Effect of age and pregnancy on the expression of melanocortin receptors 4 and 5 in the mouse female reproductive axis

Smith, C.L., Nuri A. Berruien, N., Murray, J.F. and Le Tissier, P.R. 2016. Effect of age and pregnancy on the expression of melanocortin receptors 4 and 5 in the mouse female reproductive axis. BPS Pharmacology 2016. London, UK 12 - 14 Dec 2016 British Pharmacological Society.

TitleEffect of age and pregnancy on the expression of melanocortin receptors 4 and 5 in the mouse female reproductive axis
AuthorsSmith, C.L., Nuri A. Berruien, N., Murray, J.F. and Le Tissier, P.R.
TypeConference poster
Abstract

Introduction: There are five melanocortin receptors (MC1-5): these are G-protein-coupled receptors expressed in the central nervous system and in peripheral tissues. MC4 and MC5 have roles in controlling appetite, immuno-modulation, exocrine function, erectile dysfunction and grooming behaviour1. The melanocortin receptor accessory proteins (MRAP1 and 2) influence MC receptor transport. Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) is the precursor for the alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormones and adrenocorticotrophic hormone, which bind to MC4 and MC5 receptors1.
Aims: 1. To characterise MC4, MC5 and MRAP1 distribution in the reproductive tissues of female mice (hypothalamus, pituitary gland, uterus and ovary). 2. To investigate if MC4, MC5 and MRAP1 expression changes with age or pregnancy.
Method: Virgin C57BL/6 female mice aged 2, 6, 9, 10 and 14 weeks and pregnant (aged 9 weeks plus 13 days post coitus) were sacrificed by schedule 1. Tissue RNA was extracted by TRIzol/RNA cleanup (Qiagen) and cDNA synthesised using SuperScript II reverse transcriptase (Thermoscientific). Appropriate reference genes were determined using GeNorm selection kit and software (Primerdesign; Biogazelle respectively). The following genes were the most stable and used in SYBRgreen RTqPCR according to precisionPLUS master mix protocol (Primerdesign for normalisation2 of MC4, MC5 and MRAP1 expression: Qiagen primers).
Tissue Reference gene 1 Reference gene 2
Hypothalamus YWHAZ CANX
Pituitary gland EIF4A2 CANX
Ovary GAPDH ATP5B
Uterus CYC1 RPL13A

Results: MC4 and MC5 were expressed in the hypothalamus, pituitary, ovary and uterus. MC4 and MC5 expression was higher in 2 week old mice in the hypothalamus (n=3, p=0.0056 and <0.0001) and uterus (n=3, p=0.0119 and <0.0001, respectively) compared to all other age groups using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s post-hoc test. Pregnancy did not affect either MC4 or MC5 expression. MRAP1 was expressed in the hypothalamus, ovary and pituitary and was unaffected by age. MRAP1 expression was greater in the ovary and decreased in the hypothalamus of pregnant compared to non-pregnant mice (n=3, p=0.0004).
Conclusion:
The role of the two MC in the development of the hypothalamus and uterus in young mice requires further investigation. The changes in MRAP1 expression with pregnancy could result in changes in the signalling ability of both MC4 and MC5 since MRAP1 has been shown to alter cAMP production resulting from activation of these two receptors in vitro3.

References:
1. Gantz I. and Fong TM. (2003). Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 284, E468-E474
2. Vandesompele J. (2002). Genome Biology 3,–research0034.11
3. Chan et al., (2009). PNAS. 106, 6146–6151

KeywordsMelanocortin
Female
Reproduction
Melanocortin receptor
Year2016
ConferenceBPS Pharmacology 2016
PublisherBritish Pharmacological Society
Publication dates
Completed14 Dec 2016
Web address (URL)https://www.bps.ac.uk/BPSMemberPortal/media/BPSWebsite/Assets/Pharmacology-2016-programme-book.pdf

Related outputs

Evaluating the benefits of virtual training for students
Coleman, S.K. and Smith, C.L. 2018. Evaluating the benefits of virtual training for students. Westminster Learning and Teaching Symposium. London, UK 26 Jun 2018

Employer and part-time student perceptions of virtual laboratory teaching and assessment resources
Smith, C.L., Ferrier, C. and Coleman, S.K. 2018. Employer and part-time student perceptions of virtual laboratory teaching and assessment resources. Creating Relevant Learning Experiences; employers ’ involvement with higher education. Leuven, Belgium 14 - 15 Jun 2018

Using virtual reality laboratories to improve engagement and understanding for wet laboratory practical sessions
Coleman, S.K., Smith, C.L. and Ferrier, C. 2018. Using virtual reality laboratories to improve engagement and understanding for wet laboratory practical sessions. Society for Experimental Biology: Masters of Biology. Florence, Italy 03 - 06 Jul 2018

