Understanding suicidality and reasons for living amongst Doctoral Researchers: A thematic analysis of qualitative U‐DOC survey data

Hazell, C.M., Berry, C., Niven, Jeremy E. and Mackenzie, Jay‐Marie 2021. Understanding suicidality and reasons for living amongst Doctoral Researchers: A thematic analysis of qualitative U‐DOC survey data. Counselling and Psychotherapy Research. https://doi.org/10.1002/capr.12437

TitleUnderstanding suicidality and reasons for living amongst Doctoral Researchers: A thematic analysis of qualitative U-DOC survey data
TypeJournal article
AuthorsHazell, C.M.
Berry, C
Niven, J. E
Mackenzie, J.
Abstract

Evidence regarding the mental health of doctoral researchers (DRs) is very limited; that which exists suggests DRs are particularly vulnerable to experiencing mental health difficulties during their PhD. Despite the associated jeopardy, however, to our knowledge there are no data published nor in the grey literature, reporting on suicidality amongst DRs. Using an online survey, we invited UK DRs to complete the Suicide Behaviour Questionnaire-Revised and qualitatively describe their experience of suicidality and its association with their PhD studies. A total of 1,263 DRs provided these data, with 40% of these participants meeting Suicide Behaviour Questionnaire-Revised criteria for being at high risk of suicide. Within the qualitative data, we identified three higher-order themes: (a) lived experience of suicidality; (b) PhD: the good, the bad, the ugly; and (c) life outside the PhD. Our findings suggest that suicidality is a common, yet complex and nuanced, experience amongst doctoral researchers. Identifiable elements of the PhD and personal lives can increase or protect against suicidality. The risk and protective factors identified here require verification using quantitative methods, but still support the immediate need for universities to respond to the risk of suicidality amongst their DRs.

JournalCounselling and Psychotherapy Research
ISSN1473-3145
1746-1405
Year2021
PublisherWiley
British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy
Accepted author manuscript
File Access Level
Open (open metadata and files)
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1002/capr.12437
Publication dates
Published online11 Jul 2021
Published in printSep 2021

Related outputs

Creating a hierarchy of mental health stigma: testing the effect of psychiatric diagnosis on stigma
Hazell, C.M., Berry, C., Bogen-Johnston, L. and Banerjee, M. 2022. Creating a hierarchy of mental health stigma: testing the effect of psychiatric diagnosis on stigma. BJPsych Open. 8 (5) e174. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjo.2022.578

The psychological therapy preferences of patients who hear voices
Berry, C., Baloc, A-I., Fowler, D., Jones, A-M., Hazell, C.M. and Hayward, M. 2022. The psychological therapy preferences of patients who hear voices. Psychosis. Advanced online publication. https://doi.org/10.1080/17522439.2022.2095000

Is it time to change the approach of mental health stigma campaigns? An experimental investigation of the effect of campaign wording on stigma and help-seeking intentions
Hazell, C.M., Fixsen, Alison and Berry, C. 2022. Is it time to change the approach of mental health stigma campaigns? An experimental investigation of the effect of campaign wording on stigma and help-seeking intentions. PLoS ONE. 17 (8) e0273254. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0273254

Pilot evaluation of a brief training video aimed at reducing mental health stigma amongst emergency first responders (the ENHANcE II study)
Hazell, C.M., Fielding-Smith, S., Koc, Y. and Hayward, M. 2022. Pilot evaluation of a brief training video aimed at reducing mental health stigma amongst emergency first responders (the ENHANcE II study). Journal of Mental Health. Advanced online publication. https://doi.org/10.1080/09638237.2022.2069707

The cognitive-phenomenological assessment of delusions and hallucinations at the early intervention in psychosis service stage: The results of a quality improvement project
Isaacson, Maria, Hazell, Cassie M., Cape, John, Hickson, Emily, Islam, Faaizah, Gill, Amber, Simon, Kathleen, Patel, Ruchit, Souray, Jonathan and Raune, David 2022. The cognitive-phenomenological assessment of delusions and hallucinations at the early intervention in psychosis service stage: The results of a quality improvement project. Early Intervention in Psychiatry. Advanced online publication. https://doi.org/10.1111/eip.13283

