Development of novel antibacterial active, HaCaT biocompatible and biodegradable CA-g-P(3HB)-EC biocomposites with caffeic acid as a functional entity

Iqbal, H.M.N., Kyazze, G., Locke, I.C., Tron, T. and Keshavarz, T. 2015. Development of novel antibacterial active, HaCaT biocompatible and biodegradable CA-g-P(3HB)-EC biocomposites with caffeic acid as a functional entity. eXPRESS Polymer Letters. 9 (9), p. 764–772.

TitleDevelopment of novel antibacterial active, HaCaT biocompatible and biodegradable CA-g-P(3HB)-EC biocomposites with caffeic acid as a functional entity
AuthorsIqbal, H.M.N., Kyazze, G., Locke, I.C., Tron, T. and Keshavarz, T.
Abstract

We have developed novel composites by grafting caffeic acid (CA) onto the P(3HB)-EC based material and laccase from Trametes versicolor was used for grafting purposes. The resulting composites were designated as CA-g-P(3HB)-EC i.e., P(3HB)-EC (control), 5CA-g-P(3HB)-EC, 10CA-g-P(3HB)-EC, 15CA-g-P(3HB)-EC and 20CA-g-P(3HB)-EC. An FT-IR (Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy) was used to examine the functional and elemental groups of the control and laccase-assisted graft composites. Evidently, 15CA-g-P(3HB)-EC composite exhibited resilient antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains, respectively. Moreover, a significant level of biocompatibility and biodegradability of the CA-g-P(3HB)-EC composites was also achieved with the human keratinocytes-like HaCaT cells and soil burial evaluation, respectively. In conclusion, the newly developed novel composites with multi characteristics could well represent the new wave of biomaterials for medical applications, and more specifically have promising future in the infection free would dressings, burn and/or skin regeneration field due to their sophisticated characteristics.

KeywordsPolymer composites; Enzymatic grafting; Laccase; Biocompatible; Biodegradable
JournaleXPRESS Polymer Letters
Journal citation9 (9), p. 764–772
ISSN1788-618X
Year2015
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)doi:10.3144/expresspolymlett.2015.72
Publication dates
PublishedSep 2015

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Iqbal, H.M.N., Kyazze, G., Keshavarz, T. and Tron, T. 2013. Laccase-assisted bio-grafting of polyhydroxy-alkanoates (PHAs) onto the ethyl cellulose (EC) backbone. University of Westminster Faculty of Science and Technology Postgraduate Fair. University of Westminster, London, UK 25 Apr 2013

Neuroprotective efficacy of the endogenous neuropeptide Urocortin in a oxygen-glucose deprivation model of transient cerebral ischaemia with reperfusion
Ashioti, M., Getting, S.J., Locke, I.C. and Milton, N.G.N. 2013. Neuroprotective efficacy of the endogenous neuropeptide Urocortin in a oxygen-glucose deprivation model of transient cerebral ischaemia with reperfusion. British Neuroscience Association 22nd Biennial Meeting. London 7th-10th April 2013

Integration of biohydrogen, biomethane and bioelectrochemical systems
Premier, G.C., Kim, J.R., Massanet-Nicolau, S., Kyazze, G., Esteves, S., Penumathsa, B.K.V., Rodríguez, J., Maddy, J., Dinsdale, R.M. and Guwy, A.J. 2013. Integration of biohydrogen, biomethane and bioelectrochemical systems. Renewable Energy. 49, pp. 188-192.

Simultaneous co-metabolic decolourisation of azo dye mixtures and bio-electricity generation under thermophillic (50°C) and saline conditions by an adapted anaerobic mixed culture in microbial fuel cells
Fernando, E., Keshavarz, T. and Kyazze, G. 2013. Simultaneous co-metabolic decolourisation of azo dye mixtures and bio-electricity generation under thermophillic (50°C) and saline conditions by an adapted anaerobic mixed culture in microbial fuel cells. Bioresource Technology. 127, pp. 1-8.

Chondroprotective and anti-inflammatory role of melanocortin peptides in TNF-α activated human C-20/A4 chondrocytes
Kaneva, M., Kerrigan, M.J.P., Grieco, P., Curley, G.P., Locke, I.C. and Getting, S.J. 2012. Chondroprotective and anti-inflammatory role of melanocortin peptides in TNF-α activated human C-20/A4 chondrocytes. British Journal of Pharmacology. 167 (1), pp. 67-79.

Novel methods for the quantification of changes in actin organization in chondrocytes using fluorescent imaging and linear profiling
Qusous, A., Parker, E., Geewan, C., Kapasi, A., Getting, S.J., Hucklebridge, F., Keshavarz, T. and Kerrigan, M.J.P. 2012. Novel methods for the quantification of changes in actin organization in chondrocytes using fluorescent imaging and linear profiling. Microscopy Research and Technique. 75 (7), pp. 991-999.

Novel biodegradable and biocompatible poly(3-hydroxyoctanoate)/bacterial cellulose composites
Basnett, P., Knowles, J.C., Pishbin, F., Smith, C.L., Keshavarz, T., Boccaccini, A.R. and Roy, I. 2012. Novel biodegradable and biocompatible poly(3-hydroxyoctanoate)/bacterial cellulose composites. Advanced Engineering Materials. 14 (6), pp. B330-B343.

Is quorum sensing involved in lovastatin production in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus terreus?
Raina, S., De Vizio, D., Palonen, E.K., Odell, M., Brandt, A.M., Soini, J.T. and Keshavarz, T. 2012. Is quorum sensing involved in lovastatin production in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus terreus? Process Biochemistry. 47 (5), pp. 843-852.

Urocortin is a novel regulator of osteoclast differentiation and function through inhibition of a canonical transient receptor potential 1-like cation channel
Combs, C., Fuller, K., Kumar, H., Albert, A.P., Pirianov, G., McCormick, J., Locke, I.C., Chambers, T.J. and Lawrence, K.M. 2012. Urocortin is a novel regulator of osteoclast differentiation and function through inhibition of a canonical transient receptor potential 1-like cation channel. Journal of Endocrinology. 212 (2), pp. 187-197.

Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) production by Bacillus cereus SPV using sugarcane molasses as the main carbon source
Akaraonye, E., Moreno, C., Knowles, J.C., Keshavarz, T. and Roy, I. 2012. Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) production by Bacillus cereus SPV using sugarcane molasses as the main carbon source. Biotechnology Journal. 7 (2), pp. 293-303.

