joints which covers the ends of opposing bones providing a smooth, shock absorbing surface to promote normal joint function. Normal cartilage structure is maintained by chondrocytes, the only cell type present. Abnormal function/death of these cells, due to long- term “wear and tear” and other risk factors results in cartilage loss and osteoarthritis (OA). There is currently no cure for OA, the most common treatments simply involve the management of joint pain, or surgical treatments, which are not able to restore cartilage function.
In recent years, cartilage repair has been approached with engineered scaffolds, able to support the growth of chondrocytes or progenitor cells to generate a neo-tissue, but the neo tissue generated is often fibrocartilage, mechanically inferior and less–durable than the hyaline cartilage normally found in healthy articular joints, indicating that further research is required to develop a more suitable scaffolds.
The aim of this study has been to assess the properties of collagen I hydrogel 3D scaffolds, populated with the phenotypically stable chondrocytes cell line C20/A4, strengthened with solvent cast and 3D printed Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) polymer.
PHAs are a family of biopolyesters synthesized by bacteria with monomers of varying chain lengths (C4-C16) which can be blended to produce products with different mechanical properties. PHAs are biodegradable, non-toxic and biocompatible.
It has been already established that PHA scaffolds are able to support chondrocyte growth and activity but despite that, they do not represent the natural environment for chondrocyte metabolism, collagen production and cartilage regeneration. A combination collagen hydrogel and PHA scaffold that addresses this issue would be highly desirable.
Methods
Polymer production and preparation
PHAs were produced by Pseudomonas mendocina CH50 in batch fermentation conditions using a 15 L bioreactor with an operating fermenter volume of 10 L. with glucose as the sole carbon source under nitrogen limiting conditions. PHA film and scaffolds were either prepared using the solvent casting method incorporating large NaCl crystals (which were later dissolved out) to form a porous structure or with a 3D melt printing method.
Collagen gel preparation and seeding:
Type I collagen constructs were prepared with chondrocytes by mixing type I collagen polymer suspension with 10modified Eagle’s medium (MEM) and 1M NaOH solution was added dropwise, to neutralise the acidic gel mixture. This gel solution was then mixed with a cell suspension of C-20/A4 cells in Dulbecco’s MEM (DMEM)-based medium containing 1% foetal calf serum (FCS) . 1.2 ml constructs were cast in 24 well plates either on their own or with the addition of solvent cast PHA polymers or 3D printed PHA polymers. Gels were then allowed to solidify by incubation at 37 C for 5-10 minutes, overlaid with DMEM medium (1% FCS) and cultured for 1 or 7 days, at 37 C and 5% CO2.
Compression Studies:
Gels were subjected to compression, at 0,6KN/m2 for 5 minutes in a custom built apparatus. The displacement of gels was measured over time.

Results

The compression testing data demonstrates that type I collagen gels, seeded with C-20/A4 chondrocytes (control gels), exhibit changes in their mechanical properties over time, with an increased resistance and smaller displacement at Day 7 compare to Day 1.
The addition of solvent cast and 3D printed scaffolds increase the mechanical resistance of the construct when compared to the populated control gels (collagen matix only) at DAY 1 and is even more evident at DAY 7. 3D printed scaffolds also show higher stiffness of the construct compared to the control and solvent cast polymer samples.

Cytotoxicity testing performed with Alamar blue staining, on chondrocyte populations grown on PHA films, indicates that there are no cytotoxic effects of the polymer on cell viability at any of time points analysed over 7 days. Trypan Blue staining, after 5 minutes compression test, reveals no significant difference in viability in any of the samples containing PHA polymer (solvent cast or 3D printed) compare to control samples.

Conclusions
In conclusion, these studies suggest that a composite collagen gel-PHA construct provides a supportive environment for the maintenance of chondrocyte activity increasing the initial resistance of the structure to compression, whilst the embedded chondrocytes remodel the Type I collagen gel to form a more cartilage like structure. This may offer a potential application of collagen hydrogel-PHA scaffolds for clinical use in support of cartilage regeneration in small and contained osteoarthritic lesions.

ConferenceOARSI World Congress on Osteoarthritis

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Murphy, T., Nilsson, A., Roy, I., Harrop, A., Dixon, K. and Keshavarz, T. 2011. Enhanced intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis after addition of oligosaccharide elicitors. Biotechnology Letters. 33 (5), pp. 985-991.

Medium chain length polyhydroxyalkanoates, promising new biomedical materials for the future
Rai, R., Keshavarz, T., Roether, J.A., Boccaccini, A.R. and Roy, I. 2011. Medium chain length polyhydroxyalkanoates, promising new biomedical materials for the future. Materials Science and Engineering R: Reports. 72 (3), pp. 29-47.

Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates and their medical applications
Roy, I., Akaraonye, E., Francis, L., Rai, R., Basnett, P. and Keshavarz, T. 2011. Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates and their medical applications. 7th International Conference on Polymer and Textile Biotechnology. Milan, Italy 2nd - 4th March 2011

Targeting the melanocortin receptor system for anti-stroke therapy
Holloway, P.M., Smith, H.K., Renshaw, D., Flower, R.J., Getting, S.J. and Gavins, F.N.E. 2011. Targeting the melanocortin receptor system for anti-stroke therapy. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences. 32 (2), pp. 90-98.

Influence of chylomicron remnants on human monocyte activation in vitro
Bentley, C., Hathaway, N., Widdows, J., Bejta, F., De Pascale, C., Avella, M., Wheeler-Jones, C.P.D., Botham, K.M. and Lawson, C. 2011. Influence of chylomicron remnants on human monocyte activation in vitro. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis.. 21 (11), pp. 871-878.

Imaging internal features of whole, unfixed bacteria
Thomson, N., Channon, K., Mokhtar, N.A., Staniewicz, L., Rai, R., Roy, I., Sato, S., Tsuge, T., Donald, A.M., Summers, D. and Sivaniah, E. 2011. Imaging internal features of whole, unfixed bacteria. Scanning. 33 (2), pp. 59-68.

Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates and their biomedical applications
Roy, I., Akaraonye, E., Francis, L., Rai, R., Basnett, P. and Keshavarz, T. 2011. Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates and their biomedical applications. Euro BioMat 2011 - European Symposium on Biomaterials and Related Areas. Jena, Germany

Polyhydroxyalkanoates: the emerging new green polymers of choice
Rai, R. and Roy, I. 2011. Polyhydroxyalkanoates: the emerging new green polymers of choice. in: Sharma, S.K. and Mudhoo, A. (ed.) A handbook of applied biopolymer technology: synthesis, degradation and applications Royal Society of Chemistry.

REV5901 induces calcium dependant chondroprotective effects post in vitro mechanical loading
Parker, E., Qusous, A., Getting, S.J., Hucklebridge, F. and Kerrigan, M.J.P. 2011. REV5901 induces calcium dependant chondroprotective effects post in vitro mechanical loading. ORS Annual Meeting vol. 36. Long Beach, California

Using electrophoretic deposition to identify protein charge in biological medium
Meng, D., Francis, L., Roy, I. and Boccaccini, A.R. 2011. Using electrophoretic deposition to identify protein charge in biological medium. Journal of Applied Electrochemistry. 41 (8), pp. 919-923.

α-MSH and [DTRP]8-γ-MSH inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokine release from stimulated primary bovine chondrocytes
Kaneva, M., Kerrigan, M.J.P., Locke, I.C. and Getting, S.J. 2011. α-MSH and [DTRP]8-γ-MSH inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokine release from stimulated primary bovine chondrocytes. 10th World Congress on Inflammation. Paris, France 25–29 June 2011

MC1 and MC3 activation inhibits caspase-3 production and activity, promotes cell-viability, and induces IL-10 and HO-1 release from human C20/A4 chondrocytes
Kaneva, M., Kerrigan, M.J.P., Locke, I.C. and Getting, S.J. 2011. MC1 and MC3 activation inhibits caspase-3 production and activity, promotes cell-viability, and induces IL-10 and HO-1 release from human C20/A4 chondrocytes. Physiological Society Meeting 23. University of Oxford

Total pituitary hormone content in wild type and MC3 null male and female mice
Dowejko, M.M., Smith, C.L., Getting, S.J., Perretti, M., Le Tissier, P. and Murray, J.F. 2011. Total pituitary hormone content in wild type and MC3 null male and female mice. British Society for Neuroendocrinology. Cambridge 3rd - 5th July 2011

Comparison between the total pituitary hormone content in wild type and melanocortin 3 receptor (MC3) null male and female mice
Dowejko, M.M., Smith, C.L., Getting, S.J., Perretti, M., Le Tissier, P. and Murray, J.F. 2011. Comparison between the total pituitary hormone content in wild type and melanocortin 3 receptor (MC3) null male and female mice. Society for Reproduction and Fertility. Brighton 11th - 13th July 2011

Antiallergic cromones inhibit neutrophil recruitment onto vascular endothelium via Annexin-A1 mobilization
Yazid, S., Leoni, G., Getting, S.J., Cooper, D., Solito, E., Perretti, M. and Flower, R.J. 2010. Antiallergic cromones inhibit neutrophil recruitment onto vascular endothelium via Annexin-A1 mobilization. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology. 30 (9), pp. 1718-1724.

Impact of linoleic acid supplementation on lovastatin production in Aspergillus terreus cultures
Sorrentino, F., Roy, I. and Keshavarz, T. 2010. Impact of linoleic acid supplementation on lovastatin production in Aspergillus terreus cultures. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 88 (1), pp. 65-73.