A Systematic Review of the Effects of Urban Living on Suicidality and Self-Harm in the UK and Ireland
Satherley, R. M., Hazell, C.M., Jones, C. J. and Hanna, P 2022. A Systematic Review of the Effects of Urban Living on Suicidality and Self-Harm in the UK and Ireland. Journal of Urban Health. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11524-022-00611-z

Intervening to prevent suicide at railway locations: findings from a qualitative study with front-line staff and rail commuters.
Katsampa, D., Mackenzie, J., Crivatu, I. and Marzano, L. 2022. Intervening to prevent suicide at railway locations: findings from a qualitative study with front-line staff and rail commuters. BJPsych Open. 8 (2) e62. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjo.2022.27

A cross-sectional study of auditory verbal hallucinations experienced by people with a diagnosis of borderline personality disorder
Hayward M, Jones, A M, Strawson, W H, Quadt, L, Larsson, D E O, Silva, M, Davies, G, Fielding-Smith, S, Hazell, C.M., Critchley, H D and Garfinkel, S N 2022. A cross-sectional study of auditory verbal hallucinations experienced by people with a diagnosis of borderline personality disorder. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy. 29 (2), pp. 631-641. https://doi.org/10.1002/cpp.2655

The Staff Views About Assessing Voices Questionnaire: Piloting a Novel Socratic Method of Evaluating and Training Multidisciplinary Staff's Cognitive Assessment of Patients' Distressing Voices.
Raune, David, Perkins, Sarah, Paradisopoulos, Daphne, Zsofia Bote, Orsoyla, Skacel, Patricia, Souray, Jonathan and Hazell, C. 2022. The Staff Views About Assessing Voices Questionnaire: Piloting a Novel Socratic Method of Evaluating and Training Multidisciplinary Staff's Cognitive Assessment of Patients' Distressing Voices. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy. 35 (1). https://doi.org/10.1891/JCPSY-D-20-00021

Do carers of adolescents at first episode psychosis have distinctive psychological needs? A pilot exploration
McKenna, A., Hazell, C.M., Souray, R., Cai, E., Man, L.C., Brown, L., Floyd, C., Lyons, N., Widuch, K., James, G., Keay, D., Souray, J., Afsharzadegan, R. and Raune, D. 2022. Do carers of adolescents at first episode psychosis have distinctive psychological needs? A pilot exploration. International Journal of Social Psychiatry. 68 (3), pp. 600-609. https://doi.org/10.1177/0020764021992828

First-person accounts of the processes and planning involved in a suicide attempt on the railway.
Marsh, I., Marzano, L., Mosse, David and Mackenzie, Jay-Marie 2021. First-person accounts of the processes and planning involved in a suicide attempt on the railway. BJPsych Open. 7 (1), p. e39 e39. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjo.2020.173

Nationwide assessment of the mental health of UK Doctoral Researchers
Hazell, C.M., Niven, J. E., Chapman, L, Roberts, P. E., Cartwright-Hatton, S, Valeix, S and Berry, C 2021. Nationwide assessment of the mental health of UK Doctoral Researchers. Humanities and Social Sciences Communications. 8 305. https://doi.org/10.1057/s41599-021-00983-8

Personal, social and relational predictors of UK postgraduate researcher mental health problems
Berry, C., Niven J.E. and Hazell, C.M. 2021. Personal, social and relational predictors of UK postgraduate researcher mental health problems. BJPsych Open. 7 (6), p. e205. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjo.2021.1041

Measurement practices in hallucinations research
Smailes, D., Alderson-Day, B., Hazell, C.M., Wright, A. and Moseley, P. 2021. Measurement practices in hallucinations research. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry. 27 (2-3), pp. 183-198. https://doi.org/10.1080/13546805.2021.1999224

Rapport building and witness memory: Actions may ‘speak’ louder than words
Nahouli, Z., Dando, C.J., Mackenzie, J.-M. and Aresti, A. 2021. Rapport building and witness memory: Actions may ‘speak’ louder than words. PLoS ONE. 16 (8) e0256084. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0256084

Understanding suicidality and reasons for living amongst Doctoral Researchers: A thematic analysis of qualitative U-DOC survey data
Hazell, C.M., Berry, C., Niven, J. E. and Mackenzie, J.-M. 2021. Understanding suicidality and reasons for living amongst Doctoral Researchers: A thematic analysis of qualitative U-DOC survey data. Counselling and Psychotherapy Research. 21 (4), pp. 757-767. https://doi.org/10.1002/capr.12437

Increasing access to cognitive–behavioural therapy for patients with psychosis by evaluating the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial of brief, targeted cognitive–behavioural therapy for distressing voices delivered by assistant psychologists: the GiVE2 trial
Hayward, M., Berry, K., Bremner, S., Jones, A., Robertson, S., Cavanagh, K., Gage, H., Berry, C., Neumann, S., Hazell, C.M., Fowler, D., Greenwood, K. and Strauss, C. 2021. Increasing access to cognitive–behavioural therapy for patients with psychosis by evaluating the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial of brief, targeted cognitive–behavioural therapy for distressing voices delivered by assistant psychologists: the GiVE2 trial. BJPsych Open. 7 e152. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjo.2021.983

Enhancing mental health awareness in emergency services (the ENHANcE I project): cross-sectional survey on mental health stigma among emergency services staff
Hazell, C.M., Koc, Y, O'Brien, S, Fielding-Smith, S and Hayward, M 2021. Enhancing mental health awareness in emergency services (the ENHANcE I project): cross-sectional survey on mental health stigma among emergency services staff. BJPsych Open. 7 (3) e77. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjo.2021.37

A mixed-methods investigation of mental health stigma, absenteeism and presenteeism among UK postgraduate researchers
Berry, C., Niven, J.E., Chapman, L., Valeix, S., Roberts, P.E. and Hazell, C.M. 2021. A mixed-methods investigation of mental health stigma, absenteeism and presenteeism among UK postgraduate researchers. Studies in Graduate and Postgraduate Education. 12 (1), pp. 145-170. https://doi.org/10.1108/SGPE-06-2020-0034

Enhancing mental health awareness in emergency services (the ENHANcE I project): cross-sectional survey on mental health stigma among emergency services staff.
Hazell, Cassie M, Koc, Yasin, O'Brien, Sorcha, Fielding-Smith, Sarah and Hayward, M. 2021. Enhancing mental health awareness in emergency services (the ENHANcE I project): cross-sectional survey on mental health stigma among emergency services staff. BJPsych Open. 7 (3), p. e77. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjo.2021.37

Patterns and motivations for method choices in suicidal thoughts and behaviour: Qualitative content analysis of a large online survey
Marzano, L., Katsampa, D., Mackenzie, J.-M., Kruger, I., El-Gharbawi, N., Ffolkes-St-Helene, D., Mohiddin, H. and Fields, B. 2021. Patterns and motivations for method choices in suicidal thoughts and behaviour: Qualitative content analysis of a large online survey. British Journal of Psychiatry. 7 (2) e60. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjo.2021.15

Patient experience of Guided self-help CBT intervention for VoicEs (GiVE) delivered within a pilot randomized controlled trial
Hazell, C.M., Kelly, O., O'Brien, S., Strauss, C., Cavanagh, K. and Hayward, M. 2020. Patient experience of Guided self-help CBT intervention for VoicEs (GiVE) delivered within a pilot randomized controlled trial. Cognitive Behaviour Therapist. 13 e40. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1754470X20000458

Understanding the mental health of doctoral researchers: a mixed methods systematic review with meta-analysis and meta-synthesis.
Hazell, C.M., Chapman, Laura, Valeix, Sophie F, Roberts, Paul, Niven, Jeremy E and Berry, Clio 2020. Understanding the mental health of doctoral researchers: a mixed methods systematic review with meta-analysis and meta-synthesis. Systematic Reviews. 9 (1), p. 197 197. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13643-020-01443-1

Service evaluation of a sole-session psychoeducational intervention to improve caregivers’ key illness beliefs after first episode psychosis (FEP)
Hazell, C. M., Lyons, N, Owumere, J, Schulz, J, Glover, N, Whittaker, S, Chu Man, L, Floyd, C, Brown, L, James, G, Afshardazegan, R, Seneviratne, S, Rahim, S, Souray, J and Raune, D 2020. Service evaluation of a sole-session psychoeducational intervention to improve caregivers’ key illness beliefs after first episode psychosis (FEP). Cognitive Behaviour Therapist. 13 carers. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1754470X20000264

Is the content of patient’s written emotional disclosure associated with improved health outcomes for asthma patients?
Hazell, C. M., Jones, J. C., McLachlan, E. M. and Smith, H. E. 2020. Is the content of patient’s written emotional disclosure associated with improved health outcomes for asthma patients? Health Psychology Update. 29 (2), pp. 31-42.

Nursing assistants’ experiences of administering manual restraint for compulsory nasogastric feeding of young persons with anorexia nervosa
Kodua, M., Mackenzie, J.-M. and Smyth, N. 2020. Nursing assistants’ experiences of administering manual restraint for compulsory nasogastric feeding of young persons with anorexia nervosa. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing. 29 (6), pp. 1181-1191. https://doi.org/10.1111/inm.12758

Nursing assistants’ experiences of administering manual restraint for compulsory nasogastric feeding of young persons with anorexia nervosa
Kodua, M., Mackenzie, J.-M. and Smyth, N. 2020. Nursing assistants’ experiences of administering manual restraint for compulsory nasogastric feeding of young persons with anorexia nervosa. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing. 29 (6), pp. 1181-1191. https://doi.org/10.1111/inm.12758

Hanging in the balance: Conceptualising doctoral researcher mental health as a dynamic balance across key tensions characterising the PhD experience
Berry, C, Valeix, S, Niven, J.E., Chapman, L., Roberts, P.E. and Hazell, C.M. 2020. Hanging in the balance: Conceptualising doctoral researcher mental health as a dynamic balance across key tensions characterising the PhD experience. International Journal of Educational Research. 102, p. 101575 101575. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijer.2020.101575

Demographic predictors of wellbeing in Carers of people with psychosis: secondary analysis of trial data
Hazell, C.M., Hayward, M., Lobban, F., Pandey, A., Pinfold, V., Smith, H.E. and Jones, C.J. 2020. Demographic predictors of wellbeing in Carers of people with psychosis: secondary analysis of trial data. BMC Psychiatry. 20 269. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-020-02691-0

Helping parents to help children overcome fear: The influence of a short video tutorial
Ewing, D., Pike, A., Dash, S., Hughes, Z., Thompson, E.J., Hazell, C., Ang, C.M., Kucuk, N., Laine, A. and Cartwright‐Hatton, S. 2020. Helping parents to help children overcome fear: The influence of a short video tutorial. British Journal of Clinical Psychology. 59 (1), pp. 80-95. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjc.12233

The Blurred Line between Physical Ageing and Mental Health in Older Adults: Implications for the Measurement of Depression
Hazell, C., Smith, Helen E and Jones, C. 2019. The Blurred Line between Physical Ageing and Mental Health in Older Adults: Implications for the Measurement of Depression. Clinical Medicine Insights: Psychiatry. 10. https://doi.org/10.1177/1179557319885634

Barriers to recruiting and retaining psychosis carers: a case study on the lessons learned from the Caring for Caregivers (C4C) trial
Hazell, C.M., Jones, C.J., Pandey, A and Smith, H.E 2019. Barriers to recruiting and retaining psychosis carers: a case study on the lessons learned from the Caring for Caregivers (C4C) trial. BMC Research Notes. 12, p. 810 810. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13104-019-4832-9

Factors deterring and prompting the decision to attempt suicide on the railway networks: findings from 353 online surveys and 34 semi-structured interviews
Marzano, L., Mackenzie, J.-M., Kruger, I., Borrill, J. and Fields, B. 2019. Factors deterring and prompting the decision to attempt suicide on the railway networks: findings from 353 online surveys and 34 semi-structured interviews. British Journal of Psychiatry. 215 (4), pp. 582-587. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.2018.303

Preventing Family Transmission of Anxiety: Feasibility RCT of a Brief Intervention for Parents
Cartwright-Hatton, S., Ewing, D.L., Dash, S., Hughes, Z., Thompson, E.J., Hazell, C.M., Field, A.P. and Startup, H.M. 2018. Preventing Family Transmission of Anxiety: Feasibility RCT of a Brief Intervention for Parents. British Journal of Clinical Psychology. 57 (3), pp. 351-366. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjc.12177

Understanding the Barriers to Accessing Symptom-Specific Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) for Distressing Voices: Reflecting on and Extending the Lessons Learnt From the CBT for Psychosis Literature
Hazell, C.M., Greenwood, K., Fielding-Smith, S., Rammou, A., Bogen-Johnston, L., Berry, C., Jones, A. and Hayward, M. 2018. Understanding the Barriers to Accessing Symptom-Specific Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) for Distressing Voices: Reflecting on and Extending the Lessons Learnt From the CBT for Psychosis Literature. Frontiers in Psychology. 9 727. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00727

Guided self-help cognitive- behaviour Intervention for VoicEs (GiVE): Results from a pilot randomised controlled trial in a transdiagnostic sample
Hazell, C.M., Hayward, M., Cavanagh, K., Jones, A. and Strauss, C. 2018. Guided self-help cognitive- behaviour Intervention for VoicEs (GiVE): Results from a pilot randomised controlled trial in a transdiagnostic sample. Schizophrenia Research. 195, pp. 441-447. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2017.10.004

An Introduction to Self-help for Distressing Voices
Hazell, C.M., Hayward, M., Strauss, C. and Kingdon, D. 2018. An Introduction to Self-help for Distressing Voices. London Little Brown Book Group.

Health inequalities and health equity challenges for victims of modern slavery
Dando, C.J., Brierley, Robin, Saunders, Karen and Mackenzie, J.-M. 2018. Health inequalities and health equity challenges for victims of modern slavery. Journal of Public Health. 41 (4), pp. 681-688. https://doi.org/10.1093/pubmed/fdy187

Behaviours preceding suicides at railway and underground locations: a multimethodological qualitative approach
Mackenzie, J.-M., Borrill, J., Hawkins, E., Fields, B., Kruger, I., Noonan, I. and Marzano, L. 2018. Behaviours preceding suicides at railway and underground locations: a multimethodological qualitative approach. BMJ Open. 8 (4) e021076. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2017-021076

Exploring suicidal behaviours by probation clients—a qualitative near-lethal study
Mackenzie, J.-M., Borrill, J. and Cartwright, T. 2018. Exploring suicidal behaviours by probation clients—a qualitative near-lethal study. The Journal of Public Health. 40 (1), pp. 146-153. https://doi.org/10.1093/pubmed/fdx005

Caring for Caregivers (C4C): study protocol for a pilot feasibility randomised control trial of Positive Written Disclosure for older adult caregivers of people with psychosis
Hazell, C.M., Jones, C.J., Hayward, M., Bremner, S.A., O'Connor, D.B., Pinfold, V. and Smith, H.E. 2017. Caring for Caregivers (C4C): study protocol for a pilot feasibility randomised control trial of Positive Written Disclosure for older adult caregivers of people with psychosis. Pilot and Feasibility Studies. 3, p. 63. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40814-017-0206-z

Barriers to disseminating brief CBT for voices from a lived experience and clinician perspective
Hazell, C.M., Strauss, C., Cavanagh, K. and Hayward, M. 2017. Barriers to disseminating brief CBT for voices from a lived experience and clinician perspective. PLoS ONE. 12 (6) e0178715. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0178715

Understanding clinician attitudes towards implementation of guided self-help cognitive behaviour therapy for those who hear distressing voices: using factor analysis to test normalisation process theory
Hazell, C.M., Strauss, C., Hayward, M. and Cavanagh, K. 2017. Understanding clinician attitudes towards implementation of guided self-help cognitive behaviour therapy for those who hear distressing voices: using factor analysis to test normalisation process theory. BMC Health Services Research. 17, p. 507 507. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-017-2449-z

How to help offenders on probation who are at high risk of suicide
Mackenzie, J.-M. 2017. How to help offenders on probation who are at high risk of suicide. The Conversation.

A systematic review and meta- analysis of low intensity CBT for psychosis
Hazell, C.M., Hayward, M., Cavanagh, K. and Strauss, C. 2016. A systematic review and meta- analysis of low intensity CBT for psychosis. Clinical Psychology Review. 45, pp. 183-192. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2016.03.004

Guided self-help cognitive behavioural intervention for VoicEs (GiVE): study protocol for a pilot randomized controlled trial
Hazell, C.M., Hayward, M., Cavanagh, K., Jones, A.M. and Strauss, C. 2016. Guided self-help cognitive behavioural intervention for VoicEs (GiVE): study protocol for a pilot randomized controlled trial. Trials. 17, p. 351 351. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13063-016-1494-y

No Significant Evidence of Cognitive Biases for Emotional Stimuli in Children At-Risk of Developing Anxiety Disorders.
Ewing, D.L., Dash, S., Thompson, E.J., Hazell, C.M., Hughes, Z., Lester, K.J. and Cartwright-Hatton, S. 2016. No Significant Evidence of Cognitive Biases for Emotional Stimuli in Children At-Risk of Developing Anxiety Disorders. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. 44 (7), pp. 1243-1252. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-015-0122-8

Probation staff experiences of managing suicidal and self-harming service users
Mackenzie, J.-M., Cartwright, T., Beck, A. and Borrill, J. 2015. Probation staff experiences of managing suicidal and self-harming service users. Probation Journal. 62 (2), pp. 111-127. https://doi.org/10.1177/0264550515571396

Using Survivor Accounts to Understand Suicidal Behaviour by Offenders in Community Settings
Mackenzie, J.-M. 2013. Using Survivor Accounts to Understand Suicidal Behaviour by Offenders in Community Settings. World Congress of the International Association of Suicide Prevention. Oslo, Norway 24 - 28 Sep 2013

Researching suicide, attempted suicide and near-lethal self-harm by offenders in community settings: Challenges for future research
Mackenzie, J.-M., Borrill, J. and Dewart, H. 2013. Researching suicide, attempted suicide and near-lethal self-harm by offenders in community settings: Challenges for future research. International Journal of Forensic Mental Health. 12 (1), pp. 26-32. https://doi.org/10.1080/14999013.2012.760184

Researching suicide, attempted suicide and near-lethal self-harm by offenders in community settings: challenges for future research
Mackenzie, J.-M., Borrill, J. and Dewart, H. 2013. Researching suicide, attempted suicide and near-lethal self-harm by offenders in community settings: challenges for future research. International Journal of Forensic Mental Health. 12 (1), pp. 26-32. https://doi.org/10.1080/14999013.2012.760184

Near Miss Suicide of Offenders Doing Community Sentences
Mackenzie, J.-M. 2011. Near Miss Suicide of Offenders Doing Community Sentences. 11th Annual international Association of Forensic Mental Health Services Conference. Barcelona 29 Jun - 01 Jul 2011

Near-miss suicides in offenders doing community sentences
Mackenzie, J.-M. and Borrill, J. 2011. Near-miss suicides in offenders doing community sentences. International Association of Forensic Mental Health Services Conference. Barcelona 29 Jun - 01 Jul 2011

Permalink - https://westminsterresearch.westminster.ac.uk/item/v6796/understanding-suicidality-and-reasons-for-living-amongst-doctoral-researchers-a-thematic-analysis-of-qualitative-u-doc-survey-data


Share this

Usage statistics

77 total views
281 total downloads
These values cover views and downloads from WestminsterResearch and are for the period from September 2nd 2018, when this repository was created.