Simultaneous co-metabolic azo dye decolourisation and bio-electricity generation in microbial fuel cells
Fernando, E., Keshavarz, T. and Kyazze, G. 2012. Simultaneous co-metabolic azo dye decolourisation and bio-electricity generation in microbial fuel cells. Electron transfer at the microbe-mineral interface. University of East Anglia 02 - 04 Apr 2012 The Biochemical Society.

Phenanthrene degradation and concomitant electricity generation using a bioelectrochemical process
Adelaja, O., Keshavarz, T. and Kyazze, G. 2012. Phenanthrene degradation and concomitant electricity generation using a bioelectrochemical process . Electrochem 2012 - Electrochemical Horizons. Dublin 02 - 04 Sep 2012 Royal Society of Chemistry.

Laccase bio-grafting a versatile modification tool from green chemistry technologies
Iqbal, H.M.N., Tron, T. and Keshavarz, T. 2012. Laccase bio-grafting a versatile modification tool from green chemistry technologies. University of Westminster Faculty of Science and Technology Postgraduate Fair. University of Westminster, London, UK 26 Apr 2012

γ-Heptalactone is an endogenously produced quorum-sensing molecule regulating growth and secondary metabolite production by Aspergillus nidulans
Williams, H.E., Steele, J.C.P., Clements, M.O. and Keshavarz, T. 2012. γ-Heptalactone is an endogenously produced quorum-sensing molecule regulating growth and secondary metabolite production by Aspergillus nidulans. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 96 (3), pp. 773-781.

Enhanced production of the polyhydroxyalkanoate, P(3HB), from cacillus cereus SPV and its applications in cartilage regeneration
Everest, A., Keshavarz, T. and Roy, I. 2012. Enhanced production of the polyhydroxyalkanoate, P(3HB), from cacillus cereus SPV and its applications in cartilage regeneration. Gordon Research Conference on Biopolymers. Salve Regina University, Newport, Rhode Island, USA 3-8 June 2012

The anti-inflammatory effects of melanocortin peptides in lipopolysaccharide activated chondrocytes
Can, V.C., Kaneva, M., Kerrigan, M.J.P., Locke, I.C. and Getting, S.J. 2012. The anti-inflammatory effects of melanocortin peptides in lipopolysaccharide activated chondrocytes. British Phamacological Society Winter Meeting 2012. London, UK 18th-20th December

Enhanced bio-decolourisation of acid orange 7 by Shewanella oneidensis through co-metabolism in a microbial fuel cell
Fernando, E., Keshavarz, T. and Kyazze, G. 2012. Enhanced bio-decolourisation of acid orange 7 by Shewanella oneidensis through co-metabolism in a microbial fuel cell. International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation. 72, pp. 1-9.

The homopolymer poly(3-hydroxyoctanoate) as a matrix material for soft tissue engineering
Rai, R., Boccaccini, A.R., Knowles, J.C., Mordon, N., Salih, V., Locke, I.C., Moshrefi-Torbati, M., Keshavarz, T. and Roy, I. 2011. The homopolymer poly(3-hydroxyoctanoate) as a matrix material for soft tissue engineering. Journal of Applied Polymer Science. 122 (6), pp. 3606-3617.

Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA): bacterial cellulose composites for biomedical applications
Basnett, P., Smith, C.L., Boccaccini, A.R., Knowles, J.C., Keshavarz, T. and Roy, I. 2011. Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA): bacterial cellulose composites for biomedical applications. European Society of Biomaterials. Dublin, Ireland Sept 2011

Controlled delivery of gentamicin using poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) microspheres
Francis, L., Meng, D., Knowles, J.C., Keshavarz, T., Boccaccini, A.R. and Roy, I. 2011. Controlled delivery of gentamicin using poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) microspheres. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 12 (7), pp. 4294-4314.

Poly-3-hydroxyoctanoate P(3HO), a medium chain length polyhydroxyalkanoate homopolymer from Pseudomonas mendocina
Rai, R., Yunos, D.M., Boccaccini, A.R., Knowles, J.C., Barker, I.A., Howdle, S.M., Tredwell, G.D., Keshavarz, T. and Roy, I. 2011. Poly-3-hydroxyoctanoate P(3HO), a medium chain length polyhydroxyalkanoate homopolymer from Pseudomonas mendocina. Biomacromolecules. 12 (6), pp. 2126-2136.

Enhanced intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis after addition of oligosaccharide elicitors
Murphy, T., Nilsson, A., Roy, I., Harrop, A., Dixon, K. and Keshavarz, T. 2011. Enhanced intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis after addition of oligosaccharide elicitors. Biotechnology Letters. 33 (5), pp. 985-991.

Medium chain length polyhydroxyalkanoates, promising new biomedical materials for the future
Rai, R., Keshavarz, T., Roether, J.A., Boccaccini, A.R. and Roy, I. 2011. Medium chain length polyhydroxyalkanoates, promising new biomedical materials for the future. Materials Science and Engineering R: Reports. 72 (3), pp. 29-47.

Application of fluorescent indicators to analyse intracellular calcium and morphology in filamentous fungi
Nair, R.R., Raina, S., Keshavarz, T. and Kerrigan, M.J.P. 2011. Application of fluorescent indicators to analyse intracellular calcium and morphology in filamentous fungi. Fungal Biology. 115 (4-5), pp. 326-334.

Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates and their medical applications
Roy, I., Akaraonye, E., Francis, L., Rai, R., Basnett, P. and Keshavarz, T. 2011. Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates and their medical applications. 7th International Conference on Polymer and Textile Biotechnology. Milan, Italy 2nd - 4th March 2011

Chondrocyte CRF receptor expression and Urocortin I mediated chondroprotection
White, O.B., Intekhab-Alam, N.Y., Chowdrey, H.S., Knight, R.A., Locke, I.C. and Intekhab Alam, N.Y. 2011. Chondrocyte CRF receptor expression and Urocortin I mediated chondroprotection. Rheumatology 2011. Brighton, UK 12th-14th April 2011

Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates and their biomedical applications
Roy, I., Akaraonye, E., Francis, L., Rai, R., Basnett, P. and Keshavarz, T. 2011. Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates and their biomedical applications. Euro BioMat 2011 - European Symposium on Biomaterials and Related Areas. Jena, Germany

α-MSH and [DTRP]8-γ-MSH inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokine release from stimulated primary bovine chondrocytes
Kaneva, M., Kerrigan, M.J.P., Locke, I.C. and Getting, S.J. 2011. α-MSH and [DTRP]8-γ-MSH inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokine release from stimulated primary bovine chondrocytes. 10th World Congress on Inflammation. Paris, France 25–29 June 2011

MC1 and MC3 activation inhibits caspase-3 production and activity, promotes cell-viability, and induces IL-10 and HO-1 release from human C20/A4 chondrocytes
Kaneva, M., Kerrigan, M.J.P., Locke, I.C. and Getting, S.J. 2011. MC1 and MC3 activation inhibits caspase-3 production and activity, promotes cell-viability, and induces IL-10 and HO-1 release from human C20/A4 chondrocytes. Physiological Society Meeting 23. University of Oxford

Impact of linoleic acid supplementation on lovastatin production in Aspergillus terreus cultures
Sorrentino, F., Roy, I. and Keshavarz, T. 2010. Impact of linoleic acid supplementation on lovastatin production in Aspergillus terreus cultures. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 88 (1), pp. 65-73.

Enhanced and economical production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate), a biodegradable polymer and its applications
Akaraonye, E., Safarikova, M., Keshavarz, T. and Roy, I. 2010. Enhanced and economical production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate), a biodegradable polymer and its applications. 12th International Symposium on Biodegradable Polyesters. Stuttgart, Germany.

Influence of catholyte pH and temperature on hydrogen production from acetate using a two chamber concentric tubular microbial electrolysis cell
Kyazze, G., Popov, A., Dinsdale, R.M., Esteves, S., Hawkes, F.R., Premier, G.C. and Guwy, A.J. 2010. Influence of catholyte pH and temperature on hydrogen production from acetate using a two chamber concentric tubular microbial electrolysis cell. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. 35 (15), pp. 7716-7722.

Quorum sensing as a method for improving sclerotiorin production in Penicillium sclerotiorum
Raina, S., Odell, M. and Keshavarz, T. 2010. Quorum sensing as a method for improving sclerotiorin production in Penicillium sclerotiorum. Journal of Biotechnology. 148 (2-3), pp. 91-98.

The influence of tetracycline loading on the surface morphology and biocompatibility of films made from P(3HB) microspheres
Francis, L., Meng, D., Locke, I.C., Mordon, N., Salih, V., Knowles, J.C., Boccaccini, A.R. and Roy, I. 2010. The influence of tetracycline loading on the surface morphology and biocompatibility of films made from P(3HB) microspheres. Advanced Engineering Materials. 12 (7), pp. B260-B268.

Fabrication of a novel poly(3-hydroxyoctanoate) / nanoscale bioactive glass composite film with potential as a multifunctional wound dressing
Rai, R., Boccaccini, A.R., Knowles, J.C., Locke, I.C., Gordge, M.P., McCormick, A., Salih, V., Mordon, N., Keshavarz, T. and Roy, I. 2010. Fabrication of a novel poly(3-hydroxyoctanoate) / nanoscale bioactive glass composite film with potential as a multifunctional wound dressing. 5th international conference on times of polymers (TOP) and composites. Ischia, Italy 20–23 June 2010

Polyhydroxyalkanoates: bioplastics with a green agenda
Keshavarz, T. and Roy, I. 2010. Polyhydroxyalkanoates: bioplastics with a green agenda. Current Opinion in Microbiology. 13 (3), pp. 321-326.

Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates: the future green materials of choice
Akaraonye, E., Keshavarz, T. and Roy, I. 2010. Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates: the future green materials of choice. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology. 85 (6), pp. 732-743.

Mechanisms of Urocortin family peptide mediated chondroprotection
White, O.B., Intekhab Alam, N.Y., Chowdrey, H.S., Knight, R.A. and Locke, I.C. 2010. Mechanisms of Urocortin family peptide mediated chondroprotection. OARSI 2010 World Congress on Osteoarthritis. Brussels, Belgium September 23-26, 2010

The effect of indentor shape on the creep curves of collagen gel
Locke, I.C., White, O.B., Trwoga, P. and Afoke, A. 2010. The effect of indentor shape on the creep curves of collagen gel. OARSI 2010 World Congress on Osteoarthritis. Brussels, Belgium September 23-26, 2010

α-MSH and dTRP8-γ-MSH inhibit TNF-α induced MMP 1 and 13 expression in human C20/A4 chondrocytes
Kaneva, M., Locke, I.C., Kerrigan, M.J.P. and Getting, S.J. 2010. α-MSH and dTRP8-γ-MSH inhibit TNF-α induced MMP 1 and 13 expression in human C20/A4 chondrocytes. British Pharmacological Society Winter Meeting 2010. London, UK 14th-16th December 2010

Melanocortin peptides modulate pro-inflammatory mediator release from TNF-a stimulated C-20/A4 cells
Kaneva, M., Kerrigan, M.J.P., Locke, I.C. and Getting, S.J. 2010. Melanocortin peptides modulate pro-inflammatory mediator release from TNF-a stimulated C-20/A4 cells. British Orthopaedic Research Society Annual Meeting. Newcastle upon Tyne 22 - 23 Jun 2009 Wiley. pp. PO136

The MC3 agonist dTRP8-γ-MSH inhibits IL-6 and IL-8 release from TNF-α stimulated C-20/A4 chondrocytes, an effect blocked by the MC3R antagonist SHU9119
Kaneva, M., Kerrigan, M.J.P., Locke, I.C. and Getting, S.J. 2010. The MC3 agonist dTRP8-γ-MSH inhibits IL-6 and IL-8 release from TNF-α stimulated C-20/A4 chondrocytes, an effect blocked by the MC3R antagonist SHU9119. Physiology 2010. University of Manchester 30 June - 2 July 2010

Direct fermentation of fodder maize, chicory fructans and perennial ryegrass to hydrogen using mixed microflora
Kyazze, G., Dinsdale, R.M., Hawkes, F.R., Guwy, A.J., Premier, G.C. and Donnison, I.S. 2009. Direct fermentation of fodder maize, chicory fructans and perennial ryegrass to hydrogen using mixed microflora. Bioresource Technology. 99 (18), pp. 8833-8839.

Melanocortin peptide therapy for the treatment of arthritic pathologies
Getting, S.J., Kaneva, M., Bhadresa, Y., Renshaw, D., Leoni, G., Patel, H.B., Kerrigan, M.J.P. and Locke, I.C. 2009. Melanocortin peptide therapy for the treatment of arthritic pathologies. The Scientific World Journal. 9, pp. 1394-1414.

Microbial quorum sensing: a tool or a target for antimicrobial therapy?
Raina, S., De Vizio, D., Odell, M., Clements, M.O., Vanhulle, S. and Keshavarz, T. 2009. Microbial quorum sensing: a tool or a target for antimicrobial therapy? Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry. 54 (2), pp. 65-84.

Quantitative PCR study on the mode of action of oligosaccharide elicitors on penicillin G production by Penicillium chrysogenum
Nair, R.R., Roy, I., Bucke, C. and Keshavarz, T. 2009. Quantitative PCR study on the mode of action of oligosaccharide elicitors on penicillin G production by Penicillium chrysogenum. Journal of Applied Microbiology. 107 (4), pp. 1131-1139.

Pro-inflammatory mediator release from TNF-α stimulated C-20/A4 cells results in Col II degradation
Kaneva, M., Kerrigan, M.J.P., Locke, I.C. and Getting, S.J. 2009. Pro-inflammatory mediator release from TNF-α stimulated C-20/A4 cells results in Col II degradation. British Orthopaedic Research Society (BORS) Annual Meeting. Newcastle 22nd - 23rd June 2009

Effect of impeller speed and pH on the production of Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) using Bacillus cereus SPV
Philip, S.E., Sengupta, S., Keshavarz, T. and Roy, I. 2009. Effect of impeller speed and pH on the production of Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) using Bacillus cereus SPV. Biomacromolecules. 10 (4), pp. 691-699.

Polyhydroxyalkanoate synthases-enzymes involved in biodegradable polymer synthesis
Roy, I., Philip, S.E. and Keshavarz, T. 2009. Polyhydroxyalkanoate synthases-enzymes involved in biodegradable polymer synthesis. COST Action 868: Biotechnical Functionalisation of Renewable Polymeric Materials : Meeting on "Biotechnology and Biopolymers in Textile, Packaging, Cosmetics and Medical Applications". Istanbul, Turkey 19 - 20 Feb 2009

Microbial PHA biosynthesis and its biomedical applications
Roy, I., Philip, S.E., Francis, L., Rai, R., Keshavarz, T., Misra, S.K., Decheng, M. and Boccaccini, A.R. 2009. Microbial PHA biosynthesis and its biomedical applications. in: Proceedings of Euromat 2009, Glasgow, 7 - 10 September 2009 Euromat.

Melanocortin peptides modulate pro-inflammatory mediator release from TNF-a stimulated C-20/A4 cells
Kaneva, M., Kerrigan, M.J.P., Locke, I.C. and Getting, S.J. 2009. Melanocortin peptides modulate pro-inflammatory mediator release from TNF-a stimulated C-20/A4 cells. pA2 Online. From the Queen Elizabeth II Conference Centre London, Winter 2009 Meeting: Proceedings of the British Pharmacological Society.

Feedstocks for BES conversions
Hawkes, F.R., Kim, J.R., Kyazze, G. and Premier, G.C. 2009. Feedstocks for BES conversions. in: Rabaey, K., Angenent, L., Schroder, U. and Keller, J. (ed.) Bioelectrochemical systems: from extracellular electron transfer to biotechnological application London IWA Publishing.

P(3HB) production by Bacillus cereus SPV using sucrose as a carbon source
Akaraonye, E., Keshavarz, T. and Roy, I. 2009. P(3HB) production by Bacillus cereus SPV using sucrose as a carbon source. in: Kiekens, P., Nierstrasz, V. and Lenting, H.B.M. (ed.) Proceedings of the international conference on textile and polymer biotechnology 6th Het Pand, Ghent, Belgium 23-25 September 2009 Ghent University. Department of Textiles Ghent.

ADM1 can be applied to continuous bio-hydrogen production using a variable stoichiometry approach
Penumathsa, B.K.V., Premier, G.C., Kyazze, G., Dinsdale, R.M., Guwy, A.J., Esteves, S. and Rodríguez, J. 2008. ADM1 can be applied to continuous bio-hydrogen production using a variable stoichiometry approach. Water Research. 42 (16), pp. 4379-4385.

Elicitation effects of oligosaccharides on the transcriptional level of bacitracin ABC transporter genes in Bacillus licheniformis
Murphy, T., Roy, I., Harrop, A., Dixon, K. and Keshavarz, T. 2008. Elicitation effects of oligosaccharides on the transcriptional level of bacitracin ABC transporter genes in Bacillus licheniformis. Biotechnology Letters. 30 (9), pp. 1665-1670.

Dye decolorisation by laccase entrapped in copper alginate
Teerapatsakul, C., Bucke, C., Parra, R., Keshavarz, T. and Chitradon, L. 2008. Dye decolorisation by laccase entrapped in copper alginate. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology. 24 (8), pp. 1367-1374.

Towards higher laccase activities produced by aquatic ascomycetous fungi through combination of elicitors and an alternative substrate
Junghanns, C., Parra, R., Keshavarz, T. and Schlosser, D. 2008. Towards higher laccase activities produced by aquatic ascomycetous fungi through combination of elicitors and an alternative substrate. Engineering in Life Sciences. 8 (3), pp. 277-285.

Microbial biosynthesis of PHAs and its applications
Roy, I., Philip, S.E., Francis, L., Rai, R., Valappil, S.P., Markiv, A., Keshavarz, T., Misra, S.K., Decheng, M. and Boccaccini, A.R. 2008. Microbial biosynthesis of PHAs and its applications. COST Action 868: Biotechnical Functionalisation of Renewable Polymeric Materials: 2008 Annual Workshop (combined Working Group and Management Committee meeting). Varna, Bulgaria 18 -19 Sep 2008

Microbial PHA biosynthesis and its applications
Roy, I., Philip, S.E., Francis, L., Rai, R., Valappil, S.P., Markiv, A., Keshavarz, T., Misra, S.K., Decheng, M. and Boccaccini, A.R. 2008. Microbial PHA biosynthesis and its applications. 11th International Symposium on Biodegradable Polyesters. Massey University in Auckland, New Zealand 23 - 26 Nov 2008

Production of medium chain length polyhydroxyalkanoates using Pseudomonas species
Rai, R., Keshavarz, T. and Roy, I. 2008. Production of medium chain length polyhydroxyalkanoates using Pseudomonas species. 11th International Symposium on Biodegradable Polyesters. Massey University in Auckland, New Zealand 23 - 26 Nov 2008

Polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase in Bacillus cereus SPV, a class IV PHA synthase
Philip, S.E., Odell, M., Keshavarz, T. and Roy, I. 2008. Polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase in Bacillus cereus SPV, a class IV PHA synthase. 11th International Symposium on Biodegradable Polyesters. Massey University in Auckland, New Zealand 23 - 26 Nov 2008

Optimisation studies of multiple elicitor addition in microbial systems: P.Chrysogenum and B.Lichiniformis
Nair, R.R., Murphy, T., Roy, I., Harrop, A., Dixon, K. and Keshavarz, T. 2008. Optimisation studies of multiple elicitor addition in microbial systems: P.Chrysogenum and B.Lichiniformis. in: Marino, G., Bardone, E. and Viglia, A. (ed.) IBIC2008 - 1st International Conference on Industrial Biotechnology AIDIC Servizi S.r.l..

Polyhydroxyalkanoate synthasis using Bacillus cereus SPV
Francis, L., Keshavarz, T. and Roy, I. 2008. Polyhydroxyalkanoate synthasis using Bacillus cereus SPV. COST Action 868: Biotechnical Functionalisation of Renewable Polymeric Materials: 2008 Annual Workshop (combined Working Group and Management Committee meeting). Varna, Bulgaria 18 -19 Sep 2008

Large-scale production and efficient recovery of PHB with desirable material properties, from the newly characterised Bacillus cereus SPV
Valappil, S.P., Misra, S.K., Boccaccini, A.R., Keshavarz, T., Bucke, C. and Roy, I. 2007. Large-scale production and efficient recovery of PHB with desirable material properties, from the newly characterised Bacillus cereus SPV. Journal of Biotechnology. 132 (3), pp. 251-258.

Effect of oligosaccharide elicitors on bacitracin A production and evidence of transcriptional level control
Keshavarz, T., Murphy, T., Roy, I., Harrop, A. and Dixon, K. 2007. Effect of oligosaccharide elicitors on bacitracin A production and evidence of transcriptional level control. Journal of Biotechnology. 131 (4), pp. 397-403.

Performance characteristics of a two stage process producing hydrogen and methane continuously
Kyazze, G. 2007. Performance characteristics of a two stage process producing hydrogen and methane continuously. Biotechnology and Bioengineering. 97 (4), pp. 759-770.

The corticotrophin-releasing factor-like peptide urocortin reverses key deficits in two rodent models of Parkinson's disease
Abuirmeileh, A., Lever, R., Kingsbury, A.E., Lees, A.J., Locke, I.C., Knight, R.A., Chowdrey, H.S., Biggs, C.S. and Whitton, P.S. 2007. The corticotrophin-releasing factor-like peptide urocortin reverses key deficits in two rodent models of Parkinson's disease. European Journal of Neuroscience. 26 (2), pp. 417-423.

Effect of mannan oligosaccharide elicitor and ferulic acid on enhancement of laccases production in liquid cultures of basidiomycetes
Vanhulle, S., Radman, R., Parra, R., Cui, T., Bols, C.M., Tron, T., Sannia, G. and Keshavarz, T. 2007. Effect of mannan oligosaccharide elicitor and ferulic acid on enhancement of laccases production in liquid cultures of basidiomycetes. Enzyme and Microbial Technology. 40 (7), pp. 1712-1718.

Novel application of oligosaccharides as elicitors for the enhancement of bacitracin A production in cultures of Bacillus licheniformis
Murphy, T., Parra, R., Radman, R., Roy, I., Harrop, A., Dixon, K. and Keshavarz, T. 2007. Novel application of oligosaccharides as elicitors for the enhancement of bacitracin A production in cultures of Bacillus licheniformis. Enzyme and Microbial Technology. 40 (6), pp. 1518-1523.

Polyhydroxyalkanoates: biodegradable polymers with a range of applications
Philip, S.E., Keshavarz, T. and Roy, I. 2007. Polyhydroxyalkanoates: biodegradable polymers with a range of applications. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology. 82 (3), pp. 233-247.

Polyhydroxyalkanoates: biodegradable polymers with a range of applications
Philip, S.E., Keshavarz, T. and Roy, I. 2007. Polyhydroxyalkanoates: biodegradable polymers with a range of applications. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology. 82 (3), pp. 233-247.

Interactions between cell surface protein disulphide isomerase and S-nitrosoglutathione during nitric oxide delivery
Shah, C.M., Bell, S.E., Locke, I.C., Chowdrey, H.S. and Gordge, M.P. 2007. Interactions between cell surface protein disulphide isomerase and S-nitrosoglutathione during nitric oxide delivery. Nitric Oxide. 16 (1), pp. 135-142.

The potential for hydrogen-enriched biogas production from crops: scenarios in the UK
Martinez-Perez, N., Cherryman, S.J., Premier, G.C., Dinsdale, R.M., Hawkes, D.L., Hawkes, F.R., Kyazze, G. and Guwy, A.J. 2007. The potential for hydrogen-enriched biogas production from crops: scenarios in the UK. Biomass & Bioenergy. 31 (2-3), pp. 95-104.

Continuous dark fermentative hydrogen production by mesophilic microflora: principles and progress
Hawkes, F.R., Hussy, I., Dinsdale, R.M., Hawkes, D.L. and Kyazze, G. 2007. Continuous dark fermentative hydrogen production by mesophilic microflora: principles and progress. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. 32 (2), pp. 172-184.

Production of Polyhydroxyalkanoates from Bacillus cereus SPV under different nutrient limiting conditions
Rai, R., Padinhara, S.V., Keshavarz, T. and Roy, I. 2007. Production of Polyhydroxyalkanoates from Bacillus cereus SPV under different nutrient limiting conditions. COST Action 868: Biotechnical Functionalisation of Renewable Polymeric Materials: first annual workshop. Graz, Austria 12 - 14 Sep 2007

Production of medium chain length polyhydroxyalkanoates using pseudomonas species UOW0417398
Rai, R., Keshavarz, T. and Roy, I. 2007. Production of medium chain length polyhydroxyalkanoates using pseudomonas species UOW0417398. International Conference on Biodegradable Polymers: their production, characterisation and application. SCI, London 10 Dec 2007

Polyhydroxy-alkanoates - the biodegradable polymers
Philip, S.E., Odell, M., Keshavarz, T. and Roy, I. 2007. Polyhydroxy-alkanoates - the biodegradable polymers. International Conference on Biodegradable Polymers: their production, characterisation and application. SCI, London 10 Dec 2007

Biosynthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoates and their applications
Francis, L., Keshavarz, T. and Roy, I. 2007. Biosynthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoates and their applications. International Conference on Biodegradable Polymers: their production, characterisation and application. SCI, London 10 Dec 2007

Cytotoxicity of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) oil and its major components to human skin cells
Prashar, A., Locke, I.C. and Evans, C.S. 2006. Cytotoxicity of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) oil and its major components to human skin cells. Cell Proliferation. 39 (4), pp. 241-248.

Effects of oligosaccharides and polysaccharides on the generation of reactive oxygen species in different biological systems
Radman, R., Bland, E.J., Sangworachat, N., Bucke, C. and Keshavarz, T. 2006. Effects of oligosaccharides and polysaccharides on the generation of reactive oxygen species in different biological systems. Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry. 44 (3), pp. 129-133.

Influence of substrate concentration on the stability and yield of continuous biohydrogen production
Kyazze, G., Martinez-Perez, N., Dinsdale, R.M., Hawkes, F.R., Hawkes, D.L. and Guwy, A.J. 2006. Influence of substrate concentration on the stability and yield of continuous biohydrogen production. Biotechnology and Bioengineering. 93 (5), pp. 971-979.

Cell immobilization: past, present and future prospects
Keshavarz, T. and Nedovic, V. 2006. Cell immobilization: past, present and future prospects. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology. 81 (4), pp. 483-484.

Specificities of proteases for use in leather manufacture
Foroughi, F., Keshavarz, T. and Evans, C.S. 2006. Specificities of proteases for use in leather manufacture. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology. 81 (3), pp. 257-261.

Comparative studies on the influence of higher basidiomycetes polysaccharide fractions on reactive oxidizing species production
Lakkireddy, G., Keshavarz, T. and Bucke, C. 2006. Comparative studies on the influence of higher basidiomycetes polysaccharide fractions on reactive oxidizing species production. International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms. 8 (2), pp. 135-148.

Biological activity of industrial wood and bark waste from Pinus nigra
Curras Lino, M., Radman, R., Bertaud, F., Nisula, L., Lenon, G., Holbom, B., Locke, I.C., Thompson, S. and Keshavarz, T. 2006. Biological activity of industrial wood and bark waste from Pinus nigra. in: Actual problems of creation of new medicinal preparations of natural origin: the 10th international congress PHYTOPHARM 2006, St.-Petersburg, June 27-30, 2006: proceedings of congress St Petersburg, Russia PHYTOPHARM. pp. 401-403

Polyhydroxyalkanoate synthases: the enzymes involved in biodegradable polymer synthesis
Valappil, S.P., Philip, S.E., Odell, M., Keshavarz, T. and Roy, I. 2005. Polyhydroxyalkanoate synthases: the enzymes involved in biodegradable polymer synthesis. Proceedings of Frontiers in Chemical Biology: Mechanistic Enzymology and Biocatalysis. Exeter, UK 31 Aug - 02 Sep 2005

Large scale production of P(3HB) from newly isolated Bacillus sp.
Valappil, S.P., Keshavarz, T., Bucke, C. and Roy, I. 2005. Large scale production of P(3HB) from newly isolated Bacillus sp. Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Environmental Industrial and Applied Microbiology. Badajoz, Spain 15 - 18 Mar 2005

Interactions between cell surface protein disulphide isomerase and S-nitrosoglutathione during nitric oxide delivery into MEG-01 megakaryocytes
Shah, C.M., Walters, S.E., Locke, I.C., Chowdrey, H.S. and Gordge, M.P. 2005. Interactions between cell surface protein disulphide isomerase and S-nitrosoglutathione during nitric oxide delivery into MEG-01 megakaryocytes. Ireland-UK Platelet Conference 2005. Dublin, Ireland 04-06 Sep 2005

Towards unravelling the elicitation mechanism in cultures of Penicillium chrysogenin: Chrysogenin elicitation
Nair, R.R., Radman, R., Roy, I., Bucke, C. and Keshavarz, T. 2005. Towards unravelling the elicitation mechanism in cultures of Penicillium chrysogenin: Chrysogenin elicitation. in: Pierucci, S. (ed.) 7th Italian Conference on Chemical and Process Engineering: ICheaP 7, May 15-16, 2005, Giardini Di Naxos, Italy Italy Associazione Italiana Di Ingegneria Chimica.

Production of biopharmaceuticals through microbial cell immobilization
Keshavarz, T. 2005. Production of biopharmaceuticals through microbial cell immobilization. in: Nedovic, V. and Willaert, R. (ed.) Applications of cell immobilisation biotechnology Dordrecht, Germany Springer.

Evidence for a neuroprotective role of the CRH-like peptide, urocortin, in the 6-hydroxydopamine treated rat
Biggs, C.S., Locke, I.C., Knight, R.A., Chowdrey, H.S. and Whitton, P.S. 2005. Evidence for a neuroprotective role of the CRH-like peptide, urocortin, in the 6-hydroxydopamine treated rat. 18th National Meeting of the British Neuroscience Association. Brighton, UK 03-06 Apr 2005

Urocortin attenuates key indicators of nigrostriatal pathway destruction in a rat hemiparkinsonian model
Biggs, C.S., Abuirmeileh, A., Locke, I.C., Knight, R.A., Chowdrey, H.S. and Whitton, P.S. 2005. Urocortin attenuates key indicators of nigrostriatal pathway destruction in a rat hemiparkinsonian model. Proceedings of the British Pharmacological Society. 3 (4).

Elicitor effects on Penicillium chrysogenum morphology in submerged cultures
Radman, R., Bucke, C. and Keshavarz, T. 2004. Elicitor effects on Penicillium chrysogenum morphology in submerged cultures. Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry. 40 (3), pp. 229-233.

The influence of small oligosaccharides on the immune system
Bland, E.J., Keshavarz, T. and Bucke, C. 2004. The influence of small oligosaccharides on the immune system. Carbohydrate Research. 339 (10), pp. 1673-1678.

Functional characteristics of the streptococcal deoxyribonuclease 'streptodornase', a protein with DNase activity present in the medicament Varidase
Locke, I.C. and Carpenter, B.G. 2004. Functional characteristics of the streptococcal deoxyribonuclease 'streptodornase', a protein with DNase activity present in the medicament Varidase. Enzyme and Microbial Technology. 35 (1), pp. 67-73.

Cytotoxicity of lavender oil and its major components to human skin cells
Prashar, A., Locke, I.C. and Evans, C.S. 2004. Cytotoxicity of lavender oil and its major components to human skin cells. Cell Proliferation. 37 (3), pp. 221-229.

Viscosity of milk: influence of cluster formation
Kyazze, G. and Starov, V. 2004. Viscosity of milk: influence of cluster formation. Colloid Journal. 66 (3), pp. 316-321.

Cell surface thiol modification by GSNO: a mechanism of nitric oxide delivery?
Shah, C.M., Locke, I.C., Chowdrey, H.S. and Gordge, M.P. 2004. Cell surface thiol modification by GSNO: a mechanism of nitric oxide delivery? 5th UK Nitric Oxide Forum. Edinburgh, UK 12/2004

Protein disulphide isomerase is involved in the delivery of NO from S-nitrosoglutathione into megakaryocytes
Shah, C.M., Locke, I.C., Chowdrey, H.S. and Gordge, M.P. 2004. Protein disulphide isomerase is involved in the delivery of NO from S-nitrosoglutathione into megakaryocytes. 3rd International Conference on the Biology, Chemistry and Therapeutic Applications of Nitric Oxide: 4th Anuual Scientific Meeting of the Nitric Oxide Society of Japan. Nara, Japan 24-28 May 2004

Protein disulphide isomerase is involved in the delivery of NO from S-nitrosoglutathione into megakaryocytes
Shah, C.M., Locke, I.C., Chowdrey, H.S. and Gordge, M.P. 2004. Protein disulphide isomerase is involved in the delivery of NO from S-nitrosoglutathione into megakaryocytes. Japan-UK Platelet Conference. Oxford, UK September 2004

Morphological changes in the submerged cultures of Penicillium chrysogenum: elicitor effects
Radman, R., Bucke, C. and Keshavarz, T. 2004. Morphological changes in the submerged cultures of Penicillium chrysogenum: elicitor effects. in: Pierucci, S. (ed.) 6th Italian Conference on Chemical and Process Engineering: ICheaP 6, June 8-11, 2003, Pisa, Italy Italy Associazione Italiana Di Ingegneria Chimica.

Establishment and analysis of 3-D collagen cultures of C-20/A4 chondrocytes
Petsa, A., Chowdrey, H.S., Knight, R.A., Afoke, A. and Locke, I.C. 2004. Establishment and analysis of 3-D collagen cultures of C-20/A4 chondrocytes. OARSI 2004 World Congress on Osteoarthritis. Chicago USA 12/2004

A CRH family peptide protects a human chondrocyte cell line against apoptosis
Intekhab-Alam, N.Y., Chowdrey, H.S., Knight, R.A., Locke, I.C. and Intekhab Alam, N.Y. 2004. A CRH family peptide protects a human chondrocyte cell line against apoptosis. OARSI 2004 World Congress on Osteoarthritis. Chicago USA 12/2004

Elicitor effects on reactive oxygen species in liquid cultures of Penicillium chrysogenum
Radman, R., Bucke, C. and Keshavarz, T. 2004. Elicitor effects on reactive oxygen species in liquid cultures of Penicillium chrysogenum. Biotechnology Letters. 26 (2), pp. 147-152.

Rapid S-nitrosothiol metabolism by platelets and megakaryocytes
Shah, C.M., Locke, I.C., Chowdrey, H.S. and Gordge, M.P. 2003. Rapid S-nitrosothiol metabolism by platelets and megakaryocytes. Biochemical Society Transactions. 31 (6), pp. 1450-1452.

Elicitation of plants and microbial cell systems
Radman, R., Saez, T., Bucke, C. and Keshavarz, T. 2003. Elicitation of plants and microbial cell systems. Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry. 37 (1), pp. 91-102.

Role of protein disulphide isomerase in NO delivery from S-nitrosothiols into megakaryocytes
Shah, C.M., Locke, I.C., Chowdrey, H.S. and Gordge, M.P. 2003. Role of protein disulphide isomerase in NO delivery from S-nitrosothiols into megakaryocytes. 4th UK Nitric Oxide Forum. University of Nottingham, UK December 2003

Transformation of high concentrations of chlorophenols by the white-rot basidiomycete Trametes versicolor immobilized on nylon mesh
Sedarati, M.R., Keshavarz, T., Leontievsky, A. and Evans, C.S. 2003. Transformation of high concentrations of chlorophenols by the white-rot basidiomycete Trametes versicolor immobilized on nylon mesh. Electronic Journal of Biotechnology. 6 (2), pp. 104-114.

The behaviour of C-20/A4 chondrocytes in 3-D collagen gel cultures
Petsa, A., Afoke, A., Chowdrey, H.S., Knight, R.A., Harris, A. and Locke, I.C. 2003. The behaviour of C-20/A4 chondrocytes in 3-D collagen gel cultures. OARSI 2003 World Congress on Osteoarthritis. Berlin, Germany October 2003

Influence of cluster formation: viscosity of concentrated emulsions
Kyazze, G. and Starov, V. 2003. Influence of cluster formation: viscosity of concentrated emulsions. Applied Rheology. 13 (5), pp. 259-264.

A process comparison between production of antibody fragments in E. coli and in Aspergillus awamori
Keshavarz, T. and Keshavarz-Moore, E. 2003. A process comparison between production of antibody fragments in E. coli and in Aspergillus awamori. in: Pierucci, S. (ed.) 6th Italian Conference on Chemical and Process Engineering: ICheaP 6, June 8-11, 2003, Pisa, Italy Italy Associazione Italiana Di Ingegneria Chimica.

Ion-dependency of the streptococcal deoxyribonuclease "streptodornase", an active constituent of the medicament Varidase
Locke, I.C. and Carpenter, B.G. 2002. Ion-dependency of the streptococcal deoxyribonuclease "streptodornase", an active constituent of the medicament Varidase. Enzyme and Microbial Technology. 31 (4), pp. 482-489.

Effect of essential oils and their components on cell
Prashar, A., Veness, R., Locke, I.C. and Evans, C.S. 2002. Effect of essential oils and their components on cell. Future Trends in Phytochemistry. Gargnano, Italy

Factors affecting the production of a single-chain antibody fragment by Aspergillus awamori in a stirred tank reactor
Sotiriadis, A., Keshavarz, T. and Keshavarz-Moore, E. 2001. Factors affecting the production of a single-chain antibody fragment by Aspergillus awamori in a stirred tank reactor. Biotechnology Progress. 17 (4), pp. 618-623.

Production of lipolytic enzymes in batch cultures of Ophiostoma piceae
Tamerler, C., Martinez, A. and Keshavarz, T. 2001. Production of lipolytic enzymes in batch cultures of Ophiostoma piceae. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology. 76 (9), pp. 991-996.

Effect of mannan and alginate oligosaccharides on production in bioreactors of penicillin G and its biosynthetic intermediates
Tamerler, C., Ariyo, B., Bucke, C. and Keshavarz, T. 2001. Effect of mannan and alginate oligosaccharides on production in bioreactors of penicillin G and its biosynthetic intermediates. Annals of Microbiology. 51 (1), pp. 53-60.

Effect of pH and loading manner on the start-up period of peat biofilter degrading xylene and toluene mixture
Marek, J., Paca, J., Halecky, M., Koutsky, B., Sobotka, M. and Keshavarz, T. 2001. Effect of pH and loading manner on the start-up period of peat biofilter degrading xylene and toluene mixture. Folia Microbiologica. 76 (9), pp. 205-209.

Using 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein-diacetate to assess polysaccharides as immunomodulating agents
Brand, E., Keshavarz, T. and Bucke, C. 2001. Using 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein-diacetate to assess polysaccharides as immunomodulating agents. Molecular Biotechnology. 19 (2), pp. 125-131.

Lipolytic enzyme production in batch and fed-batch cultures of Ophiostoma piceae and Fusarium oxysporum
Tamerler, C. and Keshavarz, T. 2000. Lipolytic enzyme production in batch and fed-batch cultures of Ophiostoma piceae and Fusarium oxysporum. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology. 75 (9), pp. 785-790.

Enhancement of chrysogenin production in cultures of Penicillium chrysogenum by uronic acid oligosaccharides
Asilonu, E., Bucke, C. and Keshavarz, T. 2000. Enhancement of chrysogenin production in cultures of Penicillium chrysogenum by uronic acid oligosaccharides. Biotechnology Letters. 22 (11), pp. 931-936.

Varidase: the science behind the medicament
Rutter, P.M., Carpenter, B.G., Hill, S.S. and Locke, I.C. 2000. Varidase: the science behind the medicament. Journal of Wound Care. 9 (5), pp. 223-226.

A comparison of the characteristics of circulating anti-myeloperoxidase antibodies in vasculitis with those in non-vasculitic conditions
Locke, I.C., Leaker, B. and Cambridge, G. 1999. A comparison of the characteristics of circulating anti-myeloperoxidase antibodies in vasculitis with those in non-vasculitic conditions. Clinical and Experimental Immunology. 115 (2), pp. 369-376.

A comparison of the variable region genes of two human monoclonal antibodies to myeloperoxidase
Locke, I.C., Rahman, M.A.A. and Cambridge, G. 1998. A comparison of the variable region genes of two human monoclonal antibodies to myeloperoxidase. British Society for Immunology 6th Annual Meeting. Harrogate, UK 12/1998

Adjacent proline residues in the inhibitory domain of the Oct-2 transcription factor play distinct functional roles
Liu, Y.Z., Lee, I.K., Locke, I.C., Dawson, S. and Latchman, D. 1998. Adjacent proline residues in the inhibitory domain of the Oct-2 transcription factor play distinct functional roles. Nucleic Acids Research. 26 (10), pp. 2464-2472.

Purification of a streptococcal deoxyribonuclease by affinity chromatography based on a DNA-cellulose matrix
Locke, I.C., Cox, S.F. and Carpenter, B.G. 1997. Purification of a streptococcal deoxyribonuclease by affinity chromatography based on a DNA-cellulose matrix. Journal of Chromatography A. 788 (1-2), pp. 75-80.

Autoantibodies to myeloperoxidase in systemic sclerosis
Locke, I.C., Worral, J.G., Leaker, B., Black, C.M. and Cambridge, G. 1997. Autoantibodies to myeloperoxidase in systemic sclerosis. Journal of Rheumatology. 24 (1), pp. 86-89.

Characteristics of antibodies to myeloperoxidase in vasculitic and non-vasculitic conditions
Locke, I.C., Leaker, B. and Cambridge, G. 1996. Characteristics of antibodies to myeloperoxidase in vasculitic and non-vasculitic conditions. American College of Rheumatology 60th National Scientific Meeting. Orlando, USA 10/1996

Characteristics of anti-myeloperoxidase autoantibodies in vasculitis and other conditions
Locke, I.C., Leaker, B. and Cambridge, G. 1996. Characteristics of anti-myeloperoxidase autoantibodies in vasculitis and other conditions. American Society of Nephrology 29th Annual Meeting. New Orleans, USA 11/1996

Autoantibodies to neutrophil granule proteins: pathogenic potential in vasculitis?
Locke, I.C. and Cambridge, G. 1996. Autoantibodies to neutrophil granule proteins: pathogenic potential in vasculitis? British Journal of Biomedical Science. 53 (4), pp. 302-316.

A human monoclonal anti-myeloperoxidase antibody can prime human neutrophils in vitro
Cambridge, G., Leaker, B., Locke, I.C., Noronha-Dutra, A. and Epperlein, M. 1996. A human monoclonal anti-myeloperoxidase antibody can prime human neutrophils in vitro. American Society of Nephrology 29th Annual Meeting. New Orleans, USA 11/1996

Autoantibodies to myeloperoxidase in systemic sclerosis
Worral, J.G., Locke, I.C., Leaker, B., Black, C.M. and Cambridge, G. 1995. Autoantibodies to myeloperoxidase in systemic sclerosis. British Society for Rheumatology Heberden Round 1995. Keele University, UK 9/1995

Automated analysis of the deoxyribonuclease active constituents of the medicament Varidase ®
Locke, I.C., Ramsay, M.P., Hill, S.S. and Carpenter, B.G. 1993. Automated analysis of the deoxyribonuclease active constituents of the medicament Varidase ®. The Journal of Automatic Chemistry. 15, pp. 65-70.

Automated analysis of the deoxyribonuclease active constituents of the medicament Varidase ®
Locke, I.C., Ramsey, M.P., Hill, S.S. and Carpenter, B.G. 1992. Automated analysis of the deoxyribonuclease active constituents of the medicament Varidase ®. IMLS XX Triennial Conference. Liverpool, UK 9/1992

Purification of the seed lectin from Dolichos biflorus by chromatofocusing
Rogers, D.J., Locke, I.C., Gibbs, R. and Carpenter, B.G. 1990. Purification of the seed lectin from Dolichos biflorus by chromatofocusing. 12th International Lectin Conference. University of Davis, USA 9/1990

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