The effect of silymarin on chondrocytes

Can, V.C., Abouelnour, A., Locke, I.C., Bligh, S.W.A. and Getting, S.J. 2017. The effect of silymarin on chondrocytes. ICMAN/ IUPHAR Natural Products. Aberdeen, Scotland 27 - 29 Sep 2017 Elsevier.

TitleThe effect of silymarin on chondrocytes
AuthorsCan, V.C., Abouelnour, A., Locke, I.C., Bligh, S.W.A. and Getting, S.J.
TypeConference poster
Abstract

Introduction: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease partially mediated by the catabolic cytokine TNF-α, leading to progressive and permanent degeneration of cartilage. Silymarin, an extract from the ripe seeds of Silybum marianum, possesses anti-inflammatory properties that could help resolve inflammation in chondrocytes. This study aims to assess the chondroprotection and anti-inflammatory effects of silymarin on TNF-α induced cell death, pro-inflammatory cytokine and matrix-metalloproteinase release. Methods: Human C-20/A4 chondrocytic cells were treated with silymarin (2–20 μM) alone or in the presence of dexamethasone (10 μM) for 30 min prior to TNF-α (60 pg/ml) stimulation for 6 h. Cell viability was determined by MTT assat. Cell free supernatants were collected to detect IL-6, IL-8 and MMP-1 release by ELISA. RT-PCR was used to detect IL-6, IL-8 and MMP-1 gene expression. Data are expressed as Mean ± SD of n = 4 determinations in triplicate.
< 0.05 vs. control or #P < 0.05 vs. stimulus. Results: TNF-α stimulation caused a maximal cell death of 25%, which was completely abrogated in the presence of silymarin (2 μM) and dexamethasone (10 μM). TNF-α caused a significant increase in IL-6, IL-8 and MMP-1 release, which was inhibited by silymarin. RT-PCR analysis confirmed that silymarin alone and in the presence of dexamethasone significantly inhibited IL-6, IL-8 and MMP-1 gene expression when compared to TNF-α (IL-6: 5.79 ± 0.05; IL-8: 5.65 ± 0.04; and MMP-1: 10.0 ± 0.04). Conclusion: The data demonstrates that silymarin exhibited chondroprotection and modulation of IL-6, IL-8 and MMP-1 following TNF-α activation of chondrocytes. This data highlights a role for silymarin in exerting its anti-inflammatory and chondroprotective properties in osteoarthritic models.

Keywordschondrocytes
Year2017
ConferenceICMAN/ IUPHAR Natural Products
PublisherElsevier
Publication dates
Published in print01 Sep 2018
Published01 Aug 2017
Published online01 Aug 2017
JournalBiochemical Pharmacology
Journal citation139, p. 137
ISSN0006-2952
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)doi:10.1016/j.bcp.2017.06.036

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Wu, L.H., Bligh, S.W.A., Leon, C., Li, X.S., Wang, Z., Branford-White, C.J. and Simmonds, M.S.J. 2012. Chemotaxonomically significant roburic acid from section cruciata of gentiana. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 43, pp. 152-155.

The phenotypic characterization of A13/BACii, a novel bovine chondrocytic cell line with differentiation potential
Qusous, A., Kaneva, M., Can, V.C., Getting, S.J. and Kerrigan, M.J.P. 2012. The phenotypic characterization of A13/BACii, a novel bovine chondrocytic cell line with differentiation potential. Cells Tissues Organs. 196 (3), pp. 251-261.

Novel methods for the quantification of changes in actin organization in chondrocytes using fluorescent imaging and linear profiling
Qusous, A., Parker, E., Geewan, C., Kapasi, A., Getting, S.J., Hucklebridge, F., Keshavarz, T. and Kerrigan, M.J.P. 2012. Novel methods for the quantification of changes in actin organization in chondrocytes using fluorescent imaging and linear profiling. Microscopy Research and Technique. 75 (7), pp. 991-999.

Expression of melanocortin 3 receptors (MC3) in the reproductive axes of both male and female mice
Dowejko, M.M., Smith, C.L., Getting, S.J., Le Tissier, P. and Murray, J.F. 2012. Expression of melanocortin 3 receptors (MC3) in the reproductive axes of both male and female mice. Society for Reproduction and Fertility. Edinburgh 9th - 11th July 2012

Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the volatile oil of Angelica sinensis radix designed to preserve the synergistic effects of the mixture followed by identification of the active principles
Yeh, J.C., Garrard, I.J., Cho, C.W.C., Bligh, S.W.A., Lu, G.H., Fan, T.P. and Fisher, D. 2012. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the volatile oil of Angelica sinensis radix designed to preserve the synergistic effects of the mixture followed by identification of the active principles. Journal of Chromatography A. 1236, pp. 132-138.

Simultaneous determination of six alkaloids and one monoterpene in rat plasma by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry and pharmacokinetic study after oral administration of a Chinese medicine Wuji Pill
Yuan, J., Wang, Y., An, R., Wang, S., Li, S.J., Jia, J.Y., Bligh, S.W.A., Wang, X.H. and Ma, Y.M. 2012. Simultaneous determination of six alkaloids and one monoterpene in rat plasma by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry and pharmacokinetic study after oral administration of a Chinese medicine Wuji Pill. Journal of Chromatography B: Biomedical Sciences and Applications. 895-896, pp. 154-161.

Evodiamine, a dual catalytic inhibitor of type I and II topoisomerases, exhibits enhanced inhibition against camptothecin resistant cells
Pan, X., Hartley, J.M., Hartley, J.A., White, K.N., Wang, Z. and Bligh, S.W.A. 2012. Evodiamine, a dual catalytic inhibitor of type I and II topoisomerases, exhibits enhanced inhibition against camptothecin resistant cells. Phytomedicine. 19 (7), pp. 618-624.

Synthesis, characterization and anticancer evaluation of novel tri-arm star shaped 1,3,5-triazine hydrazones
Machakanur, S.S., Patil, B.R., Badiger, D.S., Bakale, R.P., Gudasi, K.B. and Bligh, S.W.A. 2012. Synthesis, characterization and anticancer evaluation of novel tri-arm star shaped 1,3,5-triazine hydrazones. Journal of Molecular Structure. 1011, pp. 121-127.

Coaxial electrospinning with sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate solution for high quality polyacrylonitrile nanofibers
Yu, D.G., Williams, G.R., Gao, L.D., Bligh, S.W.A., Yang, J.-H. and Wang, X. 2012. Coaxial electrospinning with sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate solution for high quality polyacrylonitrile nanofibers. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects. 396, pp. 161-168.

Urocortin is a novel regulator of osteoclast differentiation and function through inhibition of a canonical transient receptor potential 1-like cation channel
Combs, C., Fuller, K., Kumar, H., Albert, A.P., Pirianov, G., McCormick, J., Locke, I.C., Chambers, T.J. and Lawrence, K.M. 2012. Urocortin is a novel regulator of osteoclast differentiation and function through inhibition of a canonical transient receptor potential 1-like cation channel. Journal of Endocrinology. 212 (2), pp. 187-197.

The Central Role of Myostatin in Skeletal Muscle and Whole Body Homeostasis
Elliott, B., Renshaw, D., Getting, S.J. and MacKenzie, R. 2012. The Central Role of Myostatin in Skeletal Muscle and Whole Body Homeostasis. Acta Physiologica. 205 (3), pp. 324-40.

Metabolomics of four TCM herbal products: application of HPTLC analysis
Ogegbo, O., Eyob, S., Parmar, S., Wang, Z. and Bligh, S.W.A. 2012. Metabolomics of four TCM herbal products: application of HPTLC analysis. Analytical Methods. 4, pp. 2522-2527.

Synthesis of novel tri-arm star shaped 1,3,5-triazine hydrazones from 2,4,6-tris(4-acetylphenoxy)-1,3,5-triazine core
Machakanur, S.S., Patil, B.R., Badiger, D.S., Pathan, A.H., Gudasi, K.B. and Bligh, S.W.A. 2012. Synthesis of novel tri-arm star shaped 1,3,5-triazine hydrazones from 2,4,6-tris(4-acetylphenoxy)-1,3,5-triazine core. Letters in Organic Chemistry. 9 (1), pp. 29-34.

N-Heterocyclic dronic acids: applications and synthesis
Hudson, H.R., Wardle, N.J., Bligh, S.W.A., Greiner, I., Grun, A. and Keglevich, G. 2012. N-Heterocyclic dronic acids: applications and synthesis. Minireviews in Medicinal Chemistry. 12, pp. 313-325.

Leukocyte recruitment in the brain in sepsis: involvement of the annexin 1-FPR2/ALX anti-inflammatory system
Gavins, F.N.E., Hughes, E.L., Buss, N.A.P.S., Holloway, P.M., Getting, S.J. and Buckingham, J.C. 2012. Leukocyte recruitment in the brain in sepsis: involvement of the annexin 1-FPR2/ALX anti-inflammatory system. FASEB Journal. 26 (12), pp. 4977-4989.

The central role of myostatin in skeletal muscle and whole body homeostasis
Elliott, B.T., Renshaw, D., Getting, S.J. and Mackenzie, R.W.A. 2012. The central role of myostatin in skeletal muscle and whole body homeostasis. Acta Physiologica. 205 (3), pp. 324-340.

Quantification of norisoboldine in Linderae Radix by ultra-performance liquid chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection
Chen, J.Z., Chou, G.-X., Yang, L., Bligh, S.W.A. and Wang, Z. 2012. Quantification of norisoboldine in Linderae Radix by ultra-performance liquid chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. Journal of Liquid Chromatography and Related Technologies. 35 (6), pp. 788-797.

A chemically unlocked binary molecular switch
Chen, G., Sarris, J.L., Wardle, N.J., Bligh, S.W.A. and Chatterton, N.P. 2012. A chemically unlocked binary molecular switch. Chemical Communications. 48 (72), pp. 9026-9028.

The anti-inflammatory effects of melanocortin peptides in lipopolysaccharide activated chondrocytes
Can, V.C., Kaneva, M., Kerrigan, M.J.P., Locke, I.C. and Getting, S.J. 2012. The anti-inflammatory effects of melanocortin peptides in lipopolysaccharide activated chondrocytes. British Phamacological Society Winter Meeting 2012. London, UK 18th-20th December

Urinary 1H-NMR metabonomics study on intervention effects of soya milk in Africans
Ogegbo, O., Dissanyake, W., Crowder, J., Asekun, O., Familoni, O., Branford-White, C.J. and Bligh, S.W.A. 2012. Urinary 1H-NMR metabonomics study on intervention effects of soya milk in Africans. Phytotherapy Research. 26 (1), pp. 127-135.

Debrisoquine metabolism and CYP2D expression in marmoset liver microsomes
Cooke, B.R., Bligh, S.W.A., Cybulski, Z.R., Ioannides, C. and Hall, M. 2012. Debrisoquine metabolism and CYP2D expression in marmoset liver microsomes. Drug Metabolism and Disposition. 40 (1), pp. 70-75.

The homopolymer poly(3-hydroxyoctanoate) as a matrix material for soft tissue engineering
Rai, R., Boccaccini, A.R., Knowles, J.C., Mordon, N., Salih, V., Locke, I.C., Moshrefi-Torbati, M., Keshavarz, T. and Roy, I. 2011. The homopolymer poly(3-hydroxyoctanoate) as a matrix material for soft tissue engineering. Journal of Applied Polymer Science. 122 (6), pp. 3606-3617.

The Melanocortin receptor system as an anti-inflammatory therapeutic target for stroke
Holloway, P.M., Getting, S.J. and Gavins, F.N.E. 2011. The Melanocortin receptor system as an anti-inflammatory therapeutic target for stroke. pA2 online, E-journal of the British Pharmacological Society.

Investigating the role of melanocortin receptor subtypes in mediating anti-inflammatory protection following cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury
Holloway, P.M., Getting, S.J. and Gavins, F.N.E. 2011. Investigating the role of melanocortin receptor subtypes in mediating anti-inflammatory protection following cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury. pA2 online, E-journal of the British Pharmacological Society.

Identification of metabolites of geniposide in rat urine using ultra-performance liquid chromatography combined with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry
Han, H., Yang, L., Xu, Y., Ding, Y., Bligh, S.W.A., Zhang, T. and Wang, Z. 2011. Identification of metabolites of geniposide in rat urine using ultra-performance liquid chromatography combined with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry. 25 (21), pp. 3339-3350.

1H NMR study of monocrotaline and its metabolites in human blood
Yang, Y.C., Crowder, J., Wardle, N.J., Yang, L., White, K.N., Wang, Z. and Bligh, S.W.A. 2011. 1H NMR study of monocrotaline and its metabolites in human blood. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 49 (11), pp. 2793-2799.

Hexa-arm star shaped hydrazone derivatives from hexakis(4-formylphenoxy)-cyclotriphosphazene core
Patil, B.R., Machakanur, S.S., Badiger, D.S., Hunoor, R.S., Gudasi, K.B., Nethaji, M. and Bligh, S.W.A. 2011. Hexa-arm star shaped hydrazone derivatives from hexakis(4-formylphenoxy)-cyclotriphosphazene core. Journal of Molecular Structure. 1003 (1-3), pp. 52-61.

Synthesis and characterisation of a novel tubulin-directed DO3A–colchicine conjugate with potential theranostic features
Wardle, N.J., Kalber, T., Bell, J.D. and Bligh, S.W.A. 2011. Synthesis and characterisation of a novel tubulin-directed DO3A–colchicine conjugate with potential theranostic features. Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters. 21 (11), pp. 3346-3348.

Improving polymer nanofiber quality using a modified co-axial electrospinning process
Yu, D.G., Branford-White, C.J., Bligh, S.W.A., White, K.N., Chatterton, N.P. and Zhu, L.M. 2011. Improving polymer nanofiber quality using a modified co-axial electrospinning process. Macromolecular Rapid Communications. 32 (9-10), pp. 744-750.

Targeting the melanocortin receptor system for anti-stroke therapy
Holloway, P.M., Smith, H.K., Renshaw, D., Flower, R.J., Getting, S.J. and Gavins, F.N.E. 2011. Targeting the melanocortin receptor system for anti-stroke therapy. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences. 32 (2), pp. 90-98.

Coaxial electrospinning with organic solvent for controlling the size of self-assembled nanoparticles
Yu, D.G., Zhu, L.M., Bligh, S.W.A., Branford-White, C.J. and White, K.N. 2011. Coaxial electrospinning with organic solvent for controlling the size of self-assembled nanoparticles. Chemical Communications. 47 (4), pp. 1216-1218.

Self-assembled liposomes from amphiphilic electrospun nanofibers
Yu, D.G., Branford-White, C.J., Williams, G.R., Bligh, S.W.A., White, K.N., Zhu, L.M. and Chatterton, N.P. 2011. Self-assembled liposomes from amphiphilic electrospun nanofibers. Soft matter. 7, pp. 8239-8247.

Chondrocyte CRF receptor expression and Urocortin I mediated chondroprotection
White, O.B., Intekhab-Alam, N.Y., Chowdrey, H.S., Knight, R.A., Locke, I.C. and Intekhab Alam, N.Y. 2011. Chondrocyte CRF receptor expression and Urocortin I mediated chondroprotection. Rheumatology 2011. Brighton, UK 12th-14th April 2011

Synthesis and anti-cancer evaluation of cyclotriphosphazene hydrazone derivatives
Patil, B.R., Machakanur, S.S., Hunoor, R.S., Badiger, D.S., Gudasi, K.B. and Bligh, S.W.A. 2011. Synthesis and anti-cancer evaluation of cyclotriphosphazene hydrazone derivatives. Der Pharma Chemica. 3 (4), pp. 377-388.

REV5901 induces calcium dependant chondroprotective effects post in vitro mechanical loading
Parker, E., Qusous, A., Getting, S.J., Hucklebridge, F. and Kerrigan, M.J.P. 2011. REV5901 induces calcium dependant chondroprotective effects post in vitro mechanical loading. ORS Annual Meeting vol. 36. Long Beach, California

α-MSH and [DTRP]8-γ-MSH inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokine release from stimulated primary bovine chondrocytes
Kaneva, M., Kerrigan, M.J.P., Locke, I.C. and Getting, S.J. 2011. α-MSH and [DTRP]8-γ-MSH inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokine release from stimulated primary bovine chondrocytes. 10th World Congress on Inflammation. Paris, France 25–29 June 2011

MC1 and MC3 activation inhibits caspase-3 production and activity, promotes cell-viability, and induces IL-10 and HO-1 release from human C20/A4 chondrocytes
Kaneva, M., Kerrigan, M.J.P., Locke, I.C. and Getting, S.J. 2011. MC1 and MC3 activation inhibits caspase-3 production and activity, promotes cell-viability, and induces IL-10 and HO-1 release from human C20/A4 chondrocytes. Physiological Society Meeting 23. University of Oxford

Total pituitary hormone content in wild type and MC3 null male and female mice
Dowejko, M.M., Smith, C.L., Getting, S.J., Perretti, M., Le Tissier, P. and Murray, J.F. 2011. Total pituitary hormone content in wild type and MC3 null male and female mice. British Society for Neuroendocrinology. Cambridge 3rd - 5th July 2011

Comparison between the total pituitary hormone content in wild type and melanocortin 3 receptor (MC3) null male and female mice
Dowejko, M.M., Smith, C.L., Getting, S.J., Perretti, M., Le Tissier, P. and Murray, J.F. 2011. Comparison between the total pituitary hormone content in wild type and melanocortin 3 receptor (MC3) null male and female mice. Society for Reproduction and Fertility. Brighton 11th - 13th July 2011

Characterization of new metabolites from in vivo biotransformation of norisoboldine by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy
Chen, J.Z., Chou, G.-X., Wang, C.-H., Yang, L., Bligh, S.W.A. and Wang, Z. 2010. Characterization of new metabolites from in vivo biotransformation of norisoboldine by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis. 52 (5), pp. 687-693.

Antiallergic cromones inhibit neutrophil recruitment onto vascular endothelium via Annexin-A1 mobilization
Yazid, S., Leoni, G., Getting, S.J., Cooper, D., Solito, E., Perretti, M. and Flower, R.J. 2010. Antiallergic cromones inhibit neutrophil recruitment onto vascular endothelium via Annexin-A1 mobilization. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology. 30 (9), pp. 1718-1724.

Separation and identification of three epimeric pairs of new C-glucosyl anthrones from Rumex dentatus by on-line high performance liquid chromatography–circular dichroism analysis
Zhu, J.-J., Zhang, C.-F., Zhang, M., Bligh, S.W.A., Yang, L., Wang, Z.-M. and Wang, Z. 2010. Separation and identification of three epimeric pairs of new C-glucosyl anthrones from Rumex dentatus by on-line high performance liquid chromatography–circular dichroism analysis. Journal of Chromatography A. 1217 (33), pp. 5384-5388.

The influence of tetracycline loading on the surface morphology and biocompatibility of films made from P(3HB) microspheres
Francis, L., Meng, D., Locke, I.C., Mordon, N., Salih, V., Knowles, J.C., Boccaccini, A.R. and Roy, I. 2010. The influence of tetracycline loading on the surface morphology and biocompatibility of films made from P(3HB) microspheres. Advanced Engineering Materials. 12 (7), pp. B260-B268.

Fabrication of a novel poly(3-hydroxyoctanoate) / nanoscale bioactive glass composite film with potential as a multifunctional wound dressing
Rai, R., Boccaccini, A.R., Knowles, J.C., Locke, I.C., Gordge, M.P., McCormick, A., Salih, V., Mordon, N., Keshavarz, T. and Roy, I. 2010. Fabrication of a novel poly(3-hydroxyoctanoate) / nanoscale bioactive glass composite film with potential as a multifunctional wound dressing. 5th international conference on times of polymers (TOP) and composites. Ischia, Italy 20–23 June 2010

The melanocortin MC1 receptor agonist BMS-470539 inhibits leucocyte trafficking in the inflamed vasculature
Leoni, G., Voisin, M.B., Carlson, K., Getting, S.J., Nourshargh, S. and Perretti, M. 2010. The melanocortin MC1 receptor agonist BMS-470539 inhibits leucocyte trafficking in the inflamed vasculature. British Journal of Pharmacology. 160 (1), pp. 171-180.

O-phosphotyrosine analogues: aynthesis and therapeutic role in modulation of signal transduction
Wardle, N.J., Hudson, H.R. and Bligh, S.W.A. 2010. O-phosphotyrosine analogues: aynthesis and therapeutic role in modulation of signal transduction. Current Organic Chemistry. 14 (5), pp. 426-446.

Saliva: physiology and diagnostic potential in health and disease
Farnaud, S., Kosti, O., Getting, S.J. and Renshaw, D. 2010. Saliva: physiology and diagnostic potential in health and disease. ScientificWorldJournal. 10, pp. 434-456.

Activation of testicular melanocortin 3 receptors (MC3-R) inhibits LH-stimulated testosterone production
Akindele, K., Horanin, M.M., Getting, S.J., Smith, C.L. and Murray, J.F. 2010. Activation of testicular melanocortin 3 receptors (MC3-R) inhibits LH-stimulated testosterone production. Society for Endocrinology BES 2010. Manchester 15th - 18th March 2010

Mechanisms of Urocortin family peptide mediated chondroprotection
White, O.B., Intekhab Alam, N.Y., Chowdrey, H.S., Knight, R.A. and Locke, I.C. 2010. Mechanisms of Urocortin family peptide mediated chondroprotection. OARSI 2010 World Congress on Osteoarthritis. Brussels, Belgium September 23-26, 2010

A13/BACII, a novel bovine chondrocytic cell line with differentiation potential
Qusous, A., Kaneva, M., Getting, S.J. and Kerrigan, M.J.P. 2010. A13/BACII, a novel bovine chondrocytic cell line with differentiation potential. Combined Meeting of Orthopaedic Research Societies. Kyoto, Japan

Cartilage and macrophages: evidence for a paracrine loop. Poster no. 278
Parker, E., Qusous, A., Getting, S.J., Hucklebridge, F. and Kerrigan, M.J.P. 2010. Cartilage and macrophages: evidence for a paracrine loop. Poster no. 278. Combined Meeting of Orthopaedic Research Societies. Kyoto, Japan

Tamoxifen: chondroprotective effects post-mechanical trauma
Parker, E., Peetroons, C., Getting, S.J., Hucklebridge, F. and Kerrigan, M.J.P. 2010. Tamoxifen: chondroprotective effects post-mechanical trauma. Physiological Society Meeting 21. University of Durham

REV5901: chondroprotective effects post mechanical trauma
Parker, E., Noureen, S., Getting, S.J., Vleck, V.E., Hucklebridge, F. and Kerrigan, M.J.P. 2010. REV5901: chondroprotective effects post mechanical trauma. Physiological Society Meeting 19. University of Manchester

The effects of REV5901 on chondrocyte viability following mechanical trauma
Parker, E., Getting, S.J., Hucklebridge, F., Vleck, V.E. and Kerrigan, M.J.P. 2010. The effects of REV5901 on chondrocyte viability following mechanical trauma. British Orthopaedic Research Society Annual Meeting. Newcastle upon Tyne 22 - 23 Jun 2009 Wiley.

Diurnal inflammatory cytokine changes post-exercise. Poster no. 319
Parker, E., Getting, S.J., Hucklebridge, F. and Kerrigan, M.J.P. 2010. Diurnal inflammatory cytokine changes post-exercise. Poster no. 319. Combined Meeting of Orthopaedic Research Societies. Kyoto, Japan

Knee forces and inflammation: the effects of foot strike patterns and footwear
Parker, E., Domah, S., Getting, S.J., Vleck, V.E., Hucklebridge, F. and Kerrigan, M.J.P. 2010. Knee forces and inflammation: the effects of foot strike patterns and footwear. Physiological Society Meeting 19. University of Manchester

Chondroitin and glucosamine supplementation results in increased chondrocyte viability post mechanical trauma in vitro
Parker, E., Begum, N., Wunderlich, C., Ravichandran, N., Getting, S.J., Vleck, V.E., Hucklebridge, F. and Kerrigan, M.J.P. 2010. Chondroitin and glucosamine supplementation results in increased chondrocyte viability post mechanical trauma in vitro. Physiological Society Meeting 19. University of Manchester

REV5901: the protective effect on bovine articular chondrocytes following single impact trauma
Nedelcheva, Y., Getting, S.J. and Kerrigan, M.J.P. 2010. REV5901: the protective effect on bovine articular chondrocytes following single impact trauma. Physiological Society Meeting 19. University of Manchester

REV5901: an investigation on the chondroprotective effect in bovine chondrocytes following single impact trauma
Nedelcheva, Y., Getting, S.J. and Kerrigan, M.J.P. 2010. REV5901: an investigation on the chondroprotective effect in bovine chondrocytes following single impact trauma. Physiological Society Meeting 21. University of Durham

The effect of indentor shape on the creep curves of collagen gel
Locke, I.C., White, O.B., Trwoga, P. and Afoke, A. 2010. The effect of indentor shape on the creep curves of collagen gel. OARSI 2010 World Congress on Osteoarthritis. Brussels, Belgium September 23-26, 2010

α-MSH and dTRP8-γ-MSH inhibit TNF-α induced MMP 1 and 13 expression in human C20/A4 chondrocytes
Kaneva, M., Locke, I.C., Kerrigan, M.J.P. and Getting, S.J. 2010. α-MSH and dTRP8-γ-MSH inhibit TNF-α induced MMP 1 and 13 expression in human C20/A4 chondrocytes. British Pharmacological Society Winter Meeting 2010. London, UK 14th-16th December 2010

Melanocortin peptides modulate pro-inflammatory mediator release from TNF-a stimulated C-20/A4 cells
Kaneva, M., Kerrigan, M.J.P., Locke, I.C. and Getting, S.J. 2010. Melanocortin peptides modulate pro-inflammatory mediator release from TNF-a stimulated C-20/A4 cells. British Orthopaedic Research Society Annual Meeting. Newcastle upon Tyne 22 - 23 Jun 2009 Wiley. pp. PO136

The MC3 agonist dTRP8-γ-MSH inhibits IL-6 and IL-8 release from TNF-α stimulated C-20/A4 chondrocytes, an effect blocked by the MC3R antagonist SHU9119
Kaneva, M., Kerrigan, M.J.P., Locke, I.C. and Getting, S.J. 2010. The MC3 agonist dTRP8-γ-MSH inhibits IL-6 and IL-8 release from TNF-α stimulated C-20/A4 chondrocytes, an effect blocked by the MC3R antagonist SHU9119. Physiology 2010. University of Manchester 30 June - 2 July 2010

Testicular LH-stimulated testosterone production is inhibited by activation of melanocortin 3 receptors (MC3)
Akindele, K., Horanin, M.M., Getting, S.J., Smith, C.L. and Murray, J.F. 2010. Testicular LH-stimulated testosterone production is inhibited by activation of melanocortin 3 receptors (MC3). Society for Reproduction and Fertility. Sutton Bonnington 11th - 13th July 2010

Treatment with qing'e, a kidney-invigorating chinese herbal formula, antagonizes the estrogen decline in ovariectomized mice
Xu, Y., Zhang, Z.J., Geng, F., Su, S.B., White, K.N., Bligh, S.W.A., Branford-White, C.J. and Wang, Z. 2010. Treatment with qing'e, a kidney-invigorating chinese herbal formula, antagonizes the estrogen decline in ovariectomized mice. Rejuvenation Research. 13 (4), pp. 479-488.

Anti-inflammatory and antiosteoclastogenesis propertiesof endogenous melanocortin receptor type 3 inexperimental arthritis
Patel, H.B., Bombardieri, M., Sampaio, A.L.F., D'Acquisto, F., Gray, M., Grieco, P., Getting, S.J., Pitzalis, C. and Perretti, M. 2010. Anti-inflammatory and antiosteoclastogenesis propertiesof endogenous melanocortin receptor type 3 inexperimental arthritis. FASEB Journal. 24 (12), pp. 4835-4843.

Identification of metabolites of adonifoline, a hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloid, by liquid chromatography/tandem and high-resolution mass spectrometry
Xiong, A., Yang, L., He, Y.Q., Zhang, F., Wang, J., Han, H., Wang, C.-H., Bligh, S.W.A. and Wang, Z. 2009. Identification of metabolites of adonifoline, a hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloid, by liquid chromatography/tandem and high-resolution mass spectrometry. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry. 23 (24), pp. 3907-3916.

Melanocortin peptide therapy for the treatment of arthritic pathologies
Getting, S.J., Kaneva, M., Bhadresa, Y., Renshaw, D., Leoni, G., Patel, H.B., Kerrigan, M.J.P. and Locke, I.C. 2009. Melanocortin peptide therapy for the treatment of arthritic pathologies. The Scientific World Journal. 9, pp. 1394-1414.

Pro-inflammatory mediator release from TNF-α stimulated C-20/A4 cells results in Col II degradation
Kaneva, M., Kerrigan, M.J.P., Locke, I.C. and Getting, S.J. 2009. Pro-inflammatory mediator release from TNF-α stimulated C-20/A4 cells results in Col II degradation. British Orthopaedic Research Society (BORS) Annual Meeting. Newcastle 22nd - 23rd June 2009

Comprehensive two-dimensional high-performance liquid chromatography system with immobilized liposome chromatography column and reversed-phase column for separation of complex traditional Chinese medicine Longdan Xiegan Decoction
Wang, Y., Kong, L., Lei, X., Hu, L., Zou, H., Welbeck, E., Bligh, S.W.A. and Wang, Z. 2009. Comprehensive two-dimensional high-performance liquid chromatography system with immobilized liposome chromatography column and reversed-phase column for separation of complex traditional Chinese medicine Longdan Xiegan Decoction. Journal of Chromatography A. 1216 (11), pp. 2185-2191.

Preparation and characterization of medicated PAN/PVP composite fibers for better drug release profiles
Yu, D.G., Shen, X.X., Zhu, L.M., Branford-White, C.J., Bligh, S.W.A. and Yang, Y.C. 2009. Preparation and characterization of medicated PAN/PVP composite fibers for better drug release profiles. in: ICBBE 2009: 3rd international conference on bioinformatics and biomedical engineering IEEE .

Oral fast-dissolving drug delivery membranes prepared from electrospun polyvinylpyrrolidone ultrafine fibers
Yu, D.G., Shen, X.X., Branford-White, C.J., White, K.N., Zhu, L.M. and Bligh, S.W.A. 2009. Oral fast-dissolving drug delivery membranes prepared from electrospun polyvinylpyrrolidone ultrafine fibers. Nanotechnology. 20 (5), p. 055104.

Presentation of the beta-carboxamidophosphonate arrangement in substrate structures targeting HIV-1 PR
Wardle, N.J., Hudson, H.R., Matthews, R.W., Nunn, C., Vella, C. and Bligh, S.W.A. 2009. Presentation of the beta-carboxamidophosphonate arrangement in substrate structures targeting HIV-1 PR. Letters in Drug Design and Discovery. 6, pp. 139-145.

The effects of REV5901 on chondrocyte viability following mechanical trauma
Parker, E., Getting, S.J., Hucklebridge, F., Vleck, V.E. and Kerrigan, M.J.P. 2009. The effects of REV5901 on chondrocyte viability following mechanical trauma. pA2 Online. From the Queen Elizabeth II Conference Centre London, Winter 2009 Meeting: Proceedings of the British Pharmacological Society. 7 (4), p. P0149.

Melanocortin peptides modulate pro-inflammatory mediator release from TNF-a stimulated C-20/A4 cells
Kaneva, M., Kerrigan, M.J.P., Locke, I.C. and Getting, S.J. 2009. Melanocortin peptides modulate pro-inflammatory mediator release from TNF-a stimulated C-20/A4 cells. pA2 Online. From the Queen Elizabeth II Conference Centre London, Winter 2009 Meeting: Proceedings of the British Pharmacological Society.

Molecular characterization of the melanocortin 3 receptor in the testes of mice
Horanin, M.M., Akindele, K., Getting, S.J., Smith, C.L. and Murray, J.F. 2009. Molecular characterization of the melanocortin 3 receptor in the testes of mice. pA2 Online. From the Queen Elizabeth II Conference Centre London, Winter 2009 Meeting: Proceedings of the British Pharmacological Society. 7 (4).

Inflamed phenotype of the mesenteric microcirculation of melanocortin type 3 receptor-null mice after ischemia-reperfusion
Leoni, G., Patel, H.B., Sampaio, A.L.F., Gavins, F.N.E., Murray, J.F., Grieco, P., Getting, S.J. and Perretti, M. 2008. Inflamed phenotype of the mesenteric microcirculation of melanocortin type 3 receptor-null mice after ischemia-reperfusion. FASEB Journal. 22 (12), pp. 4228-4238.

A role for MC3R in modulating lung inflammation
Getting, S.J., Riffo-Vasquez, Y., Pitchford, S., Kaneva, M., Grieco, P., Page, C.P., Perretti, M. and Spina, D. 2008. A role for MC3R in modulating lung inflammation. Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 21 (6), pp. 866-873.

Cytotoxic sesquiterpenes from Ligularia platyglossa
Liu, J.Q., Zhang, M., Zhang, C.-F., Qi, H.Y., Bashall, A., Bligh, S.W.A. and Wang, Z. 2008. Cytotoxic sesquiterpenes from Ligularia platyglossa. Phytochemistry. 69 (11), pp. 2231-2236.

Characterization of fifty-one flavonoids in a Chinese herbal prescription Longdan Xiegan Decoction by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and photodiode array detection
Wang, Y., Yang, L., He, Y.Q., Wang, C.-H., Welbeck, E., Bligh, S.W.A. and Wang, Z. 2008. Characterization of fifty-one flavonoids in a Chinese herbal prescription Longdan Xiegan Decoction by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and photodiode array detection. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry. 22 (12), pp. 1767-1778.

High performance liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometric analysis for metabolites of isoline in rat urine and bile
Zhang, F., Zhong, D.F., Wang, C.-H., Bligh, S.W.A. and Wang, Z. 2008. High performance liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometric analysis for metabolites of isoline in rat urine and bile. Drug Metabolism Reviews. 40, p. 216.

Quantitative analysis by HPLC-MS2 of the pyrrolizidine alkaloid adonifoline in Senecio scandens
Zhang, F., Wang, C.-H., Wang, W., Chen, L.X., Ma, H.Y., Zhang, C.-F., Zhang, M., Bligh, S.W.A. and Wang, Z. 2008. Quantitative analysis by HPLC-MS2 of the pyrrolizidine alkaloid adonifoline in Senecio scandens. Phytochemical Analysis. 19 (1), pp. 25-31.

Melanocortin 3 receptor in the testes of mice
Yogarajah, S., Lynch, S., Smith, C.L., Getting, S.J., Perretti, M. and Murray, J.F. 2008. Melanocortin 3 receptor in the testes of mice. Society for Reproduction and Fertility. Edinburgh 29 Jun - 01 Jul 2008 pp. Abstract P80

Melanocortin 3 receptor in the testes of mice
Wotherspoon, G., Yogarajah, S., Lynch, S., Smith, C.L., Getting, S.J., Perretti, M. and Murray, J.F. 2008. Melanocortin 3 receptor in the testes of mice. pA2 Online. From the University of Brighton, Winter 2008 Meeting: Proceedings of the British Pharmacological Society. 6 (4), p. P008.

Organophosphorus compounds: intervention in mechanisms of signal transduction relevant to proliferative, immunological and circulatory disorders
Wardle, N.J., Bligh, S.W.A. and Hudson, H.R. 2008. Organophosphorus compounds: intervention in mechanisms of signal transduction relevant to proliferative, immunological and circulatory disorders. Current Medicinal Chemistry. 15, pp. 2230-2257.

Sulfated beta-glucan derived from oat bran with potent anti-HIV activity
Wang, S.C., Bligh, S.W.A., Zhu, C.L., Shi, S.S., Wang, Z., Hu, Z.B., Crowder, J., Branford-White, C.J. and Vella, C. 2008. Sulfated beta-glucan derived from oat bran with potent anti-HIV activity. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 56 (8), pp. 2624-2629.

Asymmetric dimethylarginine negatively influences osteoblast differentiation in vitro
Stenbeck, G., Joseph, J., Getting, S.J. and Smith, C.L. 2008. Asymmetric dimethylarginine negatively influences osteoblast differentiation in vitro. pA2 Online. From the University of Brighton, Winter 2008 Meeting: Proceedings of the British Pharmacological Society. 6 (4), p. C041.

The role of the actin cytoskeleton in chondrocyte protection following single impact
Nedelcheva, Y., Getting, S.J. and Kerrigan, M.J.P. 2008. The role of the actin cytoskeleton in chondrocyte protection following single impact. pA2 Online. From the University of Brighton, Winter 2008 Meeting: Proceedings of the British Pharmacological Society. 6 (4).

Tonic inhibitory control of the mesenteric microcirculation by the melanocortin type 3 receptor
Leoni, G., Patel, H.B., Sampaio, A.L.F., Gavins, F.N.E., Getting, S.J. and Perretti, M. 2008. Tonic inhibitory control of the mesenteric microcirculation by the melanocortin type 3 receptor. Journal of Vascular Research. 45 (Suppl2).

Inhibitory role of endogenous melanocortin type 3 receptor in the inflamed microcirculation
Leoni, G., Patel, H.B., Sampaio, A.L.F., Gavins, F.N.E., Getting, S.J. and Perretti, M. 2008. Inhibitory role of endogenous melanocortin type 3 receptor in the inflamed microcirculation. William Harvey Day. St. Barts Hospital, London 14th October 2008

A role for melanocortin peptides in modulating oxidative stress induced inflammation in A549 cells
Getting, S.J., Kaneva, M. and Kerrigan, M.J.P. 2008. A role for melanocortin peptides in modulating oxidative stress induced inflammation in A549 cells. pA2 Online. From the University of Brighton, Winter 2008 Meeting: Proceedings of the British Pharmacological Society. 6 (4), p. C020.

Melanocortins
Getting, S.J. 2008. Melanocortins. in: Offermanns, S. and Rosenthal, W. (ed.) Encyclopedia of molecular pharmacology. 2nd edition Berlin Springer. pp. 752-757

The effect of prolonged hypotonicity on chondrocyte volume regulation and intracellular calcium signalling
Ali, N., Getting, S.J. and Kerrigan, M.J.P. 2008. The effect of prolonged hypotonicity on chondrocyte volume regulation and intracellular calcium signalling. pA2 Online. From the University of Brighton, Winter 2008 Meeting: Proceedings of the British Pharmacological Society. 6 (4).

Quantitative analysis of total retronecine esters-type pyrrolizidine alkaloids in plant by high performance liquid chromatography
Zhang, F., Wang, C.-H., Xiong, A., Wang, W., Yang, L., Branford-White, C.J., Wang, Z. and Bligh, S.W.A. 2007. Quantitative analysis of total retronecine esters-type pyrrolizidine alkaloids in plant by high performance liquid chromatography. Analytica Chimica Acta. 605 (1), pp. 94-101.

Biological fingerprinting analysis of the traditional Chinese prescription Longdan Xiegan Decoction by on/off-line comprehensive two-dimensional biochromatography
Wang, Y., Kong, L., Hu, L., Lei, X., Yang, L., Chou, G.-X., Zou, H., Wang, C.-H., Bligh, S.W.A. and Wang, Z. 2007. Biological fingerprinting analysis of the traditional Chinese prescription Longdan Xiegan Decoction by on/off-line comprehensive two-dimensional biochromatography. Journal of Chromatography B: Biomedical Sciences and Applications. 860 (2), pp. 185-194.

Structural features and anti-HIV-1 activity of novel polysaccharides from red algae Grateloupia longifolia and Grateloupia filicina
Wang, S.C., Bligh, S.W.A., Shi, S.S., Wang, Z., Hu, Z.B., Crowder, J., Branford-White, C.J. and Vella, C. 2007. Structural features and anti-HIV-1 activity of novel polysaccharides from red algae Grateloupia longifolia and Grateloupia filicina. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 41 (4), pp. 369-375.

Pharmacokinetic behavior of gentiopicroside from decoction of radix gentianae, gentiana macrophylla after oral administration in rats: a pharmacokinetic comaprison with gentiopicroside after oral and intravenous administration alone
Wang, C.-H., Cheng, X.M., He, Y.Q., White, K.N., Bligh, S.W.A., Branford-White, C.J. and Wang, Z. 2007. Pharmacokinetic behavior of gentiopicroside from decoction of radix gentianae, gentiana macrophylla after oral administration in rats: a pharmacokinetic comaprison with gentiopicroside after oral and intravenous administration alone. Archives of pharmacal research. 30 (9), pp. 1149-1154.

Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of gentiopicroside from decoctions of Gentianae and Longdan Xiegan Tang after oral administration in rats: comparison with gentiopicroside alone
Wang, C.-H., Cheng, X.M., Bligh, S.W.A., White, K.N., Branford-White, C.J. and Wang, Z. 2007. Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of gentiopicroside from decoctions of Gentianae and Longdan Xiegan Tang after oral administration in rats: comparison with gentiopicroside alone. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis. 44 (5), pp. 1113-1117.

Synthesis of a novel ‘smart’ bifunctional chelating agent 1-(2-[β,d-galactopyranosyloxy]ethyl)-7-(1-carboxy-3-[4-aminophenyl]propyl)-4,10-bis(carboxymethyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane (Gal-PA-DO3A-NH2) and its Gd(III) complex
Wardle, N.J., Herlihy, A.H., So, P.W., Bell, J.D. and Bligh, S.W.A. 2007. Synthesis of a novel ‘smart’ bifunctional chelating agent 1-(2-[β,d-galactopyranosyloxy]ethyl)-7-(1-carboxy-3-[4-aminophenyl]propyl)-4,10-bis(carboxymethyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane (Gal-PA-DO3A-NH2) and its Gd(III) complex. Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry. 15 (14), pp. 4714-4721.

The corticotrophin-releasing factor-like peptide urocortin reverses key deficits in two rodent models of Parkinson's disease
Abuirmeileh, A., Lever, R., Kingsbury, A.E., Lees, A.J., Locke, I.C., Knight, R.A., Chowdrey, H.S., Biggs, C.S. and Whitton, P.S. 2007. The corticotrophin-releasing factor-like peptide urocortin reverses key deficits in two rodent models of Parkinson's disease. European Journal of Neuroscience. 26 (2), pp. 417-423.

High-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry for the simultaneous analysis of cis-, trans- and dihydro-2-glucosyloxycinnamic acid derivatives from Dendrobium medicinal plants
Yang, L., Nakamura, N., Hattori, M., Wang, Z., Bligh, S.W.A. and Xu, L. 2007. High-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry for the simultaneous analysis of cis-, trans- and dihydro-2-glucosyloxycinnamic acid derivatives from Dendrobium medicinal plants. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry. 21 (12), pp. 1833-1840.

Interactions between cell surface protein disulphide isomerase and S-nitrosoglutathione during nitric oxide delivery
Shah, C.M., Bell, S.E., Locke, I.C., Chowdrey, H.S. and Gordge, M.P. 2007. Interactions between cell surface protein disulphide isomerase and S-nitrosoglutathione during nitric oxide delivery. Nitric Oxide. 16 (1), pp. 135-142.

ω-Phosphinyl-α-amino acids: synthesis, and development towards use as therapeutic agents
Wardle, N.J., Bligh, S.W.A. and Hudson, H.R. 2007. ω-Phosphinyl-α-amino acids: synthesis, and development towards use as therapeutic agents. Current Organic Chemistry. 11 (18), pp. 1635-1651.

Endogenous MC3R and inhibition of inflammatory arthritis. PC112
Patel, H.B., Sampaio, A.L.F., Getting, S.J., Gray, M. and Perretti, M. 2007. Endogenous MC3R and inhibition of inflammatory arthritis. PC112. Life Sciences. Glasgow 8th - 12th July 2007

Crucial role for endogenous melanocortin type 3 receptor in mesenteric post-reperfusion injury. PC106
Leoni, G., Getting, S.J., Gavins, F.N.E. and Perretti, M. 2007. Crucial role for endogenous melanocortin type 3 receptor in mesenteric post-reperfusion injury. PC106. Life Sciences. Glasgow 8th - 12th July 2007

Glucocorticoid and melanocortins: special issue
Getting, S.J. 2007. Glucocorticoid and melanocortins: special issue. ScientificWorldJournal. 7, pp. 1463-1464.

[D -Trp8]-γ -melanocyte -stimulating hormone exhibits anti-inflammatory efficacy in mice bearing a nonfunctional MC1 R(Recessive Yellow e/e Mouse)
Getting, S.J., Lam, C.W., Leoni, G., Gavins, F.N.E., Grieco, P. and Perretti, M. 2006. [D -Trp8]-γ -melanocyte -stimulating hormone exhibits anti-inflammatory efficacy in mice bearing a nonfunctional MC1 R(Recessive Yellow e/e Mouse). Molecular Pharmacology. 70 (6), pp. 1850-1855.

Annexin 1 and melanocortin peptide therapy for protection against ischaemic-reperfusion damage in the heart
Gavins, F.N.E., Leoni, G. and Getting, S.J. 2006. Annexin 1 and melanocortin peptide therapy for protection against ischaemic-reperfusion damage in the heart. ScientificWorldJournal. 6, pp. 1008-1023.

Cytotoxicity of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) oil and its major components to human skin cells
Prashar, A., Locke, I.C. and Evans, C.S. 2006. Cytotoxicity of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) oil and its major components to human skin cells. Cell Proliferation. 39 (4), pp. 241-248.

Synthesis and spectral investigation of manganese(II), cadmium(II) and oxovanadium(IV) complexes with 2,6-diacetylpyridine bis(2-aminobenzoylhydrazone): crystal structure of manganese(II) and cadmium(II) complexes
Gudasi, K.B., Patil, S., Vadavi, R.S., Shenoy, R.V., Nethaji, M. and Bligh, S.W.A. 2006. Synthesis and spectral investigation of manganese(II), cadmium(II) and oxovanadium(IV) complexes with 2,6-diacetylpyridine bis(2-aminobenzoylhydrazone): crystal structure of manganese(II) and cadmium(II) complexes. Inorganica Chimica Acta. 359 (10), pp. 3229-3236.

Targeting melanocortin receptors as potential novel therapeutics
Getting, S.J. 2006. Targeting melanocortin receptors as potential novel therapeutics. Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 111 (1), pp. 1-15.

A new phenanthrene with a spirolactone from Dendrobium chrysanthum and its anti-inflammatory activities
Yang, L., Qin, L.H., Bligh, S.W.A., Bashall, A., Zhang, C.-F., Zhang, M., Wang, Z. and Xu, L. 2006. A new phenanthrene with a spirolactone from Dendrobium chrysanthum and its anti-inflammatory activities. Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry. 14 (10), pp. 3496-3501.

Melanocortin receptor signaling in RAW264.7 macrophage cell line
Lam, C.W., Perretti, M. and Getting, S.J. 2006. Melanocortin receptor signaling in RAW264.7 macrophage cell line. Peptides. 27 (2), pp. 404-412.

The melanocortin peptide HP228 displays protective effects in acute models of inflammation and organ damage
Getting, S.J., Di Filippo, C., D'Amico, M. and Perretti, M. 2006. The melanocortin peptide HP228 displays protective effects in acute models of inflammation and organ damage. European Journal of Pharmacology. 532 (1-2), pp. 138-144.

Phytoestrogen levels in selected Jamaican food
Simon, G., McFarlane-Anderson, N., Fletcher, H., Golden, K., Wharfe, G., Ogegbo, O., Bligh, S.W.A. and Branford-White, C.J. 2006. Phytoestrogen levels in selected Jamaican food. West Indian Medical Journal. 55, p. 24.

Mode of glucocorticoid actions in airway disease
Ito, K., Getting, S.J. and Charron, C.E. 2006. Mode of glucocorticoid actions in airway disease. ScientificWorldJournal. 28 (6), pp. 1750-1769.

Melanocortin 3 receptors control crystal-induced inflammation
Getting, S.J., Lam, C.W., Chen, A.S., Grieco, P. and Perretti, M. 2006. Melanocortin 3 receptors control crystal-induced inflammation. FASEB Journal. 20 (13), pp. 2234-2241.

Biological activity of industrial wood and bark waste from Pinus nigra
Curras Lino, M., Radman, R., Bertaud, F., Nisula, L., Lenon, G., Holbom, B., Locke, I.C., Thompson, S. and Keshavarz, T. 2006. Biological activity of industrial wood and bark waste from Pinus nigra. in: Actual problems of creation of new medicinal preparations of natural origin: the 10th international congress PHYTOPHARM 2006, St.-Petersburg, June 27-30, 2006: proceedings of congress St Petersburg, Russia PHYTOPHARM. pp. 401-403

Organophosphorus chemistry: therapeutic intervention in mechanisms of viral and cellular replication
Wardle, N.J., Bligh, S.W.A. and Hudson, H.R. 2005. Organophosphorus chemistry: therapeutic intervention in mechanisms of viral and cellular replication. Current Organic Chemistry. 9 (18), pp. 1803-1828.

Multiflorane triterpene esters from the seeds of Trichosanthes kirilowii
Wu, T., Cheng, X.M., Bligh, S.W.A., Chou, G.-X., Wang, Z., Bashall, A. and Branford-White, C.J. 2005. Multiflorane triterpene esters from the seeds of Trichosanthes kirilowii. Helvetica Chimica Acta. 88 (10), pp. 2617-2623.

Bi-bicyclic and bi-tricyclic compounds from Dendrobium thyrsiflorum
Zhang, G.N., Zhong, L.Y., Bligh, S.W.A., Guo, Y.L., Zhang, C.-F., Zhang, M., Wang, Z. and Xu, L. 2005. Bi-bicyclic and bi-tricyclic compounds from Dendrobium thyrsiflorum. Phytochemistry. 66 (10), pp. 1113-1120.

Simultaneous determination of six isoflavonoids in commercial Radix Astragali by HPLC-UV
Wu, T., Bligh, S.W.A., Gu, L.-H., Wang, Z., Liu, H.P., Cheng, X.M., Branford-White, C.J. and Hu, Z.B. 2005. Simultaneous determination of six isoflavonoids in commercial Radix Astragali by HPLC-UV. Fitoterapia. 76 (2), pp. 157-165.

In vitro and in vivo induction of heme oxygenase 1 in mouse macrophages following melanocortin receptor activation
Lam, C.W., Getting, S.J. and Perretti, M. 2005. In vitro and in vivo induction of heme oxygenase 1 in mouse macrophages following melanocortin receptor activation. Journal of Immunology. 174 (4), pp. 2297-2304.

Interactions between cell surface protein disulphide isomerase and S-nitrosoglutathione during nitric oxide delivery into MEG-01 megakaryocytes
Shah, C.M., Walters, S.E., Locke, I.C., Chowdrey, H.S. and Gordge, M.P. 2005. Interactions between cell surface protein disulphide isomerase and S-nitrosoglutathione during nitric oxide delivery into MEG-01 megakaryocytes. Ireland-UK Platelet Conference 2005. Dublin, Ireland 04-06 Sep 2005

Evidence for a neuroprotective role of the CRH-like peptide, urocortin, in the 6-hydroxydopamine treated rat
Biggs, C.S., Locke, I.C., Knight, R.A., Chowdrey, H.S. and Whitton, P.S. 2005. Evidence for a neuroprotective role of the CRH-like peptide, urocortin, in the 6-hydroxydopamine treated rat. 18th National Meeting of the British Neuroscience Association. Brighton, UK 03-06 Apr 2005

Urocortin attenuates key indicators of nigrostriatal pathway destruction in a rat hemiparkinsonian model
Biggs, C.S., Abuirmeileh, A., Locke, I.C., Knight, R.A., Chowdrey, H.S. and Whitton, P.S. 2005. Urocortin attenuates key indicators of nigrostriatal pathway destruction in a rat hemiparkinsonian model. Proceedings of the British Pharmacological Society. 3 (4).

MC-3 receptor and the inflammatory mechanisms activated in acute myocardial infarct
Getting, S.J., Di Filippo, C., Christian, H.C., Lam, C.W., Rossi, F., D'Amico, M. and Perretti, M. 2004. MC-3 receptor and the inflammatory mechanisms activated in acute myocardial infarct. Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 76 (4), pp. 845-853.

Inhibitory effects of TSG-6 Link module on leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions in vitro and in vivo
Cao, T.V., La, M., Getting, S.J. and Day, A.J. 2004. Inhibitory effects of TSG-6 Link module on leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions in vitro and in vivo. Microcirculation. 11 (7), pp. 615-624.

Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of gentiopicroside following oral and intravenous administration in mice
Wang, C.-H., Wang, Z., Bligh, S.W.A., White, K.N. and Branford-White, C.J. 2004. Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of gentiopicroside following oral and intravenous administration in mice. European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics. 29 (3), pp. 199-203.

Functional characteristics of the streptococcal deoxyribonuclease 'streptodornase', a protein with DNase activity present in the medicament Varidase
Locke, I.C. and Carpenter, B.G. 2004. Functional characteristics of the streptococcal deoxyribonuclease 'streptodornase', a protein with DNase activity present in the medicament Varidase. Enzyme and Microbial Technology. 35 (1), pp. 67-73.

Investigation into the potential anti-inflammatory effects of endothelin antagonists in a murine model of experimental monosodium urate peritonitis
Getting, S.J., Di Filippo, C., Lam, C.W., Rossi, F. and D'Amico, M. 2004. Investigation into the potential anti-inflammatory effects of endothelin antagonists in a murine model of experimental monosodium urate peritonitis. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 310 (1), pp. 90-97.

Cytotoxicity of lavender oil and its major components to human skin cells
Prashar, A., Locke, I.C. and Evans, C.S. 2004. Cytotoxicity of lavender oil and its major components to human skin cells. Cell Proliferation. 37 (3), pp. 221-229.

Modulation of inflammation and response to dexamethasone by Annexin 1 in antigen-induced arthritis
Yang, Y.H., Morand, E.F., Getting, S.J. and Paul-Clark, M. 2004. Modulation of inflammation and response to dexamethasone by Annexin 1 in antigen-induced arthritis. Arthritis & Rheumatism. 50 (3), pp. 976-984.

The annexin 1-/- mouse: phenotypic studies
Wells, D., Wells, K., Liu, K., Hannon, R., Croxtall, J.D., Damazo, A.S., Oliani, S.M., Getting, S.J., Parente, L., Paul-Clark, M., Yona, S., Gavins, F.N.E., Martin, J., Christian, H.C., Cover, P.O., John, C.D., Solito, E., Morris, J.F., Perretti, M., Buckingham, J.C. and Flower, R.J. 2004. The annexin 1-/- mouse: phenotypic studies. Annexins. 1 (2), pp. 109-120.

Cell surface thiol modification by GSNO: a mechanism of nitric oxide delivery?
Shah, C.M., Locke, I.C., Chowdrey, H.S. and Gordge, M.P. 2004. Cell surface thiol modification by GSNO: a mechanism of nitric oxide delivery? 5th UK Nitric Oxide Forum. Edinburgh, UK 12/2004

Protein disulphide isomerase is involved in the delivery of NO from S-nitrosoglutathione into megakaryocytes
Shah, C.M., Locke, I.C., Chowdrey, H.S. and Gordge, M.P. 2004. Protein disulphide isomerase is involved in the delivery of NO from S-nitrosoglutathione into megakaryocytes. 3rd International Conference on the Biology, Chemistry and Therapeutic Applications of Nitric Oxide: 4th Anuual Scientific Meeting of the Nitric Oxide Society of Japan. Nara, Japan 24-28 May 2004

Protein disulphide isomerase is involved in the delivery of NO from S-nitrosoglutathione into megakaryocytes
Shah, C.M., Locke, I.C., Chowdrey, H.S. and Gordge, M.P. 2004. Protein disulphide isomerase is involved in the delivery of NO from S-nitrosoglutathione into megakaryocytes. Japan-UK Platelet Conference. Oxford, UK September 2004

Establishment and analysis of 3-D collagen cultures of C-20/A4 chondrocytes
Petsa, A., Chowdrey, H.S., Knight, R.A., Afoke, A. and Locke, I.C. 2004. Establishment and analysis of 3-D collagen cultures of C-20/A4 chondrocytes. OARSI 2004 World Congress on Osteoarthritis. Chicago USA 12/2004

Taraxer-14-en-3β-ol, an anti-inflammatory compound from Sterculia foetida L.
Naik, D.G., Mujumdar, A.M., Waghole, R.J., Misar, A.V., Bligh, S.W.A., Bashall, A. and Crowder, J. 2004. Taraxer-14-en-3β-ol, an anti-inflammatory compound from Sterculia foetida L. Planta Medica. 70 (1), pp. 68-69.

Activation of melanocortin receptors induces cAMP-dependent hemeoxygenase-1 expression in murine macrophages
Lam, C.W., Getting, S.J. and Perretti, M. 2004. Activation of melanocortin receptors induces cAMP-dependent hemeoxygenase-1 expression in murine macrophages. pA2 Online. Winter 2004 Meeting: Proceedings of the British Pharmacological Society.

Melanocortin receptor type 3 as a potential target for anti-inflammatory therapy
Lam, C.W. and Getting, S.J. 2004. Melanocortin receptor type 3 as a potential target for anti-inflammatory therapy. Current Drug Targets. Inflammation & Allergy. 3 (3), pp. 311-315.

A CRH family peptide protects a human chondrocyte cell line against apoptosis
Intekhab-Alam, N.Y., Chowdrey, H.S., Knight, R.A., Locke, I.C. and Intekhab Alam, N.Y. 2004. A CRH family peptide protects a human chondrocyte cell line against apoptosis. OARSI 2004 World Congress on Osteoarthritis. Chicago USA 12/2004

cis-Eudesmane Sesquiterpene Glycosides from Liriope muscari and Ophiopogon japonicus
Cheng, Z.H., Wu, T., Bligh, S.W.A., Bashall, A. and Yu, B.Y. 2004. cis-Eudesmane Sesquiterpene Glycosides from Liriope muscari and Ophiopogon japonicus. Journal of Natural Products. 67 (10), pp. 1761-1763.

Fluorescence properties of green fluorescent protein FRET pairs concatenated with the small G protein, Rac, and its interacting domain of the kinase, p21-activated kinase
Collinson, A.D., Bligh, S.W.A., Graham, D.L., Mott, H.R., Chalk, P.A., Korniotis, N. and Lowe, P.N. 2004. Fluorescence properties of green fluorescent protein FRET pairs concatenated with the small G protein, Rac, and its interacting domain of the kinase, p21-activated kinase. Assay and Drug Development Technologies. 2 (6), pp. 659-673.

Rapid S-nitrosothiol metabolism by platelets and megakaryocytes
Shah, C.M., Locke, I.C., Chowdrey, H.S. and Gordge, M.P. 2003. Rapid S-nitrosothiol metabolism by platelets and megakaryocytes. Biochemical Society Transactions. 31 (6), pp. 1450-1452.

Dissection of the anti-inflammatory effect of the core and C-terminal (KPV) alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone peptides
Getting, S.J., Schiöth, H.B. and Perretti, M. 2003. Dissection of the anti-inflammatory effect of the core and C-terminal (KPV) alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone peptides. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 306 (2), pp. 631-637.

Redundancy of a Functional Melanocortin 1 Receptor in the Anti-inflammatory actions of melanocortin peptides: studies in the recessive yellow (e/e) mouse suggest an important role for melanocortin 3 receptor
Getting, S.J., Christian, H.C., Lam, C.W., Gavins, F.N.E., Flower, R.J., Schiöth, H.B. and Perretti, M. 2003. Redundancy of a Functional Melanocortin 1 Receptor in the Anti-inflammatory actions of melanocortin peptides: studies in the recessive yellow (e/e) mouse suggest an important role for melanocortin 3 receptor. Journal of Immunology. 170 (6), pp. 3323-3330.

Aberrant inflammation and resistance to glucocorticoids in annexin 1-/- mouse
Hannon, R., Croxtall, J.D., Getting, S.J., Roviezzo, F., Yona, S., Paul-Clark, M., Gavins, F.N.E., Perretti, M., Morris, J.F., Buckingham, J.C. and Flower, R.J. 2003. Aberrant inflammation and resistance to glucocorticoids in annexin 1-/- mouse. FASEB Journal. 17 (2), pp. 253-255.

Role of protein disulphide isomerase in NO delivery from S-nitrosothiols into megakaryocytes
Shah, C.M., Locke, I.C., Chowdrey, H.S. and Gordge, M.P. 2003. Role of protein disulphide isomerase in NO delivery from S-nitrosothiols into megakaryocytes. 4th UK Nitric Oxide Forum. University of Nottingham, UK December 2003

The behaviour of C-20/A4 chondrocytes in 3-D collagen gel cultures
Petsa, A., Afoke, A., Chowdrey, H.S., Knight, R.A., Harris, A. and Locke, I.C. 2003. The behaviour of C-20/A4 chondrocytes in 3-D collagen gel cultures. OARSI 2003 World Congress on Osteoarthritis. Berlin, Germany October 2003

Migration of specific leukocyte subsets in response to cytokine or chemokine application in vivo
Perretti, M. and Getting, S.J. 2003. Migration of specific leukocyte subsets in response to cytokine or chemokine application in vivo. Methods in Molecular Biology. 225, pp. 139-146.

Migration of specific leukocyte sub-sets in response to cytokine or chemokine application in vivo
Perretti, M. and Getting, S.J. 2003. Migration of specific leukocyte sub-sets in response to cytokine or chemokine application in vivo. in: Winyard, P.G. and Willoughby, D.A. (ed.) Inflammation Protocols Totowa, NJ Humana Press. pp. 139-146

Measurement of dissociation constants of inhibitors binding to Src SH2 domain protein by non-covalent electrospray ionization mass spectrometry
Bligh, S.W.A., Haley, T. and Lowe, P.N. 2003. Measurement of dissociation constants of inhibitors binding to Src SH2 domain protein by non-covalent electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Journal of Molecular Recognition. 16 (3), pp. 139-148.

Reaction of (C-(6-aminomethyl-pyridin-2-yl)methylamine)chloroplatinum(II) with nucleosides and its biological activity
Bligh, S.W.A., Bashall, A., Garrud, C., McPartlin, M., Wardle, N.J., White, K.N., Padhye, S., Barve, V. and Kundu, G. 2003. Reaction of (C-(6-aminomethyl-pyridin-2-yl)methylamine)chloroplatinum(II) with nucleosides and its biological activity. Dalton Transactions. 2003 (2), pp. 184-188.

How chemistry brought me to the life-sciences interface
Bligh, S.W.A. 2003. How chemistry brought me to the life-sciences interface. Science.

The link module from human TSG-6 inhibits neutrophil migration in a hyaluronan- and inter-alpha -inhibitor-independent manner
Getting, S.J., Mahoney, D.J., Cao, T.V., Rugg, M.S., Fries, E., Milner, C.M., Perretti, M. and Day, A.J. 2002. The link module from human TSG-6 inhibits neutrophil migration in a hyaluronan- and inter-alpha -inhibitor-independent manner. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 (52), pp. 51068-51076.

The annexin-1 knockout mouse: what it tells us about the inflammatory response
Roviezzo, F., Getting, S.J., Paul-Clark, M., Yona, S., Gavins, F.N.E., Perretti, M., Hannon, R., Croxtall, J.D., Buckingham, J.C. and Flower, R.J. 2002. The annexin-1 knockout mouse: what it tells us about the inflammatory response. Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology. 53 (4, part 1), pp. 541 -553.

Endogenous lipid- and peptide-derived anti-inflammatory pathways generated with glucocorticoid and aspirin treatment activate the lipoxin A4 receptor
Perretti, M., Chiang, N., La, M., Fierro, I.M., Marullo, S., Getting, S.J., Solito, E. and Serhan, C.N. 2002. Endogenous lipid- and peptide-derived anti-inflammatory pathways generated with glucocorticoid and aspirin treatment activate the lipoxin A4 receptor. Nature Medicine. 8 (11), pp. 1296-1302.

Activation of melanocortin type 3 receptor as a molecular mechanism for adrenocorticotropic hormone efficacy in gouty arthritis
Getting, S.J., Christian, H.C., Flower, R.J. and Perretti, M. 2002. Activation of melanocortin type 3 receptor as a molecular mechanism for adrenocorticotropic hormone efficacy in gouty arthritis. Arthritis & Rheumatism. 46 (10), pp. 2765-2775.

Melanocortin peptides and their receptors: new targets for anti-inflammatory therapy
Getting, S.J. 2002. Melanocortin peptides and their receptors: new targets for anti-inflammatory therapy. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences. 23 (10), pp. 447-449.

Ion-dependency of the streptococcal deoxyribonuclease "streptodornase", an active constituent of the medicament Varidase
Locke, I.C. and Carpenter, B.G. 2002. Ion-dependency of the streptococcal deoxyribonuclease "streptodornase", an active constituent of the medicament Varidase. Enzyme and Microbial Technology. 31 (4), pp. 482-489.

A novel control mechanism based on GDNF modulation of somatostatin release from sensory neurones
Malcangio, M., Getting, S.J., Grist, J., Cunningham, J.R., Bradbury, E.J., Issa, P.C., Lever, I.J., Pezet, S. and Perretti, M. 2002. A novel control mechanism based on GDNF modulation of somatostatin release from sensory neurones. FASEB Journal. 16 (7), pp. 730-732.

Effect of essential oils and their components on cell
Prashar, A., Veness, R., Locke, I.C. and Evans, C.S. 2002. Effect of essential oils and their components on cell. Future Trends in Phytochemistry. Gargnano, Italy

Characterization of CXC and CC chemokine expression in a murine model of chronic granuloma
Carollo, M., Getting, S.J., Delaney, S., Christie, M.I. and Perretti, M. 2002. Characterization of CXC and CC chemokine expression in a murine model of chronic granuloma. Inflammation Research. 51 (2), pp. 110-111.

IUPAC-NIST solubility data series. 76. Solubility of ethyne in liquids
Fogg, P.G.T., Bligh, S.W.A., Derrick, M.E., Yampol’skii, Y.P., Clever, H.L., Skrzecz, A. and Young, C.L. 2001. IUPAC-NIST solubility data series. 76. Solubility of ethyne in liquids. Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data. 30 (6), pp. 1693-1875.

Involvement of the receptor for formylated peptides in the in vivo anti-migratory actions of annexin 1 and its mimetics
Perretti, M., Getting, S.J., Solito, E., Murphy, P.M. and Gao, J.L. 2001. Involvement of the receptor for formylated peptides in the in vivo anti-migratory actions of annexin 1 and its mimetics. American Journal of Pathology. 158 (6), pp. 1969-1973.

Anti-inflammatory effects of a novel, potent inhibitor of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase
Mabley, J.G., Jagtap, P., Perretti, M., Getting, S.J., Salzman, A.L., Virag, L., Szabo, E., Soriano, F.G., Liaudet, L., Hasko, G., Marton, A., Southan, G.J., Abdelkarim, G.E. and Szabo, C. 2001. Anti-inflammatory effects of a novel, potent inhibitor of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Inflammation Research. 50 (11), pp. 561-569.

Arthritic diseases: melanocortin type 3 receptor agonists as potential therapeutics
Getting, S.J. and Perretti, M. 2001. Arthritic diseases: melanocortin type 3 receptor agonists as potential therapeutics. Current opinion in investigational drugs. 2 (8), pp. 1064-1069.

Dimeric yttrium(III) and neodymium(III) macrocyclic complexes: potential catalysts for hydrolysis of double-stranded DNA
Bligh, S.W.A., Choi, N., Evagorou, E.G., McPartlin, M. and White, K.N. 2001. Dimeric yttrium(III) and neodymium(III) macrocyclic complexes: potential catalysts for hydrolysis of double-stranded DNA. Journal of the Chemical Society, Dalton Transactions. 2001 (21), pp. 3169-3172.

Natural and synthetic agonists of the melanocortin receptor type 3 possess anti-inflammatory properties
Getting, S.J., Allcock, G.H., Flower, R.J. and Perretti, M. 2001. Natural and synthetic agonists of the melanocortin receptor type 3 possess anti-inflammatory properties. Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 69 (1), pp. 98-104.

Characterization of 111In3+ complexes of DTPA amide derivatives: biodistribution and clearance studied by gamma imaging
Prata, M.I.M., Santos, A.C., Bligh, S.W.A., Chowdhury, A.H.M.S., Geraldes, C.F.G.C. and de Lima, J.J.P. 2000. Characterization of 111In3+ complexes of DTPA amide derivatives: biodistribution and clearance studied by gamma imaging. Nuclear Medicine and Biology. 27 (6), pp. 605-610.

Varidase: the science behind the medicament
Rutter, P.M., Carpenter, B.G., Hill, S.S. and Locke, I.C. 2000. Varidase: the science behind the medicament. Journal of Wound Care. 9 (5), pp. 223-226.

MC3-R as a novel target for anti-inflammatory therapy
Getting, S.J. and Perretti, M. 2000. MC3-R as a novel target for anti-inflammatory therapy. Drug News & Perspectives. 13 (1), pp. 19-27.

Synthesis and structural properties of metal complexes of dialkyl α-hydroxyiminophosphonates
Bligh, S.W.A., Choi, N., McGrath, C.M., McPartlin, M. and Woodroffe, T.M. 2000. Synthesis and structural properties of metal complexes of dialkyl α-hydroxyiminophosphonates. Journal of the Chemical Society, Dalton Transactions. 2000 (15), pp. 2587-2594.

POMC gene-derived peptides activate melanocortin type 3 receptor on murine macrophages, suppress cytokine release, and inhibit neutrophil migration in acute experimental inflammation
Getting, S.J., Gibbs, L., Clark, A.J.L., Flower, R.J. and Perretti, M. 1999. POMC gene-derived peptides activate melanocortin type 3 receptor on murine macrophages, suppress cytokine release, and inhibit neutrophil migration in acute experimental inflammation. Journal of Immunology. 162 (12), pp. 7446-7453.

Non-ionic bulky Gd(III) DTPA-bisamide complexes as potential contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging
Bligh, S.W.A., Chowdhury, A.H.M.S., Kennedy, D., Luchinat, C. and Parigi, G. 1999. Non-ionic bulky Gd(III) DTPA-bisamide complexes as potential contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. 41 (4), pp. 767-773.

A comparison of the characteristics of circulating anti-myeloperoxidase antibodies in vasculitis with those in non-vasculitic conditions
Locke, I.C., Leaker, B. and Cambridge, G. 1999. A comparison of the characteristics of circulating anti-myeloperoxidase antibodies in vasculitis with those in non-vasculitic conditions. Clinical and Experimental Immunology. 115 (2), pp. 369-376.

Compounds for use in the treatment of inflammation
Flower, R.J., Getting, S.J. and Perretti, M. 1998. Compounds for use in the treatment of inflammation.

A comparison of the variable region genes of two human monoclonal antibodies to myeloperoxidase
Locke, I.C., Rahman, M.A.A. and Cambridge, G. 1998. A comparison of the variable region genes of two human monoclonal antibodies to myeloperoxidase. British Society for Immunology 6th Annual Meeting. Harrogate, UK 12/1998

Adjacent proline residues in the inhibitory domain of the Oct-2 transcription factor play distinct functional roles
Liu, Y.Z., Lee, I.K., Locke, I.C., Dawson, S. and Latchman, D. 1998. Adjacent proline residues in the inhibitory domain of the Oct-2 transcription factor play distinct functional roles. Nucleic Acids Research. 26 (10), pp. 2464-2472.

Synthesis of novel α-functionalized phosphinic acid derivatives of thiophene and the first crystal structure of an α-hydroxyalkylphosphinate
Bligh, S.W.A., McPartlin, M., Sanganee, M.J., Woodroffe, T.M. and Geraldes, C.F.G.C. 1998. Synthesis of novel α-functionalized phosphinic acid derivatives of thiophene and the first crystal structure of an α-hydroxyalkylphosphinate. Chemical Communications. 1998 (19), pp. 2073-2074.

A gadolinium cryptate with two coordinated water molecules
Bligh, S.W.A., Drew, M.G.B., Martin, N., Maubert, B. and Nelson, J. 1998. A gadolinium cryptate with two coordinated water molecules. Journal of the Chemical Society, Dalton Transactions. 1998 (22), pp. 3711-3714.

Purification of a streptococcal deoxyribonuclease by affinity chromatography based on a DNA-cellulose matrix
Locke, I.C., Cox, S.F. and Carpenter, B.G. 1997. Purification of a streptococcal deoxyribonuclease by affinity chromatography based on a DNA-cellulose matrix. Journal of Chromatography A. 788 (1-2), pp. 75-80.

Inhibition of poly (ADP-ribose) synthetase attenuates neutrophil recruitment and exerts anti-inflammatory effects
Szabo, C., Lim, L.H.K., Cuzzocrea, S., Getting, S.J., Zingarelli, B., Flower, R.J., Salzman, A.L. and Perretti, M. 1997. Inhibition of poly (ADP-ribose) synthetase attenuates neutrophil recruitment and exerts anti-inflammatory effects. Journal of experimental medicine. 186 (7), pp. 1041-1049.

Molecular determinants of monosodium urate crystal-induced murine peritonitis: a role for endogenous mast cells and a distinct requirement for endothelial-derived selectins
Getting, S.J., Flower, R.J., Parente, L., de Medicis, R., Lussier, A., Woliztky, B.A., Martins, M.A. and Perretti, M. 1997. Molecular determinants of monosodium urate crystal-induced murine peritonitis: a role for endogenous mast cells and a distinct requirement for endothelial-derived selectins. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 283 (1), pp. 123-130.

Inhibition of neutrophil and monocyte recruitment by endogenous and exogenous lipocortin 1
Getting, S.J., Flower, R.J. and Perretti, M. 1997. Inhibition of neutrophil and monocyte recruitment by endogenous and exogenous lipocortin 1. British Journal of Pharmacology. 120 (6), pp. 1075-1082.

Sub-acute treatment of rats with dexamethasone reduces ICAM-1 levels on circulating monocytes
Tailor, A., Das, A.M., Getting, S.J., Flower, R.J. and Perretti, M. 1997. Sub-acute treatment of rats with dexamethasone reduces ICAM-1 levels on circulating monocytes. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 231 (3), pp. 675-678.

A novel hexaaza macrocycle with methylenephosphonate pendant arms: a potential useful chelate for biomedical applications
Bligh, S.W.A., Choi, N., Geraldes, C.F.G.C., Knoke, S., McPartlin, M., Sanganee, M.J. and Woodroffe, T.M. 1997. A novel hexaaza macrocycle with methylenephosphonate pendant arms: a potential useful chelate for biomedical applications. Journal of the Chemical Society, Dalton Transactions. 1997 (21), pp. 4119-4126.

Hexaaza and octaaza macrocycles with 2-hydroxy 3,5-dimethylbenzyl pendant arms
Bligh, S.W.A., Choi, N., Evagorou, E.G. and McPartlin, M. 1997. Hexaaza and octaaza macrocycles with 2-hydroxy 3,5-dimethylbenzyl pendant arms. Journal of the Chemical Society, Perkin Transactions. 1997 (21), pp. 3151-3156.

Autoantibodies to myeloperoxidase in systemic sclerosis
Locke, I.C., Worral, J.G., Leaker, B., Black, C.M. and Cambridge, G. 1997. Autoantibodies to myeloperoxidase in systemic sclerosis. Journal of Rheumatology. 24 (1), pp. 86-89.

Biphasic modulation of GABA release by nitric oxide in the hippocampus of freely moving rats in vivo
Getting, S.J., Segieth, J., Ahmad, S., Biggs, C.S. and Whitton, P.S. 1996. Biphasic modulation of GABA release by nitric oxide in the hippocampus of freely moving rats in vivo. Brain Research. 717 (1-2), pp. 196-199.

Characteristics of antibodies to myeloperoxidase in vasculitic and non-vasculitic conditions
Locke, I.C., Leaker, B. and Cambridge, G. 1996. Characteristics of antibodies to myeloperoxidase in vasculitic and non-vasculitic conditions. American College of Rheumatology 60th National Scientific Meeting. Orlando, USA 10/1996

Characteristics of anti-myeloperoxidase autoantibodies in vasculitis and other conditions
Locke, I.C., Leaker, B. and Cambridge, G. 1996. Characteristics of anti-myeloperoxidase autoantibodies in vasculitis and other conditions. American Society of Nephrology 29th Annual Meeting. New Orleans, USA 11/1996

Autoantibodies to neutrophil granule proteins: pathogenic potential in vasculitis?
Locke, I.C. and Cambridge, G. 1996. Autoantibodies to neutrophil granule proteins: pathogenic potential in vasculitis? British Journal of Biomedical Science. 53 (4), pp. 302-316.

A human monoclonal anti-myeloperoxidase antibody can prime human neutrophils in vitro
Cambridge, G., Leaker, B., Locke, I.C., Noronha-Dutra, A. and Epperlein, M. 1996. A human monoclonal anti-myeloperoxidase antibody can prime human neutrophils in vitro. American Society of Nephrology 29th Annual Meeting. New Orleans, USA 11/1996

α-aminophosphonate monoesters in one step
Bligh, S.W.A., McGrath, C.M., Failla, S. and Finocchiaro, P. 1996. α-aminophosphonate monoesters in one step. Phosphorus, Sulfur, and Silicon and the Related Elements. 118 (1), pp. 189-194.

Lanthanide and transition metal complexes of dialkyl alpha-hydroxyiminophosphonates
Bligh, S.W.A., Choi, N., Green, D.S.C., Hudson, H.R., McGrath, C.M., McPartlin, M. and Pianka, M. 1996. Lanthanide and transition metal complexes of dialkyl alpha-hydroxyiminophosphonates. Phosphorus, Sulfur, and Silicon and the Related Elements. 111 (1-4), p. 49.

Nitric oxide regulates excitatory amino acid release in a biphasic manner in freely moving rats
Segieth, J., Getting, S.J., Biggs, C.S. and Whitton, P.S. 1995. Nitric oxide regulates excitatory amino acid release in a biphasic manner in freely moving rats. Neuroscience Letters. 200 (2), pp. 101-104.

Neutral gadolinium(III) complexes of bulky octadentate dtpa derivatives as potential contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging
Bligh, S.W.A., Chowdhury, A.H.M.S., McPartlin, M. and Scowen, I.J. 1995. Neutral gadolinium(III) complexes of bulky octadentate dtpa derivatives as potential contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging. Polyhedron. 14 (4), pp. 567-569.

Effect of nitric oxide on basal and NMDA-evoked release of glutamate and aspartate release in vivo
Segieth-Beever, J., Getting, S.J., Biggs, C.S. and Whitton, P.S. 1995. Effect of nitric oxide on basal and NMDA-evoked release of glutamate and aspartate release in vivo. Wiley.

Autoantibodies to myeloperoxidase in systemic sclerosis
Worral, J.G., Locke, I.C., Leaker, B., Black, C.M. and Cambridge, G. 1995. Autoantibodies to myeloperoxidase in systemic sclerosis. British Society for Rheumatology Heberden Round 1995. Keele University, UK 9/1995

Teaching techniques in inorganic chemistry
Bligh, S.W.A., Conole, G. and McPartlin, M. 1995. Teaching techniques in inorganic chemistry. in: Variety in Chemistry Proceedings UK Physical Sciences Centre.

Synthesis, characterization and comparative study of aminophosphonate chelates of gadolinium(III) ions as magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents
Bligh, S.W.A., Harding, C.T., McEwen, A.B. and Sadler, P.J. 1994. Synthesis, characterization and comparative study of aminophosphonate chelates of gadolinium(III) ions as magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents. Polyhedron. 13 (12), pp. 1937-1943.

Synthesis of the first lanthanide complexes of dialkyl α-hydroxyiminophosphonates; ambivalent ligand bonding in the PrIII and NdIII complexes of diisopropyl α-hydroxyiminopropylphosphonate (L1), [PrL13Cl3] and [NdL12(NO3)3(H2O)]
Bligh, S.W.A., Choi, N., Hudson, H.R., McGrath, C.M. and McPartlin, M. 1994. Synthesis of the first lanthanide complexes of dialkyl α-hydroxyiminophosphonates; ambivalent ligand bonding in the PrIII and NdIII complexes of diisopropyl α-hydroxyiminopropylphosphonate (L1), [PrL13Cl3] and [NdL12(NO3)3(H2O)]. Journal of the Chemical Society, Dalton Transactions. 1994 (15), pp. 2335-2337.

First structural characterisation of an amino phosphonate monoester metal complex
Bligh, S.W.A., Choi, N., Failla, S., Finocchiaro, P., Il'yasov, A., Libertini, M., McGrath, C.M., McPartlin, M. and Woodroffe, T.M. 1994. First structural characterisation of an amino phosphonate monoester metal complex. Journal of the Chemical Society, Dalton Transactions. 1994 (22), pp. 3333-3334.

Metal-ion controlled helicity of an 18-membered hexaaza tetraamine macrocycle
Bligh, S.W.A., Choi, N., Evagorou, E.G., Li, W.S. and McPartlin, M. 1994. Metal-ion controlled helicity of an 18-membered hexaaza tetraamine macrocycle. Journal of the Chemical Society, Chemical Communications. 1994 (20), pp. 2399-2400.

Yttrium(III) and lanthanide(III) metal complexes of an 18-membered hexaaza tetraimine macrocycle. Crystal structure of the gadolinium(III) complex
Bligh, S.W.A., Choi, N., Cummins, W.J., Evagorou, E.G., Kelly, J.D. and McPartlin, M. 1994. Yttrium(III) and lanthanide(III) metal complexes of an 18-membered hexaaza tetraimine macrocycle. Crystal structure of the gadolinium(III) complex. Journal of the Chemical Society, Dalton Transactions. 1994 (23), pp. 3369-3376.

Transition metal complexes of dialkyl α-hydroxyiminophosphonates, a novel class of metal complexes
Bligh, S.W.A., Choi, N., Green, D.S.C., Hudson, H.R., McGrath, C.M., McPartlin, M. and Pianka, M. 1993. Transition metal complexes of dialkyl α-hydroxyiminophosphonates, a novel class of metal complexes. Polyhedron. 12 (23), pp. 2887-2890.

Automated analysis of the deoxyribonuclease active constituents of the medicament Varidase ®
Locke, I.C., Ramsay, M.P., Hill, S.S. and Carpenter, B.G. 1993. Automated analysis of the deoxyribonuclease active constituents of the medicament Varidase ®. The Journal of Automatic Chemistry. 15, pp. 65-70.

Macrocyclic lanthanide complexes as potential contrast agents for NMR imaging
Bligh, S.W.A., Choi, N., Cummins, W.J., Evagorou, E.G., Kelly, J.D., McPartlin, M. and Parkes, H.G. 1993. Macrocyclic lanthanide complexes as potential contrast agents for NMR imaging. Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry. 51 (1-2), p. 438.

Synthesis and crystal structure of a novel hexaaza macrocyclic ligand with 2-hydroxy-3,5-dimethylbenzyl pendant arms and its gadolinium(III) complex
Bligh, S.W.A., Choi, N., Cummins, W.J., Evagorou, E.G., Kelly, J.D. and McPartlin, M. 1993. Synthesis and crystal structure of a novel hexaaza macrocyclic ligand with 2-hydroxy-3,5-dimethylbenzyl pendant arms and its gadolinium(III) complex. Journal of the Chemical Society, Dalton Transactions. 1993 (24), pp. 3829-3831.

Distortional isomerism in oxomolybdenum systems: the evidence re-evaluated
Bashall, A., Bligh, S.W.A., Edwards, A.J., McPartlin, M., Gibson, V.C. and Robinson, O.B. 1992. Distortional isomerism in oxomolybdenum systems: the evidence re-evaluated. Angewandte Chemie: International Edition in English. 31 (12), pp. 1607-1609.

Automated analysis of the deoxyribonuclease active constituents of the medicament Varidase ®
Locke, I.C., Ramsey, M.P., Hill, S.S. and Carpenter, B.G. 1992. Automated analysis of the deoxyribonuclease active constituents of the medicament Varidase ®. IMLS XX Triennial Conference. Liverpool, UK 9/1992

Synthesis and crystal structure of a gadolinium(III) complex of a tetraimine schiff-base macrocycle: a potential contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging
Bligh, S.W.A., Choi, N., Evagorou, E.G., McPartlin, M., Cummins, W.J. and Kelly, J.D. 1992. Synthesis and crystal structure of a gadolinium(III) complex of a tetraimine schiff-base macrocycle: a potential contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging. Polyhedron. 11 (19), pp. 2571-2573.

H-1-Nmr studies of reactions of copper complexes with human blood plasma and urine
Bligh, S.W.A., Boyle, H.A., McEwen, A.B., Sadler, P.J. and Woodham, R.H. 1992. H-1-Nmr studies of reactions of copper complexes with human blood plasma and urine. Biochemical Pharmacology. 43 (2), pp. 137-145.

Use of paramagnetic chelated metal derivatives of polysaccharides and spin-labeled polysaccharides as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging
Bligh, S.W.A., Harding, C.T., Sadler, P.J., Bulman, R.A., Bydder, G.M., Pennock, J.M., Kelly, J.D., Clatham, I.A. and Marriott, J.A. 1991. Use of paramagnetic chelated metal derivatives of polysaccharides and spin-labeled polysaccharides as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. 17 (2), pp. 516-532.

Purification of the seed lectin from Dolichos biflorus by chromatofocusing
Rogers, D.J., Locke, I.C., Gibbs, R. and Carpenter, B.G. 1990. Purification of the seed lectin from Dolichos biflorus by chromatofocusing. 12th International Lectin Conference. University of Davis, USA 9/1990

Nuclear magnetic resonance and circular dichroism spectroscopic studies of copper complexation in blood plasma
Bligh, S.W.A., Drake, A.F. and Sadler, P.J. 1990. Nuclear magnetic resonance and circular dichroism spectroscopic studies of copper complexation in blood plasma. Biochemical Society Transactions. 18, pp. 999-1000.

Ultraviolet and magnetic-circular-diochroic spectroscopic studies of Gd(III) complexed with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid
Bligh, S.W.A., Drake, A.F. and Sadler, P.J. 1989. Ultraviolet and magnetic-circular-diochroic spectroscopic studies of Gd(III) complexed with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid. European Journal of Biochemistry. 181 (1), pp. 223-224.

Characterization and invivo distribution of Tc-99m-labeled and In-111-labelled magnetite
Bligh, S.W.A., Sadler, P.J., Marriott, J.A., Latham, I.A. and Kelly, J.D. 1989. Characterization and invivo distribution of Tc-99m-labeled and In-111-labelled magnetite. Applied Radiation and Isotopes. 40, pp. 751-757.

Labels and contrast agents in biomedical magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging
Bligh, S.W.A. and Sadler, P.J. 1989. Labels and contrast agents in biomedical magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging. in: Dykes, J. and Delpy, D.T. (ed.) Clinical NMR spectroscopy York, England The Institute of Physical Sciences in Medicine. pp. 77-81

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