A quantitative method using HPLC-MS2 has been developed for the determination of adonifoline, one of the retronecine-type hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Senecio scandens Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don., a traditional Chinese herb. Using an orthogonal design test, a simple and rapid sample extraction method was developed. HPLC analysis was conducted using a C18 column as stationary phase and a mixture of acetonitrile and aqueous formic acid as mobile phase. Good linearity for adonifoline was found in the concentration range 0.12–4.18 µg/mL, and the HPLC-MS/MS method was shown to be appropriate, in terms of sensitivity, precision and reproducibility. The quantities of adonifoline in extracts of 18 plant samples from different collection sources and from different parts (flowers, leaves, thick stems, slim stems and roots) of S. scandens were determined using the newly developed HPLC/MS2 analysis.