Analysis of the melanocortin system in the regulation of pituitary gland function in mice
Le Tissier, P., Smith, C.L., Nuri A. Berruien, N. and Murray, J.F. 2018. Analysis of the melanocortin system in the regulation of pituitary gland function in mice. International Congress of Neuroendocinology. Toronto, Canada 15 - 18 Jul 2018

Evaluating the benefits of virtual training for bioscience students
Smith, C.L. and Coleman, S.K. 2018. Evaluating the benefits of virtual training for bioscience students. Annual STEM Conference 2018 Creativity in Teaching, Learning and Student Engagement. Newcastle-upon-Tyne 31 Jan - 01 Feb 2018 Higher Education Academy.

Using virtual reality to prepare Bioscience students for practical classes
Coleman, S.K., Volpi, E. and Smith, C.L. 2017. Using virtual reality to prepare Bioscience students for practical classes. 16th Westminster Symposium Innovate!. University of Westminster, London 22 - 22 Jun 2017

Increasing accessibility of students to laboratory classes through the use of Virtual laboratory simulations
Smith, C.L. and Coleman, S.K. 2017. Increasing accessibility of students to laboratory classes through the use of Virtual laboratory simulations . UALL Work and Learning Network Annual Conference 2017 - Leading the Way: Shaping Practice in the Workplace and the Academy.. Middlesex University 23 - 23 Jun 2017

Using Labster to improve Bioscience student learning and engagement in practical classes
Smith, C.L. and Coleman, S.K. 2017. Using Labster to improve Bioscience student learning and engagement in practical classes. Heads of Biological Sciences, Royal Society of Biology. Spring 2017 meeting.. University of Leicester 10 - 11 May 2017

In silico and in vitro approaches to develop Dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase-1 inhibitors
Smith, C.L., Zloh, M. and Rossiter, S. 2017. In silico and in vitro approaches to develop Dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase-1 inhibitors. Kendall, D. (ed.) In silico and in vitro methods in modern drug discovery. University of Nottingham 24 - 25 Apr 2017 British Pharmacological Society.

Melanin-concentrating hormone in peripheral circulation in the human
Naufahu, J., Alzaid, F., Fiuza Brito, M., Doslikova, B., Valencia, T. and Murray, J.F. 2017. Melanin-concentrating hormone in peripheral circulation in the human. Journal of Endocrinology. 232, pp. 513-523.

Next generation e-learning platform: virtual laboratory simulations
Smith, C.L. and Markiv, A. 2016. Next generation e-learning platform: virtual laboratory simulations. Heads of Biological Sciences, Royal Society of Biology, Spring 2016. University of Leicester 04 - 05 May 2016

An investigation into the impact of peer- and self-marking in a first year biochemistry module
Smith, C.L. 2016. An investigation into the impact of peer- and self-marking in a first year biochemistry module. Inspire to succeed: Transforming teaching and learning in STEM. East Midlands Conference Centre, Nottingham on 28 and 29 January 2016 28 Jan 2016

Curriculum and beyond: Mathematics support for first year life science students
Bailey, I., Ferrier, C. and Smith, C.L. 2015. Curriculum and beyond: Mathematics support for first year life science students. CETL-MSOR Conference 2015. University of Greenwich 08 Sep 2015 The Sigma Network.

Inhibition of thiol isomerase activity diminishes endothelial activation of plasminogen, but not of protein C
Smith, C.L., Shah, C.M., Kamaludin, N. and Gordge, M.P. 2015. Inhibition of thiol isomerase activity diminishes endothelial activation of plasminogen, but not of protein C. Thrombosis Research. 135 (4), p. 748–753.

Anatomy, embryology, and cell families
Locke, I.C. and Murray, J.F. 2014. Anatomy, embryology, and cell families. in: Orchard, G. and Nation, B. (ed.) Cell Structure & Function Oxford, UK Oxford University Press. pp. 82-110

The melanocortin system in the male reproductive axis
Dowejko, M.M., Smith, C.L., Getting, S.J., Le Tissier, P. and Murray, J.F. 2014. The melanocortin system in the male reproductive axis. Endocrine Abstracts. 34, p. P338.