Production of SCL and MCL polyhydroxyalkanoates and their applications
Roy, I., Akaraonye, E., Francis, L., Rai, R. and Boccaccini, A.R. 2010. Production of SCL and MCL polyhydroxyalkanoates and their applications. 12th International Symposium on Biodegradable Polyesters. Stuttgart, Germany.

Multifunctional P(3HB) microsphere/45S Bioglass ®-based composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering
Francis, L., Meng, D., Boccaccini, A.R. and Roy, I. 2010. Multifunctional P(3HB) microsphere/45S Bioglass ®-based composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. 12th International Symposium on Biodegradable Polyesters. Stuttgart, Germany.

In vitro mutagenesis of the type IV polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase from bacillus cereus SPV
Basnett, P., Philip, S.E., Markhiv, A., Vydayanathan, A. and Roy, I. 2010. In vitro mutagenesis of the type IV polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase from bacillus cereus SPV. 12th International Symposium on Biodegradable Polyesters. Stuttgart, Germany.

Enhanced and economical production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate), a biodegradable polymer and its applications
Akaraonye, E., Safarikova, M., Keshavarz, T. and Roy, I. 2010. Enhanced and economical production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate), a biodegradable polymer and its applications. 12th International Symposium on Biodegradable Polyesters. Stuttgart, Germany.

Multi-functional P(3HB) microsphere/45S5 Bioglass((R))-based composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering
Francis, L., Meng, D., Knowles, J.C., Roy, I. and Boccaccini, A.R. 2010. Multi-functional P(3HB) microsphere/45S5 Bioglass((R))-based composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Acta Biomaterialia. 6 (7), pp. 2773-2786.

The influence of tetracycline loading on the surface morphology and biocompatibility of films made from P(3HB) microspheres
Francis, L., Meng, D., Locke, I.C., Mordon, N., Salih, V., Knowles, J.C., Boccaccini, A.R. and Roy, I. 2010. The influence of tetracycline loading on the surface morphology and biocompatibility of films made from P(3HB) microspheres. Advanced Engineering Materials. 12 (7), pp. B260-B268.

In vitro production of polyhydroxyalkanoates: achievements and applications
Thomson, N., Roy, I., Summers, D. and Sivaniah, E. 2010. In vitro production of polyhydroxyalkanoates: achievements and applications. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology. 85 (6), pp. 760-767.

Fabrication of a novel poly(3-hydroxyoctanoate) / nanoscale bioactive glass composite film with potential as a multifunctional wound dressing
Rai, R., Boccaccini, A.R., Knowles, J.C., Locke, I.C., Gordge, M.P., McCormick, A., Salih, V., Mordon, N., Keshavarz, T. and Roy, I. 2010. Fabrication of a novel poly(3-hydroxyoctanoate) / nanoscale bioactive glass composite film with potential as a multifunctional wound dressing. 5th international conference on times of polymers (TOP) and composites. Ischia, Italy 20–23 June 2010

Polyhydroxyalkanoates: bioplastics with a green agenda
Keshavarz, T. and Roy, I. 2010. Polyhydroxyalkanoates: bioplastics with a green agenda. Current Opinion in Microbiology. 13 (3), pp. 321-326.

Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates: the future green materials of choice
Akaraonye, E., Keshavarz, T. and Roy, I. 2010. Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates: the future green materials of choice. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology. 85 (6), pp. 732-743.

The melanocortin MC1 receptor agonist BMS-470539 inhibits leucocyte trafficking in the inflamed vasculature
Leoni, G., Voisin, M.B., Carlson, K., Getting, S.J., Nourshargh, S. and Perretti, M. 2010. The melanocortin MC1 receptor agonist BMS-470539 inhibits leucocyte trafficking in the inflamed vasculature. British Journal of Pharmacology. 160 (1), pp. 171-180.

Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) multifunctional composite scaffolds for tissue engineering applications
Misra, S.K., Ansari, T.I., Valappil, S.P., Mohn, D., Philip, S.E., Stark, W.J., Roy, I., Knowles, J.C., Salih, V. and Boccaccini, A.R. 2010. Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) multifunctional composite scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. Biomaterials. 31 (10), pp. 2806-2815.

Characterization of carbon nanotube (MWCNT) containing P(3HB)/bioactive glass composites for tissue engineering applications
Misra, S.K., Ohashi, F., Valappil, S.P., Knowles, J.C., Roy, I., Ravi, S., Silva, P., Salih, V. and Boccaccini, A.R. 2010. Characterization of carbon nanotube (MWCNT) containing P(3HB)/bioactive glass composites for tissue engineering applications. Acta Biomaterialia. 6 (3), pp. 735-742.

Effect of nanoparticulate bioactive glass particles on bioactivity and cytocompatibility of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) composites
Misra, S.K., Ansari, T.I., Mohn, D., Valappil, S.P., Brunner, T.J., Stark, W.J., Roy, I., Knowles, J.C., Sibbons, P.D., Valsami-Jones, E., Boccaccini, A.R. and Salih, V. 2010. Effect of nanoparticulate bioactive glass particles on bioactivity and cytocompatibility of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) composites. Journal of the Royal Society Interface. 7 (44), pp. 453-465.

Saliva: physiology and diagnostic potential in health and disease
Farnaud, S., Kosti, O., Getting, S.J. and Renshaw, D. 2010. Saliva: physiology and diagnostic potential in health and disease. ScientificWorldJournal. 10, pp. 434-456.

Activation of testicular melanocortin 3 receptors (MC3-R) inhibits LH-stimulated testosterone production
Akindele, K., Horanin, M.M., Getting, S.J., Smith, C.L. and Murray, J.F. 2010. Activation of testicular melanocortin 3 receptors (MC3-R) inhibits LH-stimulated testosterone production. Society for Endocrinology BES 2010. Manchester 15th - 18th March 2010

Suppression of nuclear factor-kappaB activity in macrophages by chylomicron
De Pascale, C., Graham, V., Fowkes, R.C., Wheeler-Jones, C.P. and Botham, K.M. 2010. Suppression of nuclear factor-kappaB activity in macrophages by chylomicron. European Atherosclerosis Society Meeting . Hamburg, germany 20 - 23 Jun 2010 Elsevier.

P221 lipid droplets in human macrophages recruit cytosolic phospholipase A2 and promote secretion of inflammatory mediators
De Pascale, C., Bostrom, P., Wickström, Y., Mogensen, C., MattssonHultén, L., Perkins, R., Ståhlman, M., Wiklund, O., Olofsson, S.-O. and Borén, J. 2010. P221 lipid droplets in human macrophages recruit cytosolic phospholipase A2 and promote secretion of inflammatory mediators. European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) Conference. Hamburg 20 - 23 Jun 2010 Elsevier.

Polyhydroxyalkanoates, the emerging new green polymers of choice
Rai, R. and Roy, I. 2010. Polyhydroxyalkanoates, the emerging new green polymers of choice. in: Biodegradable polymers and green chemistry Royal Society of Chemistry. pp. 79-97

A13/BACII, a novel bovine chondrocytic cell line with differentiation potential
Qusous, A., Kaneva, M., Getting, S.J. and Kerrigan, M.J.P. 2010. A13/BACII, a novel bovine chondrocytic cell line with differentiation potential. Combined Meeting of Orthopaedic Research Societies. Kyoto, Japan

Cartilage and macrophages: evidence for a paracrine loop. Poster no. 278
Parker, E., Qusous, A., Getting, S.J., Hucklebridge, F. and Kerrigan, M.J.P. 2010. Cartilage and macrophages: evidence for a paracrine loop. Poster no. 278. Combined Meeting of Orthopaedic Research Societies. Kyoto, Japan

Tamoxifen: chondroprotective effects post-mechanical trauma
Parker, E., Peetroons, C., Getting, S.J., Hucklebridge, F. and Kerrigan, M.J.P. 2010. Tamoxifen: chondroprotective effects post-mechanical trauma. Physiological Society Meeting 21. University of Durham

REV5901: chondroprotective effects post mechanical trauma
Parker, E., Noureen, S., Getting, S.J., Vleck, V.E., Hucklebridge, F. and Kerrigan, M.J.P. 2010. REV5901: chondroprotective effects post mechanical trauma. Physiological Society Meeting 19. University of Manchester

The effects of REV5901 on chondrocyte viability following mechanical trauma
Parker, E., Getting, S.J., Hucklebridge, F., Vleck, V.E. and Kerrigan, M.J.P. 2010. The effects of REV5901 on chondrocyte viability following mechanical trauma. British Orthopaedic Research Society Annual Meeting. Newcastle upon Tyne 22 - 23 Jun 2009 Wiley.

Diurnal inflammatory cytokine changes post-exercise. Poster no. 319
Parker, E., Getting, S.J., Hucklebridge, F. and Kerrigan, M.J.P. 2010. Diurnal inflammatory cytokine changes post-exercise. Poster no. 319. Combined Meeting of Orthopaedic Research Societies. Kyoto, Japan

Knee forces and inflammation: the effects of foot strike patterns and footwear
Parker, E., Domah, S., Getting, S.J., Vleck, V.E., Hucklebridge, F. and Kerrigan, M.J.P. 2010. Knee forces and inflammation: the effects of foot strike patterns and footwear. Physiological Society Meeting 19. University of Manchester

Chondroitin and glucosamine supplementation results in increased chondrocyte viability post mechanical trauma in vitro
Parker, E., Begum, N., Wunderlich, C., Ravichandran, N., Getting, S.J., Vleck, V.E., Hucklebridge, F. and Kerrigan, M.J.P. 2010. Chondroitin and glucosamine supplementation results in increased chondrocyte viability post mechanical trauma in vitro. Physiological Society Meeting 19. University of Manchester

REV5901: the protective effect on bovine articular chondrocytes following single impact trauma
Nedelcheva, Y., Getting, S.J. and Kerrigan, M.J.P. 2010. REV5901: the protective effect on bovine articular chondrocytes following single impact trauma. Physiological Society Meeting 19. University of Manchester

REV5901: an investigation on the chondroprotective effect in bovine chondrocytes following single impact trauma
Nedelcheva, Y., Getting, S.J. and Kerrigan, M.J.P. 2010. REV5901: an investigation on the chondroprotective effect in bovine chondrocytes following single impact trauma. Physiological Society Meeting 21. University of Durham

α-MSH and dTRP8-γ-MSH inhibit TNF-α induced MMP 1 and 13 expression in human C20/A4 chondrocytes
Kaneva, M., Locke, I.C., Kerrigan, M.J.P. and Getting, S.J. 2010. α-MSH and dTRP8-γ-MSH inhibit TNF-α induced MMP 1 and 13 expression in human C20/A4 chondrocytes. British Pharmacological Society Winter Meeting 2010. London, UK 14th-16th December 2010

Melanocortin peptides modulate pro-inflammatory mediator release from TNF-a stimulated C-20/A4 cells
Kaneva, M., Kerrigan, M.J.P., Locke, I.C. and Getting, S.J. 2010. Melanocortin peptides modulate pro-inflammatory mediator release from TNF-a stimulated C-20/A4 cells. British Orthopaedic Research Society Annual Meeting. Newcastle upon Tyne 22 - 23 Jun 2009 Wiley. pp. PO136

The MC3 agonist dTRP8-γ-MSH inhibits IL-6 and IL-8 release from TNF-α stimulated C-20/A4 chondrocytes, an effect blocked by the MC3R antagonist SHU9119
Kaneva, M., Kerrigan, M.J.P., Locke, I.C. and Getting, S.J. 2010. The MC3 agonist dTRP8-γ-MSH inhibits IL-6 and IL-8 release from TNF-α stimulated C-20/A4 chondrocytes, an effect blocked by the MC3R antagonist SHU9119. Physiology 2010. University of Manchester 30 June - 2 July 2010

Microbial production of biodegradable polymers and their role in cardiac stent development
Basnett, P. and Roy, I. 2010. Microbial production of biodegradable polymers and their role in cardiac stent development. in: Mendez-Vilas, A. (ed.) Current research, technology and education topics in applied microbiology and microbial biotechnology Formatex Research Center.

Biodegradable polymers and their role in coronary stent development
Basnett, P. and Roy, I. 2010. Biodegradable polymers and their role in coronary stent development. in: Current research in technology and education topics in applied microbiology and microbial biotechnology Formatex Research Center.

Testicular LH-stimulated testosterone production is inhibited by activation of melanocortin 3 receptors (MC3)
Akindele, K., Horanin, M.M., Getting, S.J., Smith, C.L. and Murray, J.F. 2010. Testicular LH-stimulated testosterone production is inhibited by activation of melanocortin 3 receptors (MC3). Society for Reproduction and Fertility. Sutton Bonnington 11th - 13th July 2010

Anti-inflammatory and antiosteoclastogenesis propertiesof endogenous melanocortin receptor type 3 inexperimental arthritis
Patel, H.B., Bombardieri, M., Sampaio, A.L.F., D'Acquisto, F., Gray, M., Grieco, P., Getting, S.J., Pitzalis, C. and Perretti, M. 2010. Anti-inflammatory and antiosteoclastogenesis propertiesof endogenous melanocortin receptor type 3 inexperimental arthritis. FASEB Journal. 24 (12), pp. 4835-4843.

Electrospun nanofibrous biodegradable polyester coatings on Bioglass®-based glass-ceramics for tissue engineering
Bretcanu, O., Misra, S.K., Yunos, D.M., Boccaccini, A.R., Roy, I., Kowalczyk, T., Blonski, S. and Kowalewski, T.A. 2009. Electrospun nanofibrous biodegradable polyester coatings on Bioglass®-based glass-ceramics for tissue engineering. Materials Chemistry and Physics. 118 (2-3), pp. 420-426.

Melanocortin peptide therapy for the treatment of arthritic pathologies
Getting, S.J., Kaneva, M., Bhadresa, Y., Renshaw, D., Leoni, G., Patel, H.B., Kerrigan, M.J.P. and Locke, I.C. 2009. Melanocortin peptide therapy for the treatment of arthritic pathologies. The Scientific World Journal. 9, pp. 1394-1414.

Quantitative PCR study on the mode of action of oligosaccharide elicitors on penicillin G production by Penicillium chrysogenum
Nair, R.R., Roy, I., Bucke, C. and Keshavarz, T. 2009. Quantitative PCR study on the mode of action of oligosaccharide elicitors on penicillin G production by Penicillium chrysogenum. Journal of Applied Microbiology. 107 (4), pp. 1131-1139.

Pro-inflammatory mediator release from TNF-α stimulated C-20/A4 cells results in Col II degradation
Kaneva, M., Kerrigan, M.J.P., Locke, I.C. and Getting, S.J. 2009. Pro-inflammatory mediator release from TNF-α stimulated C-20/A4 cells results in Col II degradation. British Orthopaedic Research Society (BORS) Annual Meeting. Newcastle 22nd - 23rd June 2009

Effect of impeller speed and pH on the production of Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) using Bacillus cereus SPV
Philip, S.E., Sengupta, S., Keshavarz, T. and Roy, I. 2009. Effect of impeller speed and pH on the production of Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) using Bacillus cereus SPV. Biomacromolecules. 10 (4), pp. 691-699.

Incorporation of vitamin E in poly(3hydroxybutyrate)/Bioglass composite films: effect on surface properties and cell attachment
Misra, S.K., Philip, S.E., Chrzanowski, W., Nazhat, S.N., Roy, I., Knowles, J.C., Salih, V. and Boccaccini, A.R. 2009. Incorporation of vitamin E in poly(3hydroxybutyrate)/Bioglass composite films: effect on surface properties and cell attachment. Journal of the Royal Society Interface. 6 (33), pp. 401-409.

In vitro biocompatibility of 45S5 Bioglass®-derived glass-ceramic scaffolds coated with poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)
Bretcanu, O., Misra, S.K., Roy, I., Renghini, C., Fiori, F., Boccaccini, A.R. and Salih, V. 2009. In vitro biocompatibility of 45S5 Bioglass®-derived glass-ceramic scaffolds coated with poly(3-hydroxybutyrate). Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine. 3 (2), pp. 139-148.

Modulation of CYP1A1 by PKC Inhibitors and TPA Pre-Treatments in MH1C1 Rat Hepatoma Cells Exposed to 3 -Methylcholanthrene
De Pascale, C., Domenicotti, C., Nitti, M., Marengo, B., Catalano, M., Scanarotti, C., Sanguineti, R., Siri, M., Ledda, S., Penco, S. and Bassi, A. 2009. Modulation of CYP1A1 by PKC Inhibitors and TPA Pre-Treatments in MH1C1 Rat Hepatoma Cells Exposed to 3 -Methylcholanthrene. The Open Toxicology Journal . (3), pp. 47-57.

Suppression of nuclear factor-κB activity in macrophages by chylomicron remnants: modulation by the fatty acid composition of the particles
De Pascale, C., Graham, V., Fowkes, R.C., Wheeler-Jones, C.P.D. and Botham, K.M. 2009. Suppression of nuclear factor-κB activity in macrophages by chylomicron remnants: modulation by the fatty acid composition of the particles. FEBS Journal. 276 (19), pp. 5689-5702.

Polyhydroxyalkanoate synthases-enzymes involved in biodegradable polymer synthesis
Roy, I., Philip, S.E. and Keshavarz, T. 2009. Polyhydroxyalkanoate synthases-enzymes involved in biodegradable polymer synthesis. COST Action 868: Biotechnical Functionalisation of Renewable Polymeric Materials : Meeting on "Biotechnology and Biopolymers in Textile, Packaging, Cosmetics and Medical Applications". Istanbul, Turkey 19 - 20 Feb 2009

Microbial PHA biosynthesis and its biomedical applications
Roy, I., Philip, S.E., Francis, L., Rai, R., Keshavarz, T., Misra, S.K., Decheng, M. and Boccaccini, A.R. 2009. Microbial PHA biosynthesis and its biomedical applications. in: Proceedings of Euromat 2009, Glasgow, 7 - 10 September 2009 Euromat.

A class IV PHA synthase from Bacillus cereus SPV
Philip, S.E. and Roy, I. 2009. A class IV PHA synthase from Bacillus cereus SPV. in: Kiekens, P., Nierstrasz, V. and Lenting, H.B.M. (ed.) Proceedings of the international conference on textile and polymer biotechnology 6th Het Pand, Ghent, Belgium 23-25 September 2009 Ghent University. Department of Textiles Ghent.

The effects of REV5901 on chondrocyte viability following mechanical trauma
Parker, E., Getting, S.J., Hucklebridge, F., Vleck, V.E. and Kerrigan, M.J.P. 2009. The effects of REV5901 on chondrocyte viability following mechanical trauma. pA2 Online. From the Queen Elizabeth II Conference Centre London, Winter 2009 Meeting: Proceedings of the British Pharmacological Society. 7 (4), p. P0149.

Melanocortin peptides modulate pro-inflammatory mediator release from TNF-a stimulated C-20/A4 cells
Kaneva, M., Kerrigan, M.J.P., Locke, I.C. and Getting, S.J. 2009. Melanocortin peptides modulate pro-inflammatory mediator release from TNF-a stimulated C-20/A4 cells. pA2 Online. From the Queen Elizabeth II Conference Centre London, Winter 2009 Meeting: Proceedings of the British Pharmacological Society.

Molecular characterization of the melanocortin 3 receptor in the testes of mice
Horanin, M.M., Akindele, K., Getting, S.J., Smith, C.L. and Murray, J.F. 2009. Molecular characterization of the melanocortin 3 receptor in the testes of mice. pA2 Online. From the Queen Elizabeth II Conference Centre London, Winter 2009 Meeting: Proceedings of the British Pharmacological Society. 7 (4).

P(3HB) production by Bacillus cereus SPV using sucrose as a carbon source
Akaraonye, E., Keshavarz, T. and Roy, I. 2009. P(3HB) production by Bacillus cereus SPV using sucrose as a carbon source. in: Kiekens, P., Nierstrasz, V. and Lenting, H.B.M. (ed.) Proceedings of the international conference on textile and polymer biotechnology 6th Het Pand, Ghent, Belgium 23-25 September 2009 Ghent University. Department of Textiles Ghent.

Inflamed phenotype of the mesenteric microcirculation of melanocortin type 3 receptor-null mice after ischemia-reperfusion
Leoni, G., Patel, H.B., Sampaio, A.L.F., Gavins, F.N.E., Murray, J.F., Grieco, P., Getting, S.J. and Perretti, M. 2008. Inflamed phenotype of the mesenteric microcirculation of melanocortin type 3 receptor-null mice after ischemia-reperfusion. FASEB Journal. 22 (12), pp. 4228-4238.

A role for MC3R in modulating lung inflammation
Getting, S.J., Riffo-Vasquez, Y., Pitchford, S., Kaneva, M., Grieco, P., Page, C.P., Perretti, M. and Spina, D. 2008. A role for MC3R in modulating lung inflammation. Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 21 (6), pp. 866-873.

Elicitation effects of oligosaccharides on the transcriptional level of bacitracin ABC transporter genes in Bacillus licheniformis
Murphy, T., Roy, I., Harrop, A., Dixon, K. and Keshavarz, T. 2008. Elicitation effects of oligosaccharides on the transcriptional level of bacitracin ABC transporter genes in Bacillus licheniformis. Biotechnology Letters. 30 (9), pp. 1665-1670.

Polyhydroxyalkanoate biosynthesis in Bacillus cereus SPV under varied limiting conditions and an insight into the biosynthetic genes involved
Valappil, S.P., Rai, R., Bucke, C. and Roy, I. 2008. Polyhydroxyalkanoate biosynthesis in Bacillus cereus SPV under varied limiting conditions and an insight into the biosynthetic genes involved. Journal of Applied Microbiology. 104 (6), pp. 1624-1635.

Comparison of nanoscale and microscale bioactive glass on the properties of P(3HB)/Bioglass® composites
Misra, S.K., Mohn, D., Brunner, T.J., Stark, W.J., Philip, S.E., Roy, I., Salih, V., Knowles, J.C. and Boccaccini, A.R. 2008. Comparison of nanoscale and microscale bioactive glass on the properties of P(3HB)/Bioglass® composites. Biomaterials. 29 (12), pp. 1750-1761.

Comparison of nanoscale and microscale bioactive glass on the properties of P(3HB)/Bioglass composites
Misra, S.K., Mohn, D., Brunner, T.J., Stark, W.J., Philip, S.E., Roy, I., Salih, V., Knowles, J.C. and Boccaccini, A.R. 2008. Comparison of nanoscale and microscale bioactive glass on the properties of P(3HB)/Bioglass composites. Biomaterials. 29 (12), pp. 1750-1761.

Metabolite profiles of interacting mycelial fronts differ for pairings of the wood decay basidiomycete fungus, Stereum hirsutum with its competitors Coprinus micaceus and Coprinus disseminatus
Peiris, D., Dunn, W.B., Brown, M., Kell, D.B., Roy, I. and Hedger, J.N. 2008. Metabolite profiles of interacting mycelial fronts differ for pairings of the wood decay basidiomycete fungus, Stereum hirsutum with its competitors Coprinus micaceus and Coprinus disseminatus. Metabolomics. 4 (1), pp. 52-62.

Optimisation of β-glucuronidase production from a newly isolated Ganoderma applanatum
Chouiter, R., Roy, I. and Bucke, C. 2008. Optimisation of β-glucuronidase production from a newly isolated Ganoderma applanatum. Journal of Molecular Catalysis B: Enzymatic. 50 (2-4), pp. 114-120.

Characterization of three human sec14p-like proteins: a-Tocopherol
Zingg, J.M., Kempna, P., Paris, M., Reiter, E., Villacorta, L., Cipollone, R., Munteanu, A., De Pascale, C., Menini, S., Cueff, A., Arock, M., Azzi, A. and Ricciarelli, R. 2008. Characterization of three human sec14p-like proteins: a-Tocopherol. Biochimie . 90 (11-12), p. 1703–1715.

Melanocortin 3 receptor in the testes of mice
Yogarajah, S., Lynch, S., Smith, C.L., Getting, S.J., Perretti, M. and Murray, J.F. 2008. Melanocortin 3 receptor in the testes of mice. Society for Reproduction and Fertility. Edinburgh 29 Jun - 01 Jul 2008 pp. Abstract P80

Melanocortin 3 receptor in the testes of mice
Wotherspoon, G., Yogarajah, S., Lynch, S., Smith, C.L., Getting, S.J., Perretti, M. and Murray, J.F. 2008. Melanocortin 3 receptor in the testes of mice. pA2 Online. From the University of Brighton, Winter 2008 Meeting: Proceedings of the British Pharmacological Society. 6 (4), p. P008.

Asymmetric dimethylarginine negatively influences osteoblast differentiation in vitro
Stenbeck, G., Joseph, J., Getting, S.J. and Smith, C.L. 2008. Asymmetric dimethylarginine negatively influences osteoblast differentiation in vitro. pA2 Online. From the University of Brighton, Winter 2008 Meeting: Proceedings of the British Pharmacological Society. 6 (4), p. C041.

Microbial biosynthesis of PHAs and its applications
Roy, I., Philip, S.E., Francis, L., Rai, R., Valappil, S.P., Markiv, A., Keshavarz, T., Misra, S.K., Decheng, M. and Boccaccini, A.R. 2008. Microbial biosynthesis of PHAs and its applications. COST Action 868: Biotechnical Functionalisation of Renewable Polymeric Materials: 2008 Annual Workshop (combined Working Group and Management Committee meeting). Varna, Bulgaria 18 -19 Sep 2008

Microbial PHA biosynthesis and its applications
Roy, I., Philip, S.E., Francis, L., Rai, R., Valappil, S.P., Markiv, A., Keshavarz, T., Misra, S.K., Decheng, M. and Boccaccini, A.R. 2008. Microbial PHA biosynthesis and its applications. 11th International Symposium on Biodegradable Polyesters. Massey University in Auckland, New Zealand 23 - 26 Nov 2008

Polyhydroxyalkanoates: a new generation of biotechnologically produced biodegradable polymers
Roy, I. and Philip, S.E. 2008. Polyhydroxyalkanoates: a new generation of biotechnologically produced biodegradable polymers. in: Richter, F.W. (ed.) Biotechnology: research, technology and applications New York Nova Science Publishers. pp. 1-48

Fabrication of a novel
Roy, I. and Philip, S.E. 2008. Fabrication of a novel. in: Richter, F.W. (ed.) Biotechnology: research, technology and applications New York Nova Science Publishers. pp. 1-48

Production of medium chain length polyhydroxyalkanoates using Pseudomonas species
Rai, R., Keshavarz, T. and Roy, I. 2008. Production of medium chain length polyhydroxyalkanoates using Pseudomonas species. 11th International Symposium on Biodegradable Polyesters. Massey University in Auckland, New Zealand 23 - 26 Nov 2008

Polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase in Bacillus cereus SPV, a class IV PHA synthase
Philip, S.E., Odell, M., Keshavarz, T. and Roy, I. 2008. Polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase in Bacillus cereus SPV, a class IV PHA synthase. 11th International Symposium on Biodegradable Polyesters. Massey University in Auckland, New Zealand 23 - 26 Nov 2008

The role of the actin cytoskeleton in chondrocyte protection following single impact
Nedelcheva, Y., Getting, S.J. and Kerrigan, M.J.P. 2008. The role of the actin cytoskeleton in chondrocyte protection following single impact. pA2 Online. From the University of Brighton, Winter 2008 Meeting: Proceedings of the British Pharmacological Society. 6 (4).

Optimisation studies of multiple elicitor addition in microbial systems: P.Chrysogenum and B.Lichiniformis
Nair, R.R., Murphy, T., Roy, I., Harrop, A., Dixon, K. and Keshavarz, T. 2008. Optimisation studies of multiple elicitor addition in microbial systems: P.Chrysogenum and B.Lichiniformis. in: Marino, G., Bardone, E. and Viglia, A. (ed.) IBIC2008 - 1st International Conference on Industrial Biotechnology AIDIC Servizi S.r.l..

Tonic inhibitory control of the mesenteric microcirculation by the melanocortin type 3 receptor
Leoni, G., Patel, H.B., Sampaio, A.L.F., Gavins, F.N.E., Getting, S.J. and Perretti, M. 2008. Tonic inhibitory control of the mesenteric microcirculation by the melanocortin type 3 receptor. Journal of Vascular Research. 45 (Suppl2).

Inhibitory role of endogenous melanocortin type 3 receptor in the inflamed microcirculation
Leoni, G., Patel, H.B., Sampaio, A.L.F., Gavins, F.N.E., Getting, S.J. and Perretti, M. 2008. Inhibitory role of endogenous melanocortin type 3 receptor in the inflamed microcirculation. William Harvey Day. St. Barts Hospital, London 14th October 2008

A role for melanocortin peptides in modulating oxidative stress induced inflammation in A549 cells
Getting, S.J., Kaneva, M. and Kerrigan, M.J.P. 2008. A role for melanocortin peptides in modulating oxidative stress induced inflammation in A549 cells. pA2 Online. From the University of Brighton, Winter 2008 Meeting: Proceedings of the British Pharmacological Society. 6 (4), p. C020.

Melanocortins
Getting, S.J. 2008. Melanocortins. in: Offermanns, S. and Rosenthal, W. (ed.) Encyclopedia of molecular pharmacology. 2nd edition Berlin Springer. pp. 752-757

Polyhydroxyalkanoate synthasis using Bacillus cereus SPV
Francis, L., Keshavarz, T. and Roy, I. 2008. Polyhydroxyalkanoate synthasis using Bacillus cereus SPV. COST Action 868: Biotechnical Functionalisation of Renewable Polymeric Materials: 2008 Annual Workshop (combined Working Group and Management Committee meeting). Varna, Bulgaria 18 -19 Sep 2008

The effect of prolonged hypotonicity on chondrocyte volume regulation and intracellular calcium signalling
Ali, N., Getting, S.J. and Kerrigan, M.J.P. 2008. The effect of prolonged hypotonicity on chondrocyte volume regulation and intracellular calcium signalling. pA2 Online. From the University of Brighton, Winter 2008 Meeting: Proceedings of the British Pharmacological Society. 6 (4).

Large-scale production and efficient recovery of PHB with desirable material properties, from the newly characterised Bacillus cereus SPV
Valappil, S.P., Misra, S.K., Boccaccini, A.R., Keshavarz, T., Bucke, C. and Roy, I. 2007. Large-scale production and efficient recovery of PHB with desirable material properties, from the newly characterised Bacillus cereus SPV. Journal of Biotechnology. 132 (3), pp. 251-258.

Biodegradable polymer coated 45S5 Bioglassderived glass-ceramic scaffolds for bone tissue engineering
Bretcanu, O., Chen, Q., Misra, S.K., Boccaccini, A.R., Roy, I., Verne, E. and Brovarone, C.V. 2007. Biodegradable polymer coated 45S5 Bioglassderived glass-ceramic scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. European Journal of Glass Science and Technology Part A. 48 (5), pp. 227-234.

Effect of oligosaccharide elicitors on bacitracin A production and evidence of transcriptional level control
Keshavarz, T., Murphy, T., Roy, I., Harrop, A. and Dixon, K. 2007. Effect of oligosaccharide elicitors on bacitracin A production and evidence of transcriptional level control. Journal of Biotechnology. 131 (4), pp. 397-403.

Fabrication and characterization of biodegradable poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) composite containing Bioglass
Misra, S.K., Nazhat, S.N., Valappil, S.P., Moshrefi-Torbati, M., Wood, R.J.K., Roy, I. and Boccaccini, A.R. 2007. Fabrication and characterization of biodegradable poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) composite containing Bioglass. Biomacromolecules. 8 (7), pp. 2112-2119.

Novel application of oligosaccharides as elicitors for the enhancement of bacitracin A production in cultures of Bacillus licheniformis
Murphy, T., Parra, R., Radman, R., Roy, I., Harrop, A., Dixon, K. and Keshavarz, T. 2007. Novel application of oligosaccharides as elicitors for the enhancement of bacitracin A production in cultures of Bacillus licheniformis. Enzyme and Microbial Technology. 40 (6), pp. 1518-1523.

Polyhydroxyalkanoates: biodegradable polymers with a range of applications
Philip, S.E., Keshavarz, T. and Roy, I. 2007. Polyhydroxyalkanoates: biodegradable polymers with a range of applications. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology. 82 (3), pp. 233-247.

Polyhydroxyalkanoates: biodegradable polymers with a range of applications
Philip, S.E., Keshavarz, T. and Roy, I. 2007. Polyhydroxyalkanoates: biodegradable polymers with a range of applications. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology. 82 (3), pp. 233-247.

Poly(3- hydroxybutyrate)/Bioglass® composite films containing carbon nanotubes
Misra, S.K., Watts, P.C.P., Valappil, S.P., Silva, S.R.P., Boccaccini, A.R. and Roy, I. 2007. Poly(3- hydroxybutyrate)/Bioglass® composite films containing carbon nanotubes. Nanotechnology. 18 (7), p. 075701.

The induction of macrophages foam cell formation by chylomicron remnants
Botham, K.M., Moore, E.H., De Pascale, C. and Bejta, F. 2007. The induction of macrophages foam cell formation by chylomicron remnants. Biochemical Society Transactions. 35 (3), pp. 454-458.

Dietary fats induce human monocyte activation in vitro
Bentley, C., Bejta, F., De Pascale, C., Avella, M., Wheeler-Jones, C.P.D., Botham, K.M. and Lawson, C. 2007. Dietary fats induce human monocyte activation in vitro. Biochemical Society Transactions. 35 (3), pp. 464-465.

Effects of lycopene on the induction of foam cell formation by modified LDL.
Napolitano, M., De Pascale, C., Wheeler-Jones, C., Botham, K.M. and Bravo, E. 2007. Effects of lycopene on the induction of foam cell formation by modified LDL. American Journal of Physiology: Endocrinology and Metabolism. 293 (6), pp. E1820-7.

PHA biosynthesis in Bacillus cereus SPV and its applications
Roy, I., Valappil, S.P., Misra, S.K. and Boccaccini, A.R. 2007. PHA biosynthesis in Bacillus cereus SPV and its applications. COST Action 868: Biotechnical Functionalisation of Renewable Polymeric Materials: first annual workshop. Graz, Austria 12 - 14 Sep 2007

PHA Biosynthesis in Bacillus cereus SPV
Roy, I., Philip, S.E., Rai, R. and Valappil, S.P. 2007. PHA Biosynthesis in Bacillus cereus SPV. International Conference on Biodegradable Polymers: their production, characterisation and application. SCI, London 10 Dec 2007

Production of Polyhydroxyalkanoates from Bacillus cereus SPV under different nutrient limiting conditions
Rai, R., Padinhara, S.V., Keshavarz, T. and Roy, I. 2007. Production of Polyhydroxyalkanoates from Bacillus cereus SPV under different nutrient limiting conditions. COST Action 868: Biotechnical Functionalisation of Renewable Polymeric Materials: first annual workshop. Graz, Austria 12 - 14 Sep 2007

Production of medium chain length polyhydroxyalkanoates using pseudomonas species UOW0417398
Rai, R., Keshavarz, T. and Roy, I. 2007. Production of medium chain length polyhydroxyalkanoates using pseudomonas species UOW0417398. International Conference on Biodegradable Polymers: their production, characterisation and application. SCI, London 10 Dec 2007

Polyhydroxy-alkanoates - the biodegradable polymers
Philip, S.E., Odell, M., Keshavarz, T. and Roy, I. 2007. Polyhydroxy-alkanoates - the biodegradable polymers. International Conference on Biodegradable Polymers: their production, characterisation and application. SCI, London 10 Dec 2007

Endogenous MC3R and inhibition of inflammatory arthritis. PC112
Patel, H.B., Sampaio, A.L.F., Getting, S.J., Gray, M. and Perretti, M. 2007. Endogenous MC3R and inhibition of inflammatory arthritis. PC112. Life Sciences. Glasgow 8th - 12th July 2007

Crucial role for endogenous melanocortin type 3 receptor in mesenteric post-reperfusion injury. PC106
Leoni, G., Getting, S.J., Gavins, F.N.E. and Perretti, M. 2007. Crucial role for endogenous melanocortin type 3 receptor in mesenteric post-reperfusion injury. PC106. Life Sciences. Glasgow 8th - 12th July 2007

Glucocorticoid and melanocortins: special issue
Getting, S.J. 2007. Glucocorticoid and melanocortins: special issue. ScientificWorldJournal. 7, pp. 1463-1464.

Biosynthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoates and their applications
Francis, L., Keshavarz, T. and Roy, I. 2007. Biosynthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoates and their applications. International Conference on Biodegradable Polymers: their production, characterisation and application. SCI, London 10 Dec 2007

Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) biosynthesis from structurally unrelated carbon sources by a newly characterized Bacillus spp
Valappil, S.P., Peiris, D., Langley, G.J., Herniman, J.M., Boccaccini, A.R., Bucke, C. and Roy, I. 2007. Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) biosynthesis from structurally unrelated carbon sources by a newly characterized Bacillus spp. Journal of Biotechnology. 127 (3), pp. 475-487.

Polyhydroxyalkanoates in Gram-positive bacteria: insights from the genera Bacillus and Streptomyces
Valappil, S.P., Boccaccini, A.R., Bucke, C. and Roy, I. 2007. Polyhydroxyalkanoates in Gram-positive bacteria: insights from the genera Bacillus and Streptomyces. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. 91 (1), pp. 1-17.

[D -Trp8]-γ -melanocyte -stimulating hormone exhibits anti-inflammatory efficacy in mice bearing a nonfunctional MC1 R(Recessive Yellow e/e Mouse)
Getting, S.J., Lam, C.W., Leoni, G., Gavins, F.N.E., Grieco, P. and Perretti, M. 2006. [D -Trp8]-γ -melanocyte -stimulating hormone exhibits anti-inflammatory efficacy in mice bearing a nonfunctional MC1 R(Recessive Yellow e/e Mouse). Molecular Pharmacology. 70 (6), pp. 1850-1855.

Biomedical applications of polyhydroxyalkanoates: an overview of animal testing and in vivo responses
Valappil, S.P., Misra, S.K., Boccaccini, A.R. and Roy, I. 2006. Biomedical applications of polyhydroxyalkanoates: an overview of animal testing and in vivo responses. Expert Review of Medical Devices. 3 (6), pp. 853-868.

Annexin 1 and melanocortin peptide therapy for protection against ischaemic-reperfusion damage in the heart
Gavins, F.N.E., Leoni, G. and Getting, S.J. 2006. Annexin 1 and melanocortin peptide therapy for protection against ischaemic-reperfusion damage in the heart. ScientificWorldJournal. 6, pp. 1008-1023.

Targeting melanocortin receptors as potential novel therapeutics
Getting, S.J. 2006. Targeting melanocortin receptors as potential novel therapeutics. Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 111 (1), pp. 1-15.

Melanocortin receptor signaling in RAW264.7 macrophage cell line
Lam, C.W., Perretti, M. and Getting, S.J. 2006. Melanocortin receptor signaling in RAW264.7 macrophage cell line. Peptides. 27 (2), pp. 404-412.

The melanocortin peptide HP228 displays protective effects in acute models of inflammation and organ damage
Getting, S.J., Di Filippo, C., D'Amico, M. and Perretti, M. 2006. The melanocortin peptide HP228 displays protective effects in acute models of inflammation and organ damage. European Journal of Pharmacology. 532 (1-2), pp. 138-144.

Increased expression of transglutaminase-1 and PPARgamma after vitamin E treatment in human keratinocytes
De Pascale, M.C., Bassi, A.M., Patrone, V., Villacorta, L., Azzi, A. and Zing, J.M. 2006. Increased expression of transglutaminase-1 and PPARgamma after vitamin E treatment in human keratinocytes. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. 447 (2), pp. 97-106.

Fatty acids composition of Chylomicron remnants like particles influences their uptake and induction of lipid accumulation in macrophages.
De Pascale, C., Avella, M., Perona, J.S., Ruiz-Gutierrez, V., Wheeler-Jones, C.P.D. and Botham, K.M. 2006. Fatty acids composition of Chylomicron remnants like particles influences their uptake and induction of lipid accumulation in macrophages. FEBS Journal . 273 (24), p. 5632–5640.

Nanoindentation testing of biodegradabale polymers
Wood, R.J.K., Dan, S., Moshrefi-Torbati, M., Misra, S.K., Valappil, S.P., Boccaccini, A.R. and Roy, I. 2006. Nanoindentation testing of biodegradabale polymers. Proceedings of CAMTEC Workshop. University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK 11 Apr 2006

PHA biosynthesis in Bacillus cereus SPV and its applications
Roy, I., Valappil, S.P., Misra, S.K. and Boccaccini, A.R. 2006. PHA biosynthesis in Bacillus cereus SPV and its applications. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Biological Polyesters. Minneapolis, USA 27 - 31 Aug 2006

Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA)/inorganic phase composites for tissue engineering applications
Misra, S.K., Valappil, S.P., Roy, I. and Boccaccini, A.R. 2006. Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA)/inorganic phase composites for tissue engineering applications. Biomacromolecules. 7 (8), pp. 2250-2257.

Development of polyhydroxyalkanoates/Bioglass® composite tissue scaffolds for tissue engineering applications
Misra, S.K., Valappil, S.P., Nazhat, S.N., Moshrefi-Torbati, M., Roy, I. and Boccaccini, A.R. 2006. Development of polyhydroxyalkanoates/Bioglass® composite tissue scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. Proceedings of the 20th European Conference on Biomaterials, European Society of Biomaterials. Nantes, FRANCE 27 Sep - 01 Oct 2006

From bacteria to tissue engineering applications-usage of polyhydroxyalkanoates for biomedical applications
Misra, S.K., Nazhat, S.N., Torbati, M.M., Silva, S.R.P., Roy, I. and Boccaccini, A.R. 2006. From bacteria to tissue engineering applications-usage of polyhydroxyalkanoates for biomedical applications. Proceedings of the International Conference on the Design of Biomaterials. Kanpur, India 08 - 11 Dec 2006

Mode of glucocorticoid actions in airway disease
Ito, K., Getting, S.J. and Charron, C.E. 2006. Mode of glucocorticoid actions in airway disease. ScientificWorldJournal. 28 (6), pp. 1750-1769.

Melanocortin 3 receptors control crystal-induced inflammation
Getting, S.J., Lam, C.W., Chen, A.S., Grieco, P. and Perretti, M. 2006. Melanocortin 3 receptors control crystal-induced inflammation. FASEB Journal. 20 (13), pp. 2234-2241.

In vitro and in vivo induction of heme oxygenase 1 in mouse macrophages following melanocortin receptor activation
Lam, C.W., Getting, S.J. and Perretti, M. 2005. In vitro and in vivo induction of heme oxygenase 1 in mouse macrophages following melanocortin receptor activation. Journal of Immunology. 174 (4), pp. 2297-2304.

Antioxidant status in J774A.1 macrophage cell line during chronic exposure to glycated serum
Bassi, A.M., Ledda, S., De Pascale, M.C., Penco, S., Rossi, S., Odetti, P. and Cottalasso, D. 2005. Antioxidant status in J774A.1 macrophage cell line during chronic exposure to glycated serum. Biochemistry and Cell Biology. 83 (2), pp. 176-87.

Polyhydroxyalkanoate synthases: the enzymes involved in biodegradable polymer synthesis
Valappil, S.P., Philip, S.E., Odell, M., Keshavarz, T. and Roy, I. 2005. Polyhydroxyalkanoate synthases: the enzymes involved in biodegradable polymer synthesis. Proceedings of Frontiers in Chemical Biology: Mechanistic Enzymology and Biocatalysis. Exeter, UK 31 Aug - 02 Sep 2005

Large scale production of P(3HB) from newly isolated Bacillus sp.
Valappil, S.P., Keshavarz, T., Bucke, C. and Roy, I. 2005. Large scale production of P(3HB) from newly isolated Bacillus sp. Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Environmental Industrial and Applied Microbiology. Badajoz, Spain 15 - 18 Mar 2005

Effect of various carbon sources on the production of PHAs from the newly isolated Bacillus sp.
Valappil, S.P., Bucke, C. and Roy, I. 2005. Effect of various carbon sources on the production of PHAs from the newly isolated Bacillus sp. Proceedings of the International Union of Microbiological Societies Congress, IUMS. San Fransisco, USA 23 - 28 Jul 2005

Towards unravelling the elicitation mechanism in cultures of Penicillium chrysogenin: Chrysogenin elicitation
Nair, R.R., Radman, R., Roy, I., Bucke, C. and Keshavarz, T. 2005. Towards unravelling the elicitation mechanism in cultures of Penicillium chrysogenin: Chrysogenin elicitation. in: Pierucci, S. (ed.) 7th Italian Conference on Chemical and Process Engineering: ICheaP 7, May 15-16, 2005, Giardini Di Naxos, Italy Italy Associazione Italiana Di Ingegneria Chimica.

Natural biodegradable polymers from the Polyhydroxyalkanoate family emerging as a promising material for biomedical applications
Misra, S.K., Boccaccini, A.R., Valappil, S.P. and Roy, I. 2005. Natural biodegradable polymers from the Polyhydroxyalkanoate family emerging as a promising material for biomedical applications. Proceedings of 'a Forecast of the Future for Biomaterials' Professor Larry L. Hench Retirement Symposium. London, UK 29 - 30 Sep 2005

The metabolic role of methymalonyl CoA mutase in Escherichia coli
Kannan, S.M., Dwek, M., Bucke, C. and Roy, I. 2005. The metabolic role of methymalonyl CoA mutase in Escherichia coli. Proceedings of Viteomics: structure and function of vitamins and cofactors. Cambridge, UK 2005

Polysaccharides and polysaccharide-modifying enzymes in Ganoderma species
Chouiter, R., Roy, I. and Bucke, C. 2005. Polysaccharides and polysaccharide-modifying enzymes in Ganoderma species. Proceedings of the 13th European Carbohydrate Symposium. Bratislava, Slovakia 21 - 26 Aug 2005

Polysaccharide-modifying enzymes from Ganoderma species and their applications
Chouiter, R., Roy, I. and Bucke, C. 2005. Polysaccharide-modifying enzymes from Ganoderma species and their applications. Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Environmental Industrial and Applied Microbiology. Badajoz, Spain 15 - 18 Mar 2005

Phylogenetic relationships between Basidiomycetes believed to be Ganoderma species based on distance analysis of their 5.8S, ITS1 and ITS2 rDNA sequences
Chouiter, R., Roy, I. and Bucke, C. 2005. Phylogenetic relationships between Basidiomycetes believed to be Ganoderma species based on distance analysis of their 5.8S, ITS1 and ITS2 rDNA sequences. Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Environmental Industrial and Applied Microbiology. Badajoz, Spain 15 - 18 Mar 2005

MC-3 receptor and the inflammatory mechanisms activated in acute myocardial infarct
Getting, S.J., Di Filippo, C., Christian, H.C., Lam, C.W., Rossi, F., D'Amico, M. and Perretti, M. 2004. MC-3 receptor and the inflammatory mechanisms activated in acute myocardial infarct. Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 76 (4), pp. 845-853.

Inhibitory effects of TSG-6 Link module on leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions in vitro and in vivo
Cao, T.V., La, M., Getting, S.J. and Day, A.J. 2004. Inhibitory effects of TSG-6 Link module on leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions in vitro and in vivo. Microcirculation. 11 (7), pp. 615-624.

Investigation into the potential anti-inflammatory effects of endothelin antagonists in a murine model of experimental monosodium urate peritonitis
Getting, S.J., Di Filippo, C., Lam, C.W., Rossi, F. and D'Amico, M. 2004. Investigation into the potential anti-inflammatory effects of endothelin antagonists in a murine model of experimental monosodium urate peritonitis. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 310 (1), pp. 90-97.

Modulation of inflammation and response to dexamethasone by Annexin 1 in antigen-induced arthritis
Yang, Y.H., Morand, E.F., Getting, S.J. and Paul-Clark, M. 2004. Modulation of inflammation and response to dexamethasone by Annexin 1 in antigen-induced arthritis. Arthritis & Rheumatism. 50 (3), pp. 976-984.

The annexin 1-/- mouse: phenotypic studies
Wells, D., Wells, K., Liu, K., Hannon, R., Croxtall, J.D., Damazo, A.S., Oliani, S.M., Getting, S.J., Parente, L., Paul-Clark, M., Yona, S., Gavins, F.N.E., Martin, J., Christian, H.C., Cover, P.O., John, C.D., Solito, E., Morris, J.F., Perretti, M., Buckingham, J.C. and Flower, R.J. 2004. The annexin 1-/- mouse: phenotypic studies. Annexins. 1 (2), pp. 109-120.

‘Identification and isolation of polyhydroalkanoates and cloning of PHA biosynthetic genes from Bacillus cereus SPV
Valappil, S.P., Bucke, C. and Roy, I. 2004. ‘Identification and isolation of polyhydroalkanoates and cloning of PHA biosynthetic genes from Bacillus cereus SPV. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Biological Polyesters, ISBP. Beijing, China 22 - 28 Aug 2004

Biosynthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoic acids by Streptomyces coelicolor
Valappil, S.P., Bhatia, Y., Bucke, C. and Roy, I. 2004. Biosynthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoic acids by Streptomyces coelicolor. e-Polymers.

Polyhydroxyalkanoate production by Bacillus cereus SPV
Roy, I. 2004. Polyhydroxyalkanoate production by Bacillus cereus SPV. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Biological Polyesters, ISBP. Beijing, China 22 - 28 Aug 2004

Activation of melanocortin receptors induces cAMP-dependent hemeoxygenase-1 expression in murine macrophages
Lam, C.W., Getting, S.J. and Perretti, M. 2004. Activation of melanocortin receptors induces cAMP-dependent hemeoxygenase-1 expression in murine macrophages. pA2 Online. Winter 2004 Meeting: Proceedings of the British Pharmacological Society.

Melanocortin receptor type 3 as a potential target for anti-inflammatory therapy
Lam, C.W. and Getting, S.J. 2004. Melanocortin receptor type 3 as a potential target for anti-inflammatory therapy. Current Drug Targets. Inflammation & Allergy. 3 (3), pp. 311-315.

Carbohydrates and carbohydrate active enzymes in Ganoderma applanatum
Budala, S., Bucke, C. and Roy, I. 2004. Carbohydrates and carbohydrate active enzymes in Ganoderma applanatum. Proceedings of the 22nd International Carbohydrate Symposium. Glasgow, UK 23 - 27 Jul 2004

Dissection of the anti-inflammatory effect of the core and C-terminal (KPV) alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone peptides
Getting, S.J., Schiöth, H.B. and Perretti, M. 2003. Dissection of the anti-inflammatory effect of the core and C-terminal (KPV) alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone peptides. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 306 (2), pp. 631-637.

5-Aminolevulinic acid synthase: mechanism, mutations and medicine
Shoolingin-Jordan, P., Al-Daihan, S., Alexeev, D., Baxter, R.L., Bottomley, S.S., Kahari, I.D., Roy, I., Sarwar, M., Sawyer, L. and Wang, S.F. 2003. 5-Aminolevulinic acid synthase: mechanism, mutations and medicine. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta: Proteins and Proteomics. 1647 (1-2), pp. 361-365.

5-aminolevulinic acid synthase: mechanism, mutations and medicine
Shoolingin-Jordan, P., Al-Daihan, S., Alexeev, D., Baxter, R.L., Bottomley, S.S., Kahari, D., Roy, I., Sarwar, M., Sawyer, L. and Wang, S.F. 2003. 5-aminolevulinic acid synthase: mechanism, mutations and medicine. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta: Proteins and Proteomics. 1647 (1-2), pp. 361-366.

Redundancy of a Functional Melanocortin 1 Receptor in the Anti-inflammatory actions of melanocortin peptides: studies in the recessive yellow (e/e) mouse suggest an important role for melanocortin 3 receptor
Getting, S.J., Christian, H.C., Lam, C.W., Gavins, F.N.E., Flower, R.J., Schiöth, H.B. and Perretti, M. 2003. Redundancy of a Functional Melanocortin 1 Receptor in the Anti-inflammatory actions of melanocortin peptides: studies in the recessive yellow (e/e) mouse suggest an important role for melanocortin 3 receptor. Journal of Immunology. 170 (6), pp. 3323-3330.

Aberrant inflammation and resistance to glucocorticoids in annexin 1-/- mouse
Hannon, R., Croxtall, J.D., Getting, S.J., Roviezzo, F., Yona, S., Paul-Clark, M., Gavins, F.N.E., Perretti, M., Morris, J.F., Buckingham, J.C. and Flower, R.J. 2003. Aberrant inflammation and resistance to glucocorticoids in annexin 1-/- mouse. FASEB Journal. 17 (2), pp. 253-255.

Biosynthesis of medium chain length polyhydroxyalakanoic acids by Streptomyces coelicolor
Valappil, S.P., Bucke, C. and Roy, I. 2003. Biosynthesis of medium chain length polyhydroxyalakanoic acids by Streptomyces coelicolor. ICBP 2003. Proceedings of the 1st IUPAC International Conference on Bio-Based Polymers. Saitama, Japan 12 - 14 Nov 2003

Migration of specific leukocyte subsets in response to cytokine or chemokine application in vivo
Perretti, M. and Getting, S.J. 2003. Migration of specific leukocyte subsets in response to cytokine or chemokine application in vivo. Methods in Molecular Biology. 225, pp. 139-146.

Migration of specific leukocyte sub-sets in response to cytokine or chemokine application in vivo
Perretti, M. and Getting, S.J. 2003. Migration of specific leukocyte sub-sets in response to cytokine or chemokine application in vivo. in: Winyard, P.G. and Willoughby, D.A. (ed.) Inflammation Protocols Totowa, NJ Humana Press. pp. 139-146

The link module from human TSG-6 inhibits neutrophil migration in a hyaluronan- and inter-alpha -inhibitor-independent manner
Getting, S.J., Mahoney, D.J., Cao, T.V., Rugg, M.S., Fries, E., Milner, C.M., Perretti, M. and Day, A.J. 2002. The link module from human TSG-6 inhibits neutrophil migration in a hyaluronan- and inter-alpha -inhibitor-independent manner. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 (52), pp. 51068-51076.

A possible role of poly-3-hydroxybutyric acid in antibiotic production in Streptomyces
Verma, S., Bhatia, Y., Valappil, S.P. and Roy, I. 2002. A possible role of poly-3-hydroxybutyric acid in antibiotic production in Streptomyces. Archives of Microbiology. 179 (1), pp. 66-69.

The annexin-1 knockout mouse: what it tells us about the inflammatory response
Roviezzo, F., Getting, S.J., Paul-Clark, M., Yona, S., Gavins, F.N.E., Perretti, M., Hannon, R., Croxtall, J.D., Buckingham, J.C. and Flower, R.J. 2002. The annexin-1 knockout mouse: what it tells us about the inflammatory response. Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology. 53 (4, part 1), pp. 541 -553.

Endogenous lipid- and peptide-derived anti-inflammatory pathways generated with glucocorticoid and aspirin treatment activate the lipoxin A4 receptor
Perretti, M., Chiang, N., La, M., Fierro, I.M., Marullo, S., Getting, S.J., Solito, E. and Serhan, C.N. 2002. Endogenous lipid- and peptide-derived anti-inflammatory pathways generated with glucocorticoid and aspirin treatment activate the lipoxin A4 receptor. Nature Medicine. 8 (11), pp. 1296-1302.

Activation of melanocortin type 3 receptor as a molecular mechanism for adrenocorticotropic hormone efficacy in gouty arthritis
Getting, S.J., Christian, H.C., Flower, R.J. and Perretti, M. 2002. Activation of melanocortin type 3 receptor as a molecular mechanism for adrenocorticotropic hormone efficacy in gouty arthritis. Arthritis & Rheumatism. 46 (10), pp. 2765-2775.

Melanocortin peptides and their receptors: new targets for anti-inflammatory therapy
Getting, S.J. 2002. Melanocortin peptides and their receptors: new targets for anti-inflammatory therapy. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences. 23 (10), pp. 447-449.

A novel control mechanism based on GDNF modulation of somatostatin release from sensory neurones
Malcangio, M., Getting, S.J., Grist, J., Cunningham, J.R., Bradbury, E.J., Issa, P.C., Lever, I.J., Pezet, S. and Perretti, M. 2002. A novel control mechanism based on GDNF modulation of somatostatin release from sensory neurones. FASEB Journal. 16 (7), pp. 730-732.

Damaging effects of advanced glycation end product in the murine macrophages cell line J774A.1.
Bassi, A.M., Ledda, S., Valentini, S., De Pascale, M.C., Rossi, S., Odetti, P. and Cottalasso, D. 2002. Damaging effects of advanced glycation end product in the murine macrophages cell line J774A.1. Toxicology In Vitro. 16 (4), pp. 339-347.

Biosynthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoates by Streptomyces coelicolor
Valappil, S.P., Bucke, C. and Roy, I. 2002. Biosynthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoates by Streptomyces coelicolor. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Biological Polyesters. Munster, Germany 22 - 26 Sep 2002

Characterization of CXC and CC chemokine expression in a murine model of chronic granuloma
Carollo, M., Getting, S.J., Delaney, S., Christie, M.I. and Perretti, M. 2002. Characterization of CXC and CC chemokine expression in a murine model of chronic granuloma. Inflammation Research. 51 (2), pp. 110-111.

Involvement of the receptor for formylated peptides in the in vivo anti-migratory actions of annexin 1 and its mimetics
Perretti, M., Getting, S.J., Solito, E., Murphy, P.M. and Gao, J.L. 2001. Involvement of the receptor for formylated peptides in the in vivo anti-migratory actions of annexin 1 and its mimetics. American Journal of Pathology. 158 (6), pp. 1969-1973.

Production of polyhydroxybutyrate by streptomyces
Verma, S. and Roy, I. 2001. Production of polyhydroxybutyrate by streptomyces. Proceedings of the Gordon Research Conference. Connecticut, USA 2001

Anti-inflammatory effects of a novel, potent inhibitor of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase
Mabley, J.G., Jagtap, P., Perretti, M., Getting, S.J., Salzman, A.L., Virag, L., Szabo, E., Soriano, F.G., Liaudet, L., Hasko, G., Marton, A., Southan, G.J., Abdelkarim, G.E. and Szabo, C. 2001. Anti-inflammatory effects of a novel, potent inhibitor of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Inflammation Research. 50 (11), pp. 561-569.

Arthritic diseases: melanocortin type 3 receptor agonists as potential therapeutics
Getting, S.J. and Perretti, M. 2001. Arthritic diseases: melanocortin type 3 receptor agonists as potential therapeutics. Current opinion in investigational drugs. 2 (8), pp. 1064-1069.

Natural and synthetic agonists of the melanocortin receptor type 3 possess anti-inflammatory properties
Getting, S.J., Allcock, G.H., Flower, R.J. and Perretti, M. 2001. Natural and synthetic agonists of the melanocortin receptor type 3 possess anti-inflammatory properties. Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 69 (1), pp. 98-104.

MC3-R as a novel target for anti-inflammatory therapy
Getting, S.J. and Perretti, M. 2000. MC3-R as a novel target for anti-inflammatory therapy. Drug News & Perspectives. 13 (1), pp. 19-27.

POMC gene-derived peptides activate melanocortin type 3 receptor on murine macrophages, suppress cytokine release, and inhibit neutrophil migration in acute experimental inflammation
Getting, S.J., Gibbs, L., Clark, A.J.L., Flower, R.J. and Perretti, M. 1999. POMC gene-derived peptides activate melanocortin type 3 receptor on murine macrophages, suppress cytokine release, and inhibit neutrophil migration in acute experimental inflammation. Journal of Immunology. 162 (12), pp. 7446-7453.

Phosphorylation of the periplasmic binding protein in two transport systems for arginine incorporation in Escherichia coli K-12 is unrelated to the function of the transport system
Celis, R.T.F., Leadlay, P.F., Roy, I. and Hansen, A. 1998. Phosphorylation of the periplasmic binding protein in two transport systems for arginine incorporation in Escherichia coli K-12 is unrelated to the function of the transport system. Journal of Bacteriology. 180 (18), pp. 4828-4833.

Compounds for use in the treatment of inflammation
Flower, R.J., Getting, S.J. and Perretti, M. 1998. Compounds for use in the treatment of inflammation.

Metabolic Engineering, a route to the production of novel products
Roy, I. 1998. Metabolic Engineering, a route to the production of novel products. Proceedings of the National Conference on Bioprocessing and R-DNA Technology. Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, India 27 - 28 Mar 1998

Inhibition of poly (ADP-ribose) synthetase attenuates neutrophil recruitment and exerts anti-inflammatory effects
Szabo, C., Lim, L.H.K., Cuzzocrea, S., Getting, S.J., Zingarelli, B., Flower, R.J., Salzman, A.L. and Perretti, M. 1997. Inhibition of poly (ADP-ribose) synthetase attenuates neutrophil recruitment and exerts anti-inflammatory effects. Journal of experimental medicine. 186 (7), pp. 1041-1049.

Molecular determinants of monosodium urate crystal-induced murine peritonitis: a role for endogenous mast cells and a distinct requirement for endothelial-derived selectins
Getting, S.J., Flower, R.J., Parente, L., de Medicis, R., Lussier, A., Woliztky, B.A., Martins, M.A. and Perretti, M. 1997. Molecular determinants of monosodium urate crystal-induced murine peritonitis: a role for endogenous mast cells and a distinct requirement for endothelial-derived selectins. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 283 (1), pp. 123-130.

Inhibition of neutrophil and monocyte recruitment by endogenous and exogenous lipocortin 1
Getting, S.J., Flower, R.J. and Perretti, M. 1997. Inhibition of neutrophil and monocyte recruitment by endogenous and exogenous lipocortin 1. British Journal of Pharmacology. 120 (6), pp. 1075-1082.

Sub-acute treatment of rats with dexamethasone reduces ICAM-1 levels on circulating monocytes
Tailor, A., Das, A.M., Getting, S.J., Flower, R.J. and Perretti, M. 1997. Sub-acute treatment of rats with dexamethasone reduces ICAM-1 levels on circulating monocytes. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 231 (3), pp. 675-678.

A Methylmalonyl-CoA mutase in Escherichia coli?
Roy, I. and Leadlay, P.F. 1997. A Methylmalonyl-CoA mutase in Escherichia coli? in: Ahmad, F. (ed.) Advances in gene technology: biomolecular design, form and function Nature Publishing Group.

The masked cysteine residues in methylmalonyl-CoA mutase from Propionibacterium shermanii are essential for catalytic activity
Roy, I. 1996. The masked cysteine residues in methylmalonyl-CoA mutase from Propionibacterium shermanii are essential for catalytic activity. FEBS Letters. 394 (2), pp. 126-128.

Biphasic modulation of GABA release by nitric oxide in the hippocampus of freely moving rats in vivo
Getting, S.J., Segieth, J., Ahmad, S., Biggs, C.S. and Whitton, P.S. 1996. Biphasic modulation of GABA release by nitric oxide in the hippocampus of freely moving rats in vivo. Brain Research. 717 (1-2), pp. 196-199.

Nitric oxide regulates excitatory amino acid release in a biphasic manner in freely moving rats
Segieth, J., Getting, S.J., Biggs, C.S. and Whitton, P.S. 1995. Nitric oxide regulates excitatory amino acid release in a biphasic manner in freely moving rats. Neuroscience Letters. 200 (2), pp. 101-104.

Effect of nitric oxide on basal and NMDA-evoked release of glutamate and aspartate release in vivo
Segieth-Beever, J., Getting, S.J., Biggs, C.S. and Whitton, P.S. 1995. Effect of nitric oxide on basal and NMDA-evoked release of glutamate and aspartate release in vivo. Wiley.

Physical map location of the new Escherichia coli gene sbm
Roy, I. and Leadlay, P.F. 1992. Physical map location of the new Escherichia coli gene sbm. Journal of Bacteriology. 174 (17), pp. 5763-5764.

Mechanism and structure of a coenzyme-B12 dependent enzyme
Roy, I., Patchett, M.L., Keep, N.H. and Leadlay, P.F. 1990. Mechanism and structure of a coenzyme-B12 dependent enzyme. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Chemistry Fifth International Symposium on the Mechanisms of Reactions in Solution. University of Kent, UK 02 - 06 Jul 1990

The expression of adenosylcobalamin dependent methylmalonyl-CoA mutase from Propionibacterium shermanii in Escherichia coli
McKie, N., Keep, N.H., Roy, I., Patchett, M.L. and Leadlay, P.F. 1989. The expression of adenosylcobalamin dependent methylmalonyl-CoA mutase from Propionibacterium shermanii in Escherichia coli. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Chemistry International Symposium on the Molecular Mechanisms in Bioorganic Processes. University of Newcastle upon Tyne, UK 17 - 20 Jul 1989

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