Six C-glucosyl anthrones were characterized as three pairs of epimers by on-line high performance liquid chromatography–circular dichroism (HPLC–CD) analysis and isolated from the roots of Rumex dentatus by column chromatography. Their structures were elucidated by mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic spectroscopy and HPLC–CD analysis. They are 10R-C-β-d-glucosyl-10-hydroxyemodin-9-anthrone (rumejaposide E, 1) and 10S-C-β-d-glucosyl-10-hydroxyemodin-9-anthrone (rumejaposide F, 2), 10R-C-β-d-glucosylemodin-9-anthrone (rumejaposide G, 3) and 10S-C-β-d-glucosylemodin-9-anthrone (rumejaposide H, 4), 10S-C-β-d-glucosyl-10-hydroxychrysophanol-9-anthrone (cassialoin, 5) and 10R-C-β-d-glucosyl-10-hydroxychrysophanol-9-anthrone (rumejaposide I, 6). Rumejaposides F–I (2–4 and 6) were new C-glucosyl anthrones. Rumejaposide E (1) and cassialoin (5) were isolated for the first time in Rumex plants. On-line HPLC–UV–CD analysis was a useful tool for structure elucidating epimeric C-glycosides anthrones 3–6 because of the poor stability of the pure isomers (3 and 4) and the minute quantity of 5 and 6 in the mixture.