Melanocortin receptor expression in the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal system of WT and MC3 null mice
Dowejko, M.M., Smith, C.L., Getting, S.J., Le Tissier, P. and Murray, J.F. 2014. Melanocortin receptor expression in the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal system of WT and MC3 null mice. International Congress of Neuroendocrinology 2014. Sydney 17-20 August 2014

Melanocortin 3 receptors (MC3) exert anti-inflammatory effects in mouse testicular inflammation by reducing nitric oxide (NO) release from Leydig cells
Dowejko, M.M., Smith, C.L., Getting, S.J., Le Tissier, P. and Murray, J.F. 2014. Melanocortin 3 receptors (MC3) exert anti-inflammatory effects in mouse testicular inflammation by reducing nitric oxide (NO) release from Leydig cells. Society for Reproduction and Fertility Conference. EICC2, Edinburgh 1-2 September 2014

An investigation of the protective effect of alpha+-thalassaemia against severe Plasmodium falciparum amongst children in Kumasi, Ghana
Opoku-Okrah, C., Gordge, M.P., Kweku Nakua, E., Abgenyega, T., Parry, M., Robertson, C.E. and Smith, C.L. 2014. An investigation of the protective effect of alpha+-thalassaemia against severe Plasmodium falciparum amongst children in Kumasi, Ghana. International Journal of Laboratory Haematology. 36 (1), pp. 62-70.

The roles of melanin-concentrating hormone in energy balance and reproductive function: are they connected?
Naufahu, J., Cunliffe, A. and Murray, J.F. 2013. The roles of melanin-concentrating hormone in energy balance and reproductive function: are they connected? Reproduction. 146, pp. R141-R150.

Novel Poly(3-hydroxyoctanoate)/Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) blends for medical applications
Basnett, P., Ching, K.Y., Stolz, M., Knowles, J.C., Boccaccini, A.R., Smith, C.L., Locke, I.C., Keshavarz, T. and Roy, I. 2013. Novel Poly(3-hydroxyoctanoate)/Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) blends for medical applications. Reactive and Functional Polymers. 73 (10), pp. 1340-1348.

Aspirin-loaded P(3HO)/P(3HB) blend films: potential materials for biodegradable drug-eluting stents
Basnett, P., Ching, K.Y., Stolz, M., Knowles, J.C., Boccaccini, A.R., Smith, C.L., Locke, I.C. and Roy, I. 2013. Aspirin-loaded P(3HO)/P(3HB) blend films: potential materials for biodegradable drug-eluting stents. Bioinspired, Biomimetic and Nanobiomaterials. 2 (3), pp. 141-153.

The role of cancer stem cells in osteosarcoma
Jenks, A., Smith, C.L., Patel, V. and Clements, M.O. 2013. The role of cancer stem cells in osteosarcoma. International society for stem cell research conference. Boston (Massachusetts, USA) June 12 – 15 2013

Melanocortin 3 receptor (MC3) activation effects on testicular testosterone and nitrite production in vitro
Dowejko, M.M., Smith, C.L., Getting, S.J., Le Tissier, P. and Murray, J.F. 2013. Melanocortin 3 receptor (MC3) activation effects on testicular testosterone and nitrite production in vitro. Society for Reproduction and Fertility (SRF) Annual Conference. Cambridge 11th July 2013

Recovery of DNA from coloured fabrics: a study into the effects of clothing dye contamination on the recovery and amplification of DNA
Bux, U., Mubarakku, S., Bennett-Cadette, C. and Smith, C.L. 2013. Recovery of DNA from coloured fabrics: a study into the effects of clothing dye contamination on the recovery and amplification of DNA. 9th National FORREST Conference 2013 (FORensic RESearch and Teaching). Anglia Ruskin University 25-26th June 2013

Expression of melanocortin 3 receptors (MC3) in the reproductive axes of both male and female mice
Dowejko, M.M., Smith, C.L., Getting, S.J., Le Tissier, P. and Murray, J.F. 2012. Expression of melanocortin 3 receptors (MC3) in the reproductive axes of both male and female mice. Society for Reproduction and Fertility. Edinburgh 9th - 11th July 2012

Novel biodegradable and biocompatible poly(3-hydroxyoctanoate)/bacterial cellulose composites
Basnett, P., Knowles, J.C., Pishbin, F., Smith, C.L., Keshavarz, T., Boccaccini, A.R. and Roy, I. 2012. Novel biodegradable and biocompatible poly(3-hydroxyoctanoate)/bacterial cellulose composites. Advanced Engineering Materials. 14 (6), pp. B330-B343.

Alpha thalassaemia and the severity of Plasmodium falciparum infection in microcytic children from the Ashanti region of Ghana
Opoku-Okrah, C., Smith, C.L., Gordge, M.P., Parry, M., Robertson, C.E., Abgenyega, T. and Nakua, E. 2012. Alpha thalassaemia and the severity of Plasmodium falciparum infection in microcytic children from the Ashanti region of Ghana. British Society for Haematology 52nd meeting. Glasgow 16-18 April 2012

A comparison of novel NG, NG-disubstituted arginines on recombinant dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase-1 activity and nitrite production in RAW264.7 macrophages
Morfill, C., Rossiter, S. and Smith, C.L. 2012. A comparison of novel NG, NG-disubstituted arginines on recombