Extracellular vesicles and their nucleic acids for biomarker discovery

Momen Heravi, F., Getting, S.J. and Moschos, S.A. 2018. Extracellular vesicles and their nucleic acids for biomarker discovery. Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 192, pp. 170-187. doi:10.1016/j.pharmthera.2018.08.002

TitleExtracellular vesicles and their nucleic acids for biomarker discovery
TypeJournal article
AuthorsMomen Heravi, F., Getting, S.J. and Moschos, S.A.
Abstract

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are a heterogenous population of vesicles originate from cells. EVs are found in different biofluids and carry different macromolecules, including proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids, providing a snap shot of the parental cells at the time of release. EVs have the ability to transfer molecular cargoes to other cells and can initiate different physiological and pathological processes. Mounting lines of evidence demonstrated that EVs' cargo and machinery is affected in disease states, positioning EVs as potential sources for the discovery of novel biomarkers.

In this review, we demonstrate a conceptual overview of the EV field with particular focus on their nucleic acid cargoes. Current knowledge of EV subtypes, nucleic acid cargo and pathophysiological roles are outlined, with emphasis placed on advantages against competing analytes. We review the utility of EVs and their nucleic acid cargoes as biomarkers and critically assess the newly available advances in the field of EV biomarkers and high throughput technologies. Challenges to achieving the diagnostic potential of EVs, including sample handling, EV isolation, methodological considerations, and bioassay reproducibility are discussed. Future implementation of ‘omics-based technologies and integration of systems biology approaches for the development of EV-based biomarkers and personalized medicine are also considered.

KeywordsBiomarker DNA Extracellular vesicles Exosomes Nucleic acids RNA
JournalPharmacology and Therapeutics
Journal citation192, pp. 170-187
ISSN0163-7258
Year2018
PublisherElsevier
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)doi:10.1016/j.pharmthera.2018.08.002
Publication dates
Published online03 Aug 2018
Published03 Aug 2018
Published in printDec 2018
LicenseCC BY-NC-ND 4.0

Related outputs

Populated Collagen Hydrogel and Polyhydroxyalkanoate Composites: Novel Matrices for Cartilage Repair and Regeneration?
De Pascale, C., Marcello, E., Getting, S.J., Roy, I. and Locke, I.C. Populated Collagen Hydrogel and Polyhydroxyalkanoate Composites: Novel Matrices for Cartilage Repair and Regeneration? OARSI World Congress on Osteoarthritis . Toronto, Canada 02 Mar - 05 May 2019

A novel antifungal property for the Bacillus licheniformis ComX pheromone and its possible role in inter-kingdom cross-talk
Esmaeilishirazifard, E., Dariush, A., Moschos, S.A. and Keshavarz, T. 2018. A novel antifungal property for the Bacillus licheniformis ComX pheromone and its possible role in inter-kingdom cross-talk. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 102 (12), pp. 5197-5208. doi:10.1007/s00253-018-9004-7

Quin-C1: a selective Fpr2 agonist that shifts microglial phenotype following LPS and Aβ1-42 exposure
Wickstead, E., Getting, S.J., Biggs, C.S. and McArthur, S. 2018. Quin-C1: a selective Fpr2 agonist that shifts microglial phenotype following LPS and Aβ1-42 exposure. Alzheimer's Research UK Conference. London 20 - 21 Mar 2018

The effect of the selective human MC3 receptor agonist PG992 on high density human chondrocyte micromass cultures activated by IL-1beta.
Can, V.C., Locke, I.C., Grieco, P. and Getting, S.J. 2017. The effect of the selective human MC3 receptor agonist PG992 on high density human chondrocyte micromass cultures activated by IL-1beta. Pharmacology 2017. London, U.K. 11 - 13 Dec 2017 British Pharmacological Society.

The effect of silymarin on chondrocytes
Can, V.C., Abouelnour, A., Locke, I.C., Bligh, S.W.A. and Getting, S.J. 2017. The effect of silymarin on chondrocytes. ICMAN/ IUPHAR Natural Products. Aberdeen, Scotland 27 - 29 Sep 2017 Elsevier. doi:10.1016/j.bcp.2017.06.036

Reversal of β-amyloid induced microglial activation by an agonist of Fpr2
Wickstead, E., Getting, S.J., Biggs, C.S. and McArthur, S. 2017. Reversal of β-amyloid induced microglial activation by an agonist of Fpr2. British Pharmacological Society: Pharmacology 2017. London 11 - 13 Dec 2017

Activation of the pro-resolving receptor Fpr2 attenuates inflammatory microglial activation
Wickstead, E., Getting, S.J., Biggs, C.S. and McArthur, S. 2017. Activation of the pro-resolving receptor Fpr2 attenuates inflammatory microglial activation. BNA Festival of Neuroscience. Birmingham 10 - 13 Apr 2017 Sage. doi:10.1177/2398212817705279

The effect of the selective MC3 agonist PG990 on high density human chondrocytes micromass cultures activated by TNF-alpha
Getting, S.J., Can, V.C., Locke, I.C. and Grieco, P 2017. The effect of the selective MC3 agonist PG990 on high density human chondrocytes micromass cultures activated by TNF-alpha. World Congress on Inflammation. London 08 - 12 Jul 2017

Fpr2 and neuroinflammation: selective agonists with synergistic anti-oxidative and pro-resolving effects
Wickstead, E., Getting, S.J., Biggs, C.S. and McArthur, S. 2017. Fpr2 and neuroinflammation: selective agonists with synergistic anti-oxidative and pro-resolving effects. World Congress on Inflammation. London 08 - 12 Jul 2017

Clinical potential of oligonucleotide-based therapeutics in the respiratory system
Moschos, S.A., Usher, L. and Lindsay, M.A. 2017. Clinical potential of oligonucleotide-based therapeutics in the respiratory system. Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 169, pp. 83-103. doi:10.1016/j.pharmthera.2016.10.009

The formyl peptide receptor 2 (Fpr2) agonist, Compound 43 (Cpd43), attenuates and promotes the release of pro-inflammatory, and anti-inflammatory cytokines, respectively
Wickstead, E., Getting, S.J. and McArthur, S. 2016. The formyl peptide receptor 2 (Fpr2) agonist, Compound 43 (Cpd43), attenuates and promotes the release of pro-inflammatory, and anti-inflammatory cytokines, respectively. British Pharmacological Society: Pharmacology 2016. London 13 - 15 Dec 2016

Exosomes and miRNAs in disease pathogenesis and opportunities for molecular targeting
Momen Heravi, F. 2016. Exosomes and miRNAs in disease pathogenesis and opportunities for molecular targeting. PhD thesis University of Westminster Life Sciences

Activation of melanocortin receptors MC1 and MC5 attenuates retinal damage in experimental diabetic retinopathy
Rossi, S., Maisto, R., Gesualdo, C., Trotta, M.C., Ferraraccio, F., Kaneva, M.K., Getting, S.J., Surace, E., Testa, F., Simonelli, F., Grieco, P., Merlino, F., Perretti, M., D'Amico, M. and Di Filippo, C. 2016. Activation of melanocortin receptors MC1 and MC5 attenuates retinal damage in experimental diabetic retinopathy. Mediators of inflammation. 2016, p. Article ID 7368389. doi:10.1155/2016/7368389

Low Complexity All-Pass Based Polyphase Decimation Filters for ECG Monitoring
Eminaga, Y., Coskun, A., Moschos, S.A. and Kale, I. 2015. Low Complexity All-Pass Based Polyphase Decimation Filters for ECG Monitoring. PRIME 2015, 11th Conference on PhD Research in Microelectronics and Electronics . Glasgow, Scotland 30 Jun 2015 IEEE . doi:10.1109/PRIME.2015.7251400

The effect of melanocortin peptides on Interleukin 1-beta induced chondrocyte cell death and inflammation
Can, V.C., Locke, I.C. and Getting, S.J. 2015. The effect of melanocortin peptides on Interleukin 1-beta induced chondrocyte cell death and inflammation. Physiology 2015 . Cardiff, UK. 08 Jul 2015

The effect of melanocortin peptides on Interleukin 1-beta induced chondrocyte cell death and inflammation
Can, V.C., Locke, I.C. and Getting, S.J. 2015. The effect of melanocortin peptides on Interleukin 1-beta induced chondrocyte cell death and inflammation. Physiology 2015. Cardiff Jun 2015

Acute hypoxia reduces plasma myostatin independent of hypoxic dose
Elliott, B., Simonson, T.S., Getting, S.J., Renshaw, D., Wagner Peter, D. and MacKenzie, R. 2015. Acute hypoxia reduces plasma myostatin independent of hypoxic dose. 8th International Conference on Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle Wasting. Paris 04 - 06 Dec 2015 The Society on Sarcopenia, Cachexia and Wasting Disorders.

Introducing EbolaCheck: potential for point-of-need infectious disease diagnosis
Moschos, S.A. 2015. Introducing EbolaCheck: potential for point-of-need infectious disease diagnosis. Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics. 15 (10), pp. 1237-1240. doi:10.1586/14737159.2015.1084228

Both MC1 and MC3 Receptors Provide Protection From Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion-Induced Neutrophil Recruitment.
Holloway, P.M., Durrenberger, P.F., Trutschl, M., Cvek, U., Cooper, D., Orr, A.W., Perretti, M., Getting, S.J. and Gavins, F.N. 2015. Both MC1 and MC3 Receptors Provide Protection From Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion-Induced Neutrophil Recruitment. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular biology . 35 (9), pp. 1936-44. doi:115.305348

Investigation on quorum sensing molecule of Bacillus licheniformis and its antifungal property
Esmaeilishirazifard, E., Moschos, S.A. and Keshavarz, T. 2015. Investigation on quorum sensing molecule of Bacillus licheniformis and its antifungal property.

Bio‐control application of Bacillus quorum sensing on aflatoxigenic fungi through their inter‐kingdom cross‐talk
Esmaeilishirazifard, E., Moschos, S.A. and Keshavarz, T. 2015. Bio‐control application of Bacillus quorum sensing on aflatoxigenic fungi through their inter‐kingdom cross‐talk. 6th Congress of European Microbiologists (FEMS 2015). Maastricht, The Netherlands

The melanocortin receptor antagonist SHU9119 inhibits the anti-inflammatory/pro-resolving properties of a-MSH and D[TRP8]-y-MSH in lipopolysaccharide stimulated chondrocytes
Can, V.C., Locke, I.C. and Getting, S.J. 2014. The melanocortin receptor antagonist SHU9119 inhibits the anti-inflammatory/pro-resolving properties of a-MSH and D[TRP8]-y-MSH in lipopolysaccharide stimulated chondrocytes. Pharmacology 2014. Queen Elizabeth Centre II, London, UK 16 Dec 2014 British Pharmacological Society.

Acute hypoxia alters myotube size in vitro and myostatin signalling in vivo
Elliott, B., Renshaw, D., Getting, S.J., Watt, P.W. and MacKenzie, R. 2014. Acute hypoxia alters myotube size in vitro and myostatin signalling in vivo. FASEB. San Diego Jul 2015 Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology.

The role of acute hypoxia in skeletal muscle atrophy
Elliott, B., Renshaw, D., Getting, S.J., Watt, P., Howard, D. and MacKenzie, R. 2014. The role of acute hypoxia in skeletal muscle atrophy. Physiology. London 30 Jun 2014 The Physiological Society.

Inter-kingdom cross-talk and its bio-control applications
Esmaeilishirazifard, E., Moschos, S.A. and Keshavarz, T. 2014. Inter-kingdom cross-talk and its bio-control applications. International Union of Microbiological Societies Congress. Montreal, Canada 31 Jul 2014

Bio-control applications of Bacillus quorum sensing on aflatoxigenic fungi
Esmaeilishirazifard, E., Moschos, S.A. and Keshavarz, T. 2014. Bio-control applications of Bacillus quorum sensing on aflatoxigenic fungi.

Melanocortin peptides protect chondrocytes from mechanically induced cartilage injury
Kaneva, M., Kerrigan, M.J.P., Grieco, P., Curley, G.P., Locke, I.C. and Getting, S.J. 2014. Melanocortin peptides protect chondrocytes from mechanically induced cartilage injury. Biochemical Pharmacology. 92 (2), pp. 336-347. doi:10.1016/j.bcp.2014.08.019

The melanocortin system in the male reproductive axis
Dowejko, M.M., Smith, C.L., Getting, S.J., Le Tissier, P. and Murray, J.F. 2014. The melanocortin system in the male reproductive axis. Endocrine Abstracts. 34, p. P338. doi:10.1530/endoabs.34.P338

Melanocortin receptor expression in the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal system of WT and MC3 null mice
Dowejko, M.M., Smith, C.L., Getting, S.J., Le Tissier, P. and Murray, J.F. 2014. Melanocortin receptor expression in the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal system of WT and MC3 null mice. International Congress of Neuroendocrinology 2014. Sydney 17-20 August 2014

Melanocortin 3 receptors (MC3) exert anti-inflammatory effects in mouse testicular inflammation by reducing nitric oxide (NO) release from Leydig cells
Dowejko, M.M., Smith, C.L., Getting, S.J., Le Tissier, P. and Murray, J.F. 2014. Melanocortin 3 receptors (MC3) exert anti-inflammatory effects in mouse testicular inflammation by reducing nitric oxide (NO) release from Leydig cells. Society for Reproduction and Fertility Conference. EICC2, Edinburgh 1-2 September 2014

Deep sequencing insights in therapeutic shRNA processing and siRNA target cleavage precision
Denise, H., Moschos, S.A., Sidders, B., Burden, F., Perkins, H., Carter, N., Stroud, T., Kennedy, M., Fancy, S.A., Lapthorn, C., Lavender, H., Kinloch, R., Suhy, D.A. and Corbau, R. 2014. Deep sequencing insights in therapeutic shRNA processing and siRNA target cleavage precision. Molecular Therapy Nucleic Acids. 3, p. e145. doi:10.1038/mtna.2013.73

Urocortin protects chondrocytes from NO-induced apoptosis: a future therapy for osteoarthritis?
Intekhab Alam, N.Y., White, O.B., Getting, S.J., Petsa, A., Knight, R.A., Townsend, P.A., Lawrence, K.M. and Locke, I.C. 2013. Urocortin protects chondrocytes from NO-induced apoptosis: a future therapy for osteoarthritis? Cell Death and Disease. 4, p. e717. doi:10.1038/cddis.2013.231

Interaction between Bacillus species and filamentous fungi for the control of fungal toxin production
Esmaeilishirazifard, E., Moschos, S.A. and Keshavarz, T. 2013. Interaction between Bacillus species and filamentous fungi for the control of fungal toxin production.

MicroRNA biotherapeutics: key challenges from a drug development perspective
Moschos, S.A. 2013. MicroRNA biotherapeutics: key challenges from a drug development perspective. in: Jones, L. and McKnight, A. (ed.) Biotherapeutics: recent developments using chemical and molecular biology London The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Melanocortin 3 receptor (MC3) activation effects on testicular testosterone and nitrite production in vitro
Dowejko, M.M., Smith, C.L., Getting, S.J., Le Tissier, P. and Murray, J.F. 2013. Melanocortin 3 receptor (MC3) activation effects on testicular testosterone and nitrite production in vitro. Society for Reproduction and Fertility (SRF) Annual Conference. Cambridge 11th July 2013

Neuroprotective efficacy of the endogenous neuropeptide Urocortin in a oxygen-glucose deprivation model of transient cerebral ischaemia with reperfusion
Ashioti, M., Getting, S.J., Locke, I.C. and Milton, N.G.N. 2013. Neuroprotective efficacy of the endogenous neuropeptide Urocortin in a oxygen-glucose deprivation model of transient cerebral ischaemia with reperfusion. British Neuroscience Association 22nd Biennial Meeting. London 7th-10th April 2013

Genomic biomarkers for patient selection and stratification: the cancer paradigm
Moschos, S.A. 2012. Genomic biomarkers for patient selection and stratification: the cancer paradigm. Bioanalysis. 4 (20), pp. 2499-2511. doi:10.4155/bio.12.241

Safe, long-term hepatic expression of anti-HCV shRNA in a nonhuman primate model
Suhy, D.A., Kao, S.C., Mao, T., Whiteley, L., Denise, H., Souberbielle, B., Burdick, A.D., Hayes, K., Wright, J.F., Lavender, H., Roelvink, P., Kolykhalov, A., Brady, K., Moschos, S.A., Hauck, B., Zelenaia, O., Zhou, S., Scribner, C., High, K.A., Renison, S.H. and Corbau, R. 2012. Safe, long-term hepatic expression of anti-HCV shRNA in a nonhuman primate model. Molecular Therapy. 20 (9), pp. 1737-1749. doi:10.1038/mt.2012.119

Chondroprotective and anti-inflammatory role of melanocortin peptides in TNF-α activated human C-20/A4 chondrocytes
Kaneva, M., Kerrigan, M.J.P., Grieco, P., Curley, G.P., Locke, I.C. and Getting, S.J. 2012. Chondroprotective and anti-inflammatory role of melanocortin peptides in TNF-α activated human C-20/A4 chondrocytes. British Journal of Pharmacology. 167 (1), pp. 67-79. doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2012.01968.x

The phenotypic characterization of A13/BACii, a novel bovine chondrocytic cell line with differentiation potential
Qusous, A., Kaneva, M., Can, V.C., Getting, S.J. and Kerrigan, M.J.P. 2012. The phenotypic characterization of A13/BACii, a novel bovine chondrocytic cell line with differentiation potential. Cells Tissues Organs. 196 (3), pp. 251-261. doi:10.1159/000332144

Novel methods for the quantification of changes in actin organization in chondrocytes using fluorescent imaging and linear profiling
Qusous, A., Parker, E., Geewan, C., Kapasi, A., Getting, S.J., Hucklebridge, F., Keshavarz, T. and Kerrigan, M.J.P. 2012. Novel methods for the quantification of changes in actin organization in chondrocytes using fluorescent imaging and linear profiling. Microscopy Research and Technique. 75 (7), pp. 991-999. doi:10.1002/jemt.22055

Expression of melanocortin 3 receptors (MC3) in the reproductive axes of both male and female mice
Dowejko, M.M., Smith, C.L., Getting, S.J., Le Tissier, P. and Murray, J.F. 2012. Expression of melanocortin 3 receptors (MC3) in the reproductive axes of both male and female mice. Society for Reproduction and Fertility. Edinburgh 9th - 11th July 2012

In vivo pharmacology: reaping the benefits of analysis at the cell type level
Moschos, S.A. 2012. In vivo pharmacology: reaping the benefits of analysis at the cell type level. Pharmacology Matters Newsletter. 5 (1), pp. 15-16.

The Central Role of Myostatin in Skeletal Muscle and Whole Body Homeostasis
Elliott, B., Renshaw, D., Getting, S.J. and MacKenzie, R. 2012. The Central Role of Myostatin in Skeletal Muscle and Whole Body Homeostasis. Acta Physiologica. 205 (3), pp. 324-40. doi:10.1111/j.1748-1716.2012.02423.x

Transcriptome analysis shows activation of circulating CD8+ T cells in patients with severe asthma
Tsitsiou, E., Williams, A.E., Moschos, S.A., Patel, K., Rossios, C., Jiang, X., Adams, O.D., Macedo, P., Booton, R., Gibeon, D., Chung, K.F. and Lindsay, M.A. 2012. Transcriptome analysis shows activation of circulating CD8+ T cells in patients with severe asthma. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 129 (1), pp. 95-103. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2011.08.011

Leukocyte recruitment in the brain in sepsis: involvement of the annexin 1-FPR2/ALX anti-inflammatory system
Gavins, F.N.E., Hughes, E.L., Buss, N.A.P.S., Holloway, P.M., Getting, S.J. and Buckingham, J.C. 2012. Leukocyte recruitment in the brain in sepsis: involvement of the annexin 1-FPR2/ALX anti-inflammatory system. FASEB Journal. 26 (12), pp. 4977-4989. doi:10.1096/fj.12-205971

The central role of myostatin in skeletal muscle and whole body homeostasis
Elliott, B.T., Renshaw, D., Getting, S.J. and Mackenzie, R.W.A. 2012. The central role of myostatin in skeletal muscle and whole body homeostasis. Acta Physiologica. 205 (3), pp. 324-340. doi:10.1111/j.1748-1716.2012.02423.x

Relevance of systems pharmacology in drug discovery
Cucurull-Sanchez, L., Spink, K.G. and Moschos, S.A. 2012. Relevance of systems pharmacology in drug discovery. Drug Discovery Today. 17 (13-14), pp. 665-670. doi:10.1016/j.drudis.2012.01.015

The anti-inflammatory effects of melanocortin peptides in lipopolysaccharide activated chondrocytes
Can, V.C., Kaneva, M., Kerrigan, M.J.P., Locke, I.C. and Getting, S.J. 2012. The anti-inflammatory effects of melanocortin peptides in lipopolysaccharide activated chondrocytes. British Phamacological Society Winter Meeting 2012. London, UK 18th-20th December

The Melanocortin receptor system as an anti-inflammatory therapeutic target for stroke
Holloway, P.M., Getting, S.J. and Gavins, F.N.E. 2011. The Melanocortin receptor system as an anti-inflammatory therapeutic target for stroke. pA2 online, E-journal of the British Pharmacological Society.

Investigating the role of melanocortin receptor subtypes in mediating anti-inflammatory protection following cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury
Holloway, P.M., Getting, S.J. and Gavins, F.N.E. 2011. Investigating the role of melanocortin receptor subtypes in mediating anti-inflammatory protection following cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury. pA2 online, E-journal of the British Pharmacological Society.

Selection, optimization, and pharmacokinetic properties of a novel, potent antiviral locked nucleic acid-based antisense oligomer targeting hepatitis C virus internal ribosome entry site
Laxton, C., Brady, K., Moschos, S.A., Turnpenny, P., Rawal, J., Pryde, D.C., Sidders, B., Corbau, R., Pickford, C. and Murray, E.J. 2011. Selection, optimization, and pharmacokinetic properties of a novel, potent antiviral locked nucleic acid-based antisense oligomer targeting hepatitis C virus internal ribosome entry site. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 55 (7), pp. 3105-3114. doi:10.1128/AAC.00222-11

The 3 prime paradigm of the miR-200 family and other microRNAs
Brock, G.J., Moschos, S.A., Spivack, S.D. and Hurteau, G.J. 2011. The 3 prime paradigm of the miR-200 family and other microRNAs. Epigenetics. 6 (3), pp. 268-272. doi:10.4161/epi.6.3.14635

Targeting the melanocortin receptor system for anti-stroke therapy
Holloway, P.M., Smith, H.K., Renshaw, D., Flower, R.J., Getting, S.J. and Gavins, F.N.E. 2011. Targeting the melanocortin receptor system for anti-stroke therapy. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences. 32 (2), pp. 90-98. doi:10.1016/j.tips.2010.11.010

REV5901 induces calcium dependant chondroprotective effects post in vitro mechanical loading
Parker, E., Qusous, A., Getting, S.J., Hucklebridge, F. and Kerrigan, M.J.P. 2011. REV5901 induces calcium dependant chondroprotective effects post in vitro mechanical loading. ORS Annual Meeting vol. 36. Long Beach, California

Measuring the action of CPP–siRNA conjugates in the lung
Moschos, S.A., Spink, K.G. and Lindsay, M.A. 2011. Measuring the action of CPP–siRNA conjugates in the lung. Methods in Molecular Biology. 683 (5), pp. 417-429. doi:10.1007/978-1-60761-919-2_30

Uptake, efficacy, and systemic distribution of naked, inhaled short interfering RNA (siRNA) and locked nucleic acid (LNA) antisense
Moschos, S.A., Frick, M., Taylor, B., Turnpenny, P., Graves, H., Spink, K.G., Brady, K., Lambiel, D., Collins, D., Rockel, T., Weber, M., Lazari, O., Perez-Tosar, L., Fancy, S.A., Lapthorn, C., Green, M.X., Evans, S., Selby, M., Jones, G., Jones, L., Kearney, S., Mechiche, H., Gikunju, D., Subramanian, R., Uhlmann, E., Jurk, M., Vollmer, J., Ciaramella, G. and Yeadon, M. 2011. Uptake, efficacy, and systemic distribution of naked, inhaled short interfering RNA (siRNA) and locked nucleic acid (LNA) antisense. Molecular Therapy. 19 (12), pp. 2163-2168. doi:10.1038/mt.2011.206

Is it in yet? Optimisation and screening of an RNAi delivery screen
Lazari, O., Moschos, S.A., Kearney, S., Green, M.P. and Spink, K.G. 2011. Is it in yet? Optimisation and screening of an RNAi delivery screen. ELRIG 2011, Spring Meeting.

α-MSH and [DTRP]8-γ-MSH inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokine release from stimulated primary bovine chondrocytes
Kaneva, M., Kerrigan, M.J.P., Locke, I.C. and Getting, S.J. 2011. α-MSH and [DTRP]8-γ-MSH inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokine release from stimulated primary bovine chondrocytes. 10th World Congress on Inflammation. Paris, France 25–29 June 2011

MC1 and MC3 activation inhibits caspase-3 production and activity, promotes cell-viability, and induces IL-10 and HO-1 release from human C20/A4 chondrocytes
Kaneva, M., Kerrigan, M.J.P., Locke, I.C. and Getting, S.J. 2011. MC1 and MC3 activation inhibits caspase-3 production and activity, promotes cell-viability, and induces IL-10 and HO-1 release from human C20/A4 chondrocytes. Physiological Society Meeting 23. University of Oxford

Total pituitary hormone content in wild type and MC3 null male and female mice
Dowejko, M.M., Smith, C.L., Getting, S.J., Perretti, M., Le Tissier, P. and Murray, J.F. 2011. Total pituitary hormone content in wild type and MC3 null male and female mice. British Society for Neuroendocrinology. Cambridge 3rd - 5th July 2011

Comparison between the total pituitary hormone content in wild type and melanocortin 3 receptor (MC3) null male and female mice
Dowejko, M.M., Smith, C.L., Getting, S.J., Perretti, M., Le Tissier, P. and Murray, J.F. 2011. Comparison between the total pituitary hormone content in wild type and melanocortin 3 receptor (MC3) null male and female mice. Society for Reproduction and Fertility. Brighton 11th - 13th July 2011

Antiallergic cromones inhibit neutrophil recruitment onto vascular endothelium via Annexin-A1 mobilization
Yazid, S., Leoni, G., Getting, S.J., Cooper, D., Solito, E., Perretti, M. and Flower, R.J. 2010. Antiallergic cromones inhibit neutrophil recruitment onto vascular endothelium via Annexin-A1 mobilization. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology. 30 (9), pp. 1718-1724. doi:10.1161/ATVBAHA.110.209536

The melanocortin MC1 receptor agonist BMS-470539 inhibits leucocyte trafficking in the inflamed vasculature
Leoni, G., Voisin, M.B., Carlson, K., Getting, S.J., Nourshargh, S. and Perretti, M. 2010. The melanocortin MC1 receptor agonist BMS-470539 inhibits leucocyte trafficking in the inflamed vasculature. British Journal of Pharmacology. 160 (1), pp. 171-180. doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2010.00688.x

Saliva: physiology and diagnostic potential in health and disease
Farnaud, S., Kosti, O., Getting, S.J. and Renshaw, D. 2010. Saliva: physiology and diagnostic potential in health and disease. ScientificWorldJournal. 10, pp. 434-456. doi:10.1100/tsw.2010.38

Activation of testicular melanocortin 3 receptors (MC3-R) inhibits LH-stimulated testosterone production
Akindele, K., Horanin, M.M., Getting, S.J., Smith, C.L. and Murray, J.F. 2010. Activation of testicular melanocortin 3 receptors (MC3-R) inhibits LH-stimulated testosterone production. Society for Endocrinology BES 2010. Manchester 15th - 18th March 2010

A13/BACII, a novel bovine chondrocytic cell line with differentiation potential
Qusous, A., Kaneva, M., Getting, S.J. and Kerrigan, M.J.P. 2010. A13/BACII, a novel bovine chondrocytic cell line with differentiation potential. Combined Meeting of Orthopaedic Research Societies. Kyoto, Japan

Cartilage and macrophages: evidence for a paracrine loop. Poster no. 278
Parker, E., Qusous, A., Getting, S.J., Hucklebridge, F. and Kerrigan, M.J.P. 2010. Cartilage and macrophages: evidence for a paracrine loop. Poster no. 278. Combined Meeting of Orthopaedic Research Societies. Kyoto, Japan

Tamoxifen: chondroprotective effects post-mechanical trauma
Parker, E., Peetroons, C., Getting, S.J., Hucklebridge, F. and Kerrigan, M.J.P. 2010. Tamoxifen: chondroprotective effects post-mechanical trauma. Physiological Society Meeting 21. University of Durham

REV5901: chondroprotective effects post mechanical trauma
Parker, E., Noureen, S., Getting, S.J., Vleck, V.E., Hucklebridge, F. and Kerrigan, M.J.P. 2010. REV5901: chondroprotective effects post mechanical trauma. Physiological Society Meeting 19. University of Manchester

The effects of REV5901 on chondrocyte viability following mechanical trauma
Parker, E., Getting, S.J., Hucklebridge, F., Vleck, V.E. and Kerrigan, M.J.P. 2010. The effects of REV5901 on chondrocyte viability following mechanical trauma. British Orthopaedic Research Society Annual Meeting. Newcastle upon Tyne 22 - 23 Jun 2009 Wiley.

Diurnal inflammatory cytokine changes post-exercise. Poster no. 319
Parker, E., Getting, S.J., Hucklebridge, F. and Kerrigan, M.J.P. 2010. Diurnal inflammatory cytokine changes post-exercise. Poster no. 319. Combined Meeting of Orthopaedic Research Societies. Kyoto, Japan

Knee forces and inflammation: the effects of foot strike patterns and footwear
Parker, E., Domah, S., Getting, S.J., Vleck, V.E., Hucklebridge, F. and Kerrigan, M.J.P. 2010. Knee forces and inflammation: the effects of foot strike patterns and footwear. Physiological Society Meeting 19. University of Manchester

Chondroitin and glucosamine supplementation results in increased chondrocyte viability post mechanical trauma in vitro
Parker, E., Begum, N., Wunderlich, C., Ravichandran, N., Getting, S.J., Vleck, V.E., Hucklebridge, F. and Kerrigan, M.J.P. 2010. Chondroitin and glucosamine supplementation results in increased chondrocyte viability post mechanical trauma in vitro. Physiological Society Meeting 19. University of Manchester

REV5901: the protective effect on bovine articular chondrocytes following single impact trauma
Nedelcheva, Y., Getting, S.J. and Kerrigan, M.J.P. 2010. REV5901: the protective effect on bovine articular chondrocytes following single impact trauma. Physiological Society Meeting 19. University of Manchester

REV5901: an investigation on the chondroprotective effect in bovine chondrocytes following single impact trauma
Nedelcheva, Y., Getting, S.J. and Kerrigan, M.J.P. 2010. REV5901: an investigation on the chondroprotective effect in bovine chondrocytes following single impact trauma. Physiological Society Meeting 21. University of Durham

The role of miRNA in diagnostics
Moschos, S.A. 2010. The role of miRNA in diagnostics. International Drug Discovery. Online only.

α-MSH and dTRP8-γ-MSH inhibit TNF-α induced MMP 1 and 13 expression in human C20/A4 chondrocytes
Kaneva, M., Locke, I.C., Kerrigan, M.J.P. and Getting, S.J. 2010. α-MSH and dTRP8-γ-MSH inhibit TNF-α induced MMP 1 and 13 expression in human C20/A4 chondrocytes. British Pharmacological Society Winter Meeting 2010. London, UK 14th-16th December 2010

Melanocortin peptides modulate pro-inflammatory mediator release from TNF-a stimulated C-20/A4 cells
Kaneva, M., Kerrigan, M.J.P., Locke, I.C. and Getting, S.J. 2010. Melanocortin peptides modulate pro-inflammatory mediator release from TNF-a stimulated C-20/A4 cells. British Orthopaedic Research Society Annual Meeting. Newcastle upon Tyne 22 - 23 Jun 2009 Wiley. pp. PO136

The MC3 agonist dTRP8-γ-MSH inhibits IL-6 and IL-8 release from TNF-α stimulated C-20/A4 chondrocytes, an effect blocked by the MC3R antagonist SHU9119
Kaneva, M., Kerrigan, M.J.P., Locke, I.C. and Getting, S.J. 2010. The MC3 agonist dTRP8-γ-MSH inhibits IL-6 and IL-8 release from TNF-α stimulated C-20/A4 chondrocytes, an effect blocked by the MC3R antagonist SHU9119. Physiology 2010. University of Manchester 30 June - 2 July 2010

Flow cytometric identification of cell types in digested mouse lung
Graves, H., Taylor, B., Mechiche, H. and Moschos, S.A. 2010. Flow cytometric identification of cell types in digested mouse lung. 9th Annual Symposium on Biopharmaceuticals - San Diego Bio-Pharma Conference. Hilton San Diego/Del Mar, Del Mar 05 Jun 2010

Testicular LH-stimulated testosterone production is inhibited by activation of melanocortin 3 receptors (MC3)
Akindele, K., Horanin, M.M., Getting, S.J., Smith, C.L. and Murray, J.F. 2010. Testicular LH-stimulated testosterone production is inhibited by activation of melanocortin 3 receptors (MC3). Society for Reproduction and Fertility. Sutton Bonnington 11th - 13th July 2010

Anti-inflammatory and antiosteoclastogenesis propertiesof endogenous melanocortin receptor type 3 inexperimental arthritis
Patel, H.B., Bombardieri, M., Sampaio, A.L.F., D'Acquisto, F., Gray, M., Grieco, P., Getting, S.J., Pitzalis, C. and Perretti, M. 2010. Anti-inflammatory and antiosteoclastogenesis propertiesof endogenous melanocortin receptor type 3 inexperimental arthritis. FASEB Journal. 24 (12), pp. 4835-4843. doi:10.1096/fj.10-167759

Melanocortin peptide therapy for the treatment of arthritic pathologies
Getting, S.J., Kaneva, M., Bhadresa, Y., Renshaw, D., Leoni, G., Patel, H.B., Kerrigan, M.J.P. and Locke, I.C. 2009. Melanocortin peptide therapy for the treatment of arthritic pathologies. The Scientific World Journal. 9, pp. 1394-1414. doi:10.1100/tsw.2009.163

Pro-inflammatory mediator release from TNF-α stimulated C-20/A4 cells results in Col II degradation
Kaneva, M., Kerrigan, M.J.P., Locke, I.C. and Getting, S.J. 2009. Pro-inflammatory mediator release from TNF-α stimulated C-20/A4 cells results in Col II degradation. British Orthopaedic Research Society (BORS) Annual Meeting. Newcastle 22nd - 23rd June 2009

The effects of REV5901 on chondrocyte viability following mechanical trauma
Parker, E., Getting, S.J., Hucklebridge, F., Vleck, V.E. and Kerrigan, M.J.P. 2009. The effects of REV5901 on chondrocyte viability following mechanical trauma. pA2 Online. From the Queen Elizabeth II Conference Centre London, Winter 2009 Meeting: Proceedings of the British Pharmacological Society. 7 (4), p. P0149. doi:http://www.pa2online.org/abstracts/Vol7Issue4abst127P.pdf

Melanocortin peptides modulate pro-inflammatory mediator release from TNF-a stimulated C-20/A4 cells
Kaneva, M., Kerrigan, M.J.P., Locke, I.C. and Getting, S.J. 2009. Melanocortin peptides modulate pro-inflammatory mediator release from TNF-a stimulated C-20/A4 cells. pA2 Online. From the Queen Elizabeth II Conference Centre London, Winter 2009 Meeting: Proceedings of the British Pharmacological Society.

Molecular characterization of the melanocortin 3 receptor in the testes of mice
Horanin, M.M., Akindele, K., Getting, S.J., Smith, C.L. and Murray, J.F. 2009. Molecular characterization of the melanocortin 3 receptor in the testes of mice. pA2 Online. From the Queen Elizabeth II Conference Centre London, Winter 2009 Meeting: Proceedings of the British Pharmacological Society. 7 (4). doi:http://www.pa2online.org/abstracts/Vol7Issue4abst089P.pdf

Role of miRNA-146a in the regulation of the innate immune response and cancer
Williams, A.E., Perry, M.M., Moschos, S.A., Larner-Svensson, H.M. and Lindsay, M.A. 2008. Role of miRNA-146a in the regulation of the innate immune response and cancer. Biochemical Society. Transactions. 36 (6), pp. 1211-1215. doi:10.1042/BST0361211

Inflamed phenotype of the mesenteric microcirculation of melanocortin type 3 receptor-null mice after ischemia-reperfusion
Leoni, G., Patel, H.B., Sampaio, A.L.F., Gavins, F.N.E., Murray, J.F., Grieco, P., Getting, S.J. and Perretti, M. 2008. Inflamed phenotype of the mesenteric microcirculation of melanocortin type 3 receptor-null mice after ischemia-reperfusion. FASEB Journal. 22 (12), pp. 4228-4238. doi:10.1096/fj.08-113886

A role for MC3R in modulating lung inflammation
Getting, S.J., Riffo-Vasquez, Y., Pitchford, S., Kaneva, M., Grieco, P., Page, C.P., Perretti, M. and Spina, D. 2008. A role for MC3R in modulating lung inflammation. Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 21 (6), pp. 866-873. doi:10.1016/j.pupt.2008.09.004

Rapid changes in microRNA-146a expression negatively regulate the IL-1β-induced inflammatory response in human lung alveolar epithelial cells
Perry, M.M., Moschos, S.A., Williams, A.E., Shepherd, N.J., Larner-Svensson, H.M. and Lindsay, M.A. 2008. Rapid changes in microRNA-146a expression negatively regulate the IL-1β-induced inflammatory response in human lung alveolar epithelial cells. Journal of Immunology. 180 (8), pp. 5689-5698.

Melanocortin 3 receptor in the testes of mice
Yogarajah, S., Lynch, S., Smith, C.L., Getting, S.J., Perretti, M. and Murray, J.F. 2008. Melanocortin 3 receptor in the testes of mice. Society for Reproduction and Fertility. Edinburgh 29 Jun - 01 Jul 2008 pp. Abstract P80

Melanocortin 3 receptor in the testes of mice
Wotherspoon, G., Yogarajah, S., Lynch, S., Smith, C.L., Getting, S.J., Perretti, M. and Murray, J.F. 2008. Melanocortin 3 receptor in the testes of mice. pA2 Online. From the University of Brighton, Winter 2008 Meeting: Proceedings of the British Pharmacological Society. 6 (4), p. P008.

Asymmetric dimethylarginine negatively influences osteoblast differentiation in vitro
Stenbeck, G., Joseph, J., Getting, S.J. and Smith, C.L. 2008. Asymmetric dimethylarginine negatively influences osteoblast differentiation in vitro. pA2 Online. From the University of Brighton, Winter 2008 Meeting: Proceedings of the British Pharmacological Society. 6 (4), p. C041.

The role of the actin cytoskeleton in chondrocyte protection following single impact
Nedelcheva, Y., Getting, S.J. and Kerrigan, M.J.P. 2008. The role of the actin cytoskeleton in chondrocyte protection following single impact. pA2 Online. From the University of Brighton, Winter 2008 Meeting: Proceedings of the British Pharmacological Society. 6 (4). doi:http://www.pa2online.org/abstracts/Vol6Issue4abst148P.pdf

Targeting the lung using siRNA and antisense based oligonucleotides
Moschos, S.A., Spink, K.G., Williams, A.E. and Lindsay, M.A. 2008. Targeting the lung using siRNA and antisense based oligonucleotides. Current Pharmaceutical Design. 14 (34), pp. 3620-3627.

Tonic inhibitory control of the mesenteric microcirculation by the melanocortin type 3 receptor
Leoni, G., Patel, H.B., Sampaio, A.L.F., Gavins, F.N.E., Getting, S.J. and Perretti, M. 2008. Tonic inhibitory control of the mesenteric microcirculation by the melanocortin type 3 receptor. Journal of Vascular Research. 45 (Suppl2).

Inhibitory role of endogenous melanocortin type 3 receptor in the inflamed microcirculation
Leoni, G., Patel, H.B., Sampaio, A.L.F., Gavins, F.N.E., Getting, S.J. and Perretti, M. 2008. Inhibitory role of endogenous melanocortin type 3 receptor in the inflamed microcirculation. William Harvey Day. St. Barts Hospital, London 14th October 2008

A role for melanocortin peptides in modulating oxidative stress induced inflammation in A549 cells
Getting, S.J., Kaneva, M. and Kerrigan, M.J.P. 2008. A role for melanocortin peptides in modulating oxidative stress induced inflammation in A549 cells. pA2 Online. From the University of Brighton, Winter 2008 Meeting: Proceedings of the British Pharmacological Society. 6 (4), p. C020.

Melanocortins
Getting, S.J. 2008. Melanocortins. in: Offermanns, S. and Rosenthal, W. (ed.) Encyclopedia of molecular pharmacology. 2nd edition Berlin Springer. pp. 752-757

The effect of prolonged hypotonicity on chondrocyte volume regulation and intracellular calcium signalling
Ali, N., Getting, S.J. and Kerrigan, M.J.P. 2008. The effect of prolonged hypotonicity on chondrocyte volume regulation and intracellular calcium signalling. pA2 Online. From the University of Brighton, Winter 2008 Meeting: Proceedings of the British Pharmacological Society. 6 (4). doi:http://www.pa2online.org/abstracts/Vol6Issue4abst092P.pdf

Cell-penetrating-peptide-mediated siRNA lung delivery
Moschos, S.A., Williams, A.E. and Lindsay, M.A. 2007. Cell-penetrating-peptide-mediated siRNA lung delivery. Biochemical Society. Transactions. 35 (4), pp. 807-810.

Maternally imprinted microRNAs are differentially expressed during mouse and human lung development
Williams, A.E., Moschos, S.A., Perry, M.M., Barnes, P.J. and Lindsay, M.A. 2007. Maternally imprinted microRNAs are differentially expressed during mouse and human lung development. Developmental Dynamics. 236 (2), pp. 572-580. doi:10.1002/dvdy.21047

microRNA expression in the aging mouse lung
Williams, A.E., Perry, M.M., Moschos, S.A. and Lindsay, M.A. 2007. microRNA expression in the aging mouse lung. BMC Genomics. 8 (1), p. 172. doi:10.1186/1471-2164-8-172

MicroRNAs are differentially expressed in the developing lung but not in the aged lung
Williams, A.E., Moschos, S.A., Perry, M.M. and Lindsay, M.A. 2007. MicroRNAs are differentially expressed in the developing lung but not in the aged lung. Proceedings of the American Thoracic Society 2007 International Conference. San Francisco 18 - 23 May 2007 pp. A558

MALDI-TOF mass spectral analysis of siRNA degradation in serum confirms an RNAse A-like activity
Turner, J.J., Jones, S.W., Moschos, S.A., Lindsay, M.A. and Gait, M.J. 2007. MALDI-TOF mass spectral analysis of siRNA degradation in serum confirms an RNAse A-like activity. Molecular BioSystems. 3 (1), pp. 43-50. doi:10.1039/B611612D

ncreased expression of microRNA-146a/b negatively regulates IL-1b induced cytokine release from airway epithelial cells
Perry, M.M., Moschos, S.A., Williams, A.E. and Lindsay, M.A. 2007. ncreased expression of microRNA-146a/b negatively regulates IL-1b induced cytokine release from airway epithelial cells. Proceedings of the American Thoracic Society 2007 International Conference. San Francisco 18 - 23 May 2007 pp. A239

Endogenous MC3R and inhibition of inflammatory arthritis. PC112
Patel, H.B., Sampaio, A.L.F., Getting, S.J., Gray, M. and Perretti, M. 2007. Endogenous MC3R and inhibition of inflammatory arthritis. PC112. Life Sciences. Glasgow 8th - 12th July 2007

Expression profiling in vivo demonstrates rapid changes in lung microRNA levels following lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation but not in the anti-inflammatory action of glucocorticoids
Moschos, S.A., Williams, A.E., Perry, M.M., Birrell, M.A., Belvisi, M.G. and Lindsay, M.A. 2007. Expression profiling in vivo demonstrates rapid changes in lung microRNA levels following lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation but not in the anti-inflammatory action of glucocorticoids. BMC Genomics. 8 (1), p. 240. doi:10.1186/1471-2164-8-240

Expression profiling implicates microRNA expression in the resolution of the inflammatory response in vivo
Moschos, S.A., Perry, M.M., Williams, A.E. and Lindsay, M.A. 2007. Expression profiling implicates microRNA expression in the resolution of the inflammatory response in vivo. Proceedings of the American Thoracic Society 2007 International Conference. San Francisco 18 - 23 May 2007 pp. A239

Lung delivery studies using siRNA conjugated to TAT(48−60) and penetratin reveal peptide induced reduction in gene expression and induction of innate immunity
Moschos, S.A., Jones, S.W., Perry, M.M., Williams, A.E., Erjefalt, J.S., Turner, J.J., Barnes, P.J., Sproat, B.S., Gait, M.J. and Lindsay, M.A. 2007. Lung delivery studies using siRNA conjugated to TAT(48−60) and penetratin reveal peptide induced reduction in gene expression and induction of innate immunity. Bioconjugate Chemistry. 18 (5), pp. 1450-1459. doi:10.1021/bc070077d

Crucial role for endogenous melanocortin type 3 receptor in mesenteric post-reperfusion injury. PC106
Leoni, G., Getting, S.J., Gavins, F.N.E. and Perretti, M. 2007. Crucial role for endogenous melanocortin type 3 receptor in mesenteric post-reperfusion injury. PC106. Life Sciences. Glasgow 8th - 12th July 2007

Glucocorticoid and melanocortins: special issue
Getting, S.J. 2007. Glucocorticoid and melanocortins: special issue. ScientificWorldJournal. 7, pp. 1463-1464. doi:10.1100/tsw.2007.93

[D -Trp8]-γ -melanocyte -stimulating hormone exhibits anti-inflammatory efficacy in mice bearing a nonfunctional MC1 R(Recessive Yellow e/e Mouse)
Getting, S.J., Lam, C.W., Leoni, G., Gavins, F.N.E., Grieco, P. and Perretti, M. 2006. [D -Trp8]-γ -melanocyte -stimulating hormone exhibits anti-inflammatory efficacy in mice bearing a nonfunctional MC1 R(Recessive Yellow e/e Mouse). Molecular Pharmacology. 70 (6), pp. 1850-1855. doi:10.1124/mol.106.028878

Annexin 1 and melanocortin peptide therapy for protection against ischaemic-reperfusion damage in the heart
Gavins, F.N.E., Leoni, G. and Getting, S.J. 2006. Annexin 1 and melanocortin peptide therapy for protection against ischaemic-reperfusion damage in the heart. ScientificWorldJournal. 6, pp. 1008-1023. doi:10.1100/tsw.2006.196

In vitro and in vivo delivery studies of siRNA-peptide conjugates
Turner, J.J., Fabani, M.M., Jones, S.W., Moschos, S.A., Perry, M.M., Lindsay, M.A. and Gait, M.J. 2006. In vitro and in vivo delivery studies of siRNA-peptide conjugates. Journal of RNAi and Gene Silencing. 2 (2), pp. 171-172.

Targeting melanocortin receptors as potential novel therapeutics
Getting, S.J. 2006. Targeting melanocortin receptors as potential novel therapeutics. Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 111 (1), pp. 1-15. doi:10.1016/j.pharmthera.2005.06.022

Modulating the adjuvanticity of alum by co-administration of muramyl di-peptide (MDP) or Quil-A
Moschos, S.A. and Bramwell, V.W. 2006. Modulating the adjuvanticity of alum by co-administration of muramyl di-peptide (MDP) or Quil-A. Vaccine. 24 (8), pp. 1081-1086. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2005.09.007

Melanocortin receptor signaling in RAW264.7 macrophage cell line
Lam, C.W., Perretti, M. and Getting, S.J. 2006. Melanocortin receptor signaling in RAW264.7 macrophage cell line. Peptides. 27 (2), pp. 404-412. doi:10.1016/j.peptides.2005.01.031

The melanocortin peptide HP228 displays protective effects in acute models of inflammation and organ damage
Getting, S.J., Di Filippo, C., D'Amico, M. and Perretti, M. 2006. The melanocortin peptide HP228 displays protective effects in acute models of inflammation and organ damage. European Journal of Pharmacology. 532 (1-2), pp. 138-144. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2005.12.023

Mode of glucocorticoid actions in airway disease
Ito, K., Getting, S.J. and Charron, C.E. 2006. Mode of glucocorticoid actions in airway disease. ScientificWorldJournal. 28 (6), pp. 1750-1769. doi:10.1100/tsw.2006.274

Melanocortin 3 receptors control crystal-induced inflammation
Getting, S.J., Lam, C.W., Chen, A.S., Grieco, P. and Perretti, M. 2006. Melanocortin 3 receptors control crystal-induced inflammation. FASEB Journal. 20 (13), pp. 2234-2241.

In vitro and in vivo induction of heme oxygenase 1 in mouse macrophages following melanocortin receptor activation
Lam, C.W., Getting, S.J. and Perretti, M. 2005. In vitro and in vivo induction of heme oxygenase 1 in mouse macrophages following melanocortin receptor activation. Journal of Immunology. 174 (4), pp. 2297-2304.

Comparative immunomodulatory properties of a chitosan-MDP adjuvant combination following intranasal or intramuscular immunisation
Moschos, S.A., Bramwell, V.W., Somavarapu, S. and Alpar, H.O. 2005. Comparative immunomodulatory properties of a chitosan-MDP adjuvant combination following intranasal or intramuscular immunisation. Vaccine. 23 (16), pp. 1923-1930. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2004.10.016

Adjuvant synergy: the effects of nasal coadministration of adjuvants
Moschos, S.A., Bramwell, V.W., Somavarapu, S. and Alpar, H.O. 2004. Adjuvant synergy: the effects of nasal coadministration of adjuvants. Immunology and Cell Biology. 82 (6), pp. 628-637. doi:10.1111/j.0818-9641.2004.01280.x

MC-3 receptor and the inflammatory mechanisms activated in acute myocardial infarct
Getting, S.J., Di Filippo, C., Christian, H.C., Lam, C.W., Rossi, F., D'Amico, M. and Perretti, M. 2004. MC-3 receptor and the inflammatory mechanisms activated in acute myocardial infarct. Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 76 (4), pp. 845-853. doi:10.1189/jlb.0306175

Inhibitory effects of TSG-6 Link module on leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions in vitro and in vivo
Cao, T.V., La, M., Getting, S.J. and Day, A.J. 2004. Inhibitory effects of TSG-6 Link module on leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions in vitro and in vivo. Microcirculation. 11 (7), pp. 615-624. doi:10.1080/10739680490503438

Investigation into the potential anti-inflammatory effects of endothelin antagonists in a murine model of experimental monosodium urate peritonitis
Getting, S.J., Di Filippo, C., Lam, C.W., Rossi, F. and D'Amico, M. 2004. Investigation into the potential anti-inflammatory effects of endothelin antagonists in a murine model of experimental monosodium urate peritonitis. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 310 (1), pp. 90-97. doi:10.1124/jpet.104.065573

Modulation of inflammation and response to dexamethasone by Annexin 1 in antigen-induced arthritis
Yang, Y.H., Morand, E.F., Getting, S.J. and Paul-Clark, M. 2004. Modulation of inflammation and response to dexamethasone by Annexin 1 in antigen-induced arthritis. Arthritis & Rheumatism. 50 (3), pp. 976-984. doi:10.1002/art.20201

The annexin 1-/- mouse: phenotypic studies
Wells, D., Wells, K., Liu, K., Hannon, R., Croxtall, J.D., Damazo, A.S., Oliani, S.M., Getting, S.J., Parente, L., Paul-Clark, M., Yona, S., Gavins, F.N.E., Martin, J., Christian, H.C., Cover, P.O., John, C.D., Solito, E., Morris, J.F., Perretti, M., Buckingham, J.C. and Flower, R.J. 2004. The annexin 1-/- mouse: phenotypic studies. Annexins. 1 (2), pp. 109-120.

New strategies in vaccine research: targeting quorum sensing pathways for prophylaxis against antibiotic-resistant S. aureus infections
Moschos, S.A., Pandit, S., Somavarapu, S., Balaban, N. and Alpar, H.O. 2004. New strategies in vaccine research: targeting quorum sensing pathways for prophylaxis against antibiotic-resistant S. aureus infections. Proceedings of the 31st International Symposium for the Controlled Release of Bioactive Materials 2004. Honolulu, USA 12 - 16 Jun 2004 pp. 526

Activation of melanocortin receptors induces cAMP-dependent hemeoxygenase-1 expression in murine macrophages
Lam, C.W., Getting, S.J. and Perretti, M. 2004. Activation of melanocortin receptors induces cAMP-dependent hemeoxygenase-1 expression in murine macrophages. pA2 Online. Winter 2004 Meeting: Proceedings of the British Pharmacological Society.

Melanocortin receptor type 3 as a potential target for anti-inflammatory therapy
Lam, C.W. and Getting, S.J. 2004. Melanocortin receptor type 3 as a potential target for anti-inflammatory therapy. Current Drug Targets. Inflammation & Allergy. 3 (3), pp. 311-315.

Double identity
Moschos, S.A. 2003. Double identity. New Scientist. 2424.

Dissection of the anti-inflammatory effect of the core and C-terminal (KPV) alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone peptides
Getting, S.J., Schiöth, H.B. and Perretti, M. 2003. Dissection of the anti-inflammatory effect of the core and C-terminal (KPV) alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone peptides. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 306 (2), pp. 631-637. doi:10.1124/jpet.103.051623

Redundancy of a Functional Melanocortin 1 Receptor in the Anti-inflammatory actions of melanocortin peptides: studies in the recessive yellow (e/e) mouse suggest an important role for melanocortin 3 receptor
Getting, S.J., Christian, H.C., Lam, C.W., Gavins, F.N.E., Flower, R.J., Schiöth, H.B. and Perretti, M. 2003. Redundancy of a Functional Melanocortin 1 Receptor in the Anti-inflammatory actions of melanocortin peptides: studies in the recessive yellow (e/e) mouse suggest an important role for melanocortin 3 receptor. Journal of Immunology. 170 (6), pp. 3323-3330.

Aberrant inflammation and resistance to glucocorticoids in annexin 1-/- mouse
Hannon, R., Croxtall, J.D., Getting, S.J., Roviezzo, F., Yona, S., Paul-Clark, M., Gavins, F.N.E., Perretti, M., Morris, J.F., Buckingham, J.C. and Flower, R.J. 2003. Aberrant inflammation and resistance to glucocorticoids in annexin 1-/- mouse. FASEB Journal. 17 (2), pp. 253-255. doi:10.1096/fj.02-0239fje

Migration of specific leukocyte subsets in response to cytokine or chemokine application in vivo
Perretti, M. and Getting, S.J. 2003. Migration of specific leukocyte subsets in response to cytokine or chemokine application in vivo. Methods in Molecular Biology. 225, pp. 139-146. doi:10.1385/1-59259-374-7:139

Migration of specific leukocyte sub-sets in response to cytokine or chemokine application in vivo
Perretti, M. and Getting, S.J. 2003. Migration of specific leukocyte sub-sets in response to cytokine or chemokine application in vivo. in: Winyard, P.G. and Willoughby, D.A. (ed.) Inflammation Protocols Totowa, NJ Humana Press. pp. 139-146

Considerations in the antigen-stimulated, primed, primary splenocyte culture model as an in vitro vaccine screening tool
Moschos, S.A., Bramwell, V.W. and Alpar, H.O. 2003. Considerations in the antigen-stimulated, primed, primary splenocyte culture model as an in vitro vaccine screening tool. Proceedings of the 30th International Symposium for the Controlled Release of Bioactive Materials. Glasgow 19 - 23 Jul 2003 pp. 899

The link module from human TSG-6 inhibits neutrophil migration in a hyaluronan- and inter-alpha -inhibitor-independent manner
Getting, S.J., Mahoney, D.J., Cao, T.V., Rugg, M.S., Fries, E., Milner, C.M., Perretti, M. and Day, A.J. 2002. The link module from human TSG-6 inhibits neutrophil migration in a hyaluronan- and inter-alpha -inhibitor-independent manner. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 (52), pp. 51068-51076. doi:10.1074/jbc.M205121200

The annexin-1 knockout mouse: what it tells us about the inflammatory response
Roviezzo, F., Getting, S.J., Paul-Clark, M., Yona, S., Gavins, F.N.E., Perretti, M., Hannon, R., Croxtall, J.D., Buckingham, J.C. and Flower, R.J. 2002. The annexin-1 knockout mouse: what it tells us about the inflammatory response. Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology. 53 (4, part 1), pp. 541 -553.

Endogenous lipid- and peptide-derived anti-inflammatory pathways generated with glucocorticoid and aspirin treatment activate the lipoxin A4 receptor
Perretti, M., Chiang, N., La, M., Fierro, I.M., Marullo, S., Getting, S.J., Solito, E. and Serhan, C.N. 2002. Endogenous lipid- and peptide-derived anti-inflammatory pathways generated with glucocorticoid and aspirin treatment activate the lipoxin A4 receptor. Nature Medicine. 8 (11), pp. 1296-1302. doi:10.1038/nm786

Activation of melanocortin type 3 receptor as a molecular mechanism for adrenocorticotropic hormone efficacy in gouty arthritis
Getting, S.J., Christian, H.C., Flower, R.J. and Perretti, M. 2002. Activation of melanocortin type 3 receptor as a molecular mechanism for adrenocorticotropic hormone efficacy in gouty arthritis. Arthritis & Rheumatism. 46 (10), pp. 2765-2775. doi:10.1002/art.10526

Melanocortin peptides and their receptors: new targets for anti-inflammatory therapy
Getting, S.J. 2002. Melanocortin peptides and their receptors: new targets for anti-inflammatory therapy. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences. 23 (10), pp. 447-449. doi:10.1016/S0165-6147(02)02103-X

A novel control mechanism based on GDNF modulation of somatostatin release from sensory neurones
Malcangio, M., Getting, S.J., Grist, J., Cunningham, J.R., Bradbury, E.J., Issa, P.C., Lever, I.J., Pezet, S. and Perretti, M. 2002. A novel control mechanism based on GDNF modulation of somatostatin release from sensory neurones. FASEB Journal. 16 (7), pp. 730-732. doi:10.1096/fj.01-0971fje.

Characterization of CXC and CC chemokine expression in a murine model of chronic granuloma
Carollo, M., Getting, S.J., Delaney, S., Christie, M.I. and Perretti, M. 2002. Characterization of CXC and CC chemokine expression in a murine model of chronic granuloma. Inflammation Research. 51 (2), pp. 110-111. doi:10.1007/BF02684013

Involvement of the receptor for formylated peptides in the in vivo anti-migratory actions of annexin 1 and its mimetics
Perretti, M., Getting, S.J., Solito, E., Murphy, P.M. and Gao, J.L. 2001. Involvement of the receptor for formylated peptides in the in vivo anti-migratory actions of annexin 1 and its mimetics. American Journal of Pathology. 158 (6), pp. 1969-1973.

Immunogenicity of adjuvanted recombinant urease administered intranasally
Moschos, S.A., Somavarapu, S., Singh, J., Bramwell, V.W., Randall, L., Guy, B. and Alpar, H.O. 2001. Immunogenicity of adjuvanted recombinant urease administered intranasally. Proceedings of the 28th International Symposium for the Controlled Release of Bioactive Materials. San Diego, USA 23 - 27 Jun 2001 pp. 7033

Immunogenicity of adjuvanted recombinant urease administered intra-muscularly
Moschos, S.A., Somavarapu, S., Eyles, J.E., McHugh, C., Bramwell, V.W., Randall, L., Guy, B. and Alpar, H.O. 2001. Immunogenicity of adjuvanted recombinant urease administered intra-muscularly. Proceedings of the 28th International Symposium for the Controlled Release of Bioactive Materials. San Diego, USA 23 - 27 Jun 2001 pp. 7033

Evaluation of adjuvanted recombinant urease for effective immunization against Helicobacter pylori
Moschos, S.A., Somavarapu, S., Eyles, J.E., McHugh, C., Bramwell, V.W., Randall, L., Guy, B. and Alpar, H.O. 2001. Evaluation of adjuvanted recombinant urease for effective immunization against Helicobacter pylori. Immunology. 104 (s1), p. 98. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2567.2001.1040s1070.x

Quil-A and MDP enhances the adjuvanticity of alum for intramuscular delivery of rURE
Moschos, S.A., Somavarapu, S., Bramwell, V.W., Randall, L., Guy, B. and Alpar, H.O. 2001. Quil-A and MDP enhances the adjuvanticity of alum for intramuscular delivery of rURE. Immunology. 104 (s1), p. 98. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2567.2001.1040s1070.x

Anti-inflammatory effects of a novel, potent inhibitor of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase
Mabley, J.G., Jagtap, P., Perretti, M., Getting, S.J., Salzman, A.L., Virag, L., Szabo, E., Soriano, F.G., Liaudet, L., Hasko, G., Marton, A., Southan, G.J., Abdelkarim, G.E. and Szabo, C. 2001. Anti-inflammatory effects of a novel, potent inhibitor of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Inflammation Research. 50 (11), pp. 561-569. doi:10.1007/PL00000234

Arthritic diseases: melanocortin type 3 receptor agonists as potential therapeutics
Getting, S.J. and Perretti, M. 2001. Arthritic diseases: melanocortin type 3 receptor agonists as potential therapeutics. Current opinion in investigational drugs. 2 (8), pp. 1064-1069.

Natural and synthetic agonists of the melanocortin receptor type 3 possess anti-inflammatory properties
Getting, S.J., Allcock, G.H., Flower, R.J. and Perretti, M. 2001. Natural and synthetic agonists of the melanocortin receptor type 3 possess anti-inflammatory properties. Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 69 (1), pp. 98-104.

Microsphere encapsulated Diphtheria Toxoid induces protein secretion from in-vitro Peyers’ patches and in vivo
Turner, J.J., Somavarapu, S., Moschos, S.A., Randall, L., Simpkin, G. and Alpar, H.O. 2000. Microsphere encapsulated Diphtheria Toxoid induces protein secretion from in-vitro Peyers’ patches and in vivo. Proceedings of the 3rd World Meeting APV/APGI 2000. Berlin, Germany 3 - 6 Apr 2000 pp. 389-390

Novel protein secretion from both ex-vivo Peyers’ patches and in-vivo; induction by microsphere encapsulated diphtheria toxoid
Moschos, S.A., Somavarapu, S., Singh, J., Bramwell, V.W., Randall, L., Guy, B. and Alpar, H.O. 2000. Novel protein secretion from both ex-vivo Peyers’ patches and in-vivo; induction by microsphere encapsulated diphtheria toxoid. Proceedings of the 27th International Symposium for the Controlled Release of Bioactive Materials. Paris, France 09 - 13 Jul 2001 pp. 562-563

MC3-R as a novel target for anti-inflammatory therapy
Getting, S.J. and Perretti, M. 2000. MC3-R as a novel target for anti-inflammatory therapy. Drug News & Perspectives. 13 (1), pp. 19-27.

POMC gene-derived peptides activate melanocortin type 3 receptor on murine macrophages, suppress cytokine release, and inhibit neutrophil migration in acute experimental inflammation
Getting, S.J., Gibbs, L., Clark, A.J.L., Flower, R.J. and Perretti, M. 1999. POMC gene-derived peptides activate melanocortin type 3 receptor on murine macrophages, suppress cytokine release, and inhibit neutrophil migration in acute experimental inflammation. Journal of Immunology. 162 (12), pp. 7446-7453.

Compounds for use in the treatment of inflammation
Flower, R.J., Getting, S.J. and Perretti, M. 1998. Compounds for use in the treatment of inflammation.

Inhibition of poly (ADP-ribose) synthetase attenuates neutrophil recruitment and exerts anti-inflammatory effects
Szabo, C., Lim, L.H.K., Cuzzocrea, S., Getting, S.J., Zingarelli, B., Flower, R.J., Salzman, A.L. and Perretti, M. 1997. Inhibition of poly (ADP-ribose) synthetase attenuates neutrophil recruitment and exerts anti-inflammatory effects. Journal of experimental medicine. 186 (7), pp. 1041-1049. doi:10.1084/jem.186.7.1041

Molecular determinants of monosodium urate crystal-induced murine peritonitis: a role for endogenous mast cells and a distinct requirement for endothelial-derived selectins
Getting, S.J., Flower, R.J., Parente, L., de Medicis, R., Lussier, A., Woliztky, B.A., Martins, M.A. and Perretti, M. 1997. Molecular determinants of monosodium urate crystal-induced murine peritonitis: a role for endogenous mast cells and a distinct requirement for endothelial-derived selectins. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 283 (1), pp. 123-130.

Inhibition of neutrophil and monocyte recruitment by endogenous and exogenous lipocortin 1
Getting, S.J., Flower, R.J. and Perretti, M. 1997. Inhibition of neutrophil and monocyte recruitment by endogenous and exogenous lipocortin 1. British Journal of Pharmacology. 120 (6), pp. 1075-1082. doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0701029

Sub-acute treatment of rats with dexamethasone reduces ICAM-1 levels on circulating monocytes
Tailor, A., Das, A.M., Getting, S.J., Flower, R.J. and Perretti, M. 1997. Sub-acute treatment of rats with dexamethasone reduces ICAM-1 levels on circulating monocytes. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 231 (3), pp. 675-678. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1997.6168

Biphasic modulation of GABA release by nitric oxide in the hippocampus of freely moving rats in vivo
Getting, S.J., Segieth, J., Ahmad, S., Biggs, C.S. and Whitton, P.S. 1996. Biphasic modulation of GABA release by nitric oxide in the hippocampus of freely moving rats in vivo. Brain Research. 717 (1-2), pp. 196-199. doi:10.1016/0006-8993(96)00127-8

Nitric oxide regulates excitatory amino acid release in a biphasic manner in freely moving rats
Segieth, J., Getting, S.J., Biggs, C.S. and Whitton, P.S. 1995. Nitric oxide regulates excitatory amino acid release in a biphasic manner in freely moving rats. Neuroscience Letters. 200 (2), pp. 101-104. doi:10.1016/0304-3940(95)12088-L

Effect of nitric oxide on basal and NMDA-evoked release of glutamate and aspartate release in vivo
Segieth-Beever, J., Getting, S.J., Biggs, C.S. and Whitton, P.S. 1995. Effect of nitric oxide on basal and NMDA-evoked release of glutamate and aspartate release in vivo. Wiley. doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.1995.tb17200.x

Permalink - https://westminsterresearch.westminster.ac.uk/item/q5x82/extracellular-vesicles-and-their-nucleic-acids-for-biomarker-discovery


Restricted files

Accepted author manuscript
Under embargo until 03 Aug 2019

Share this
Tweet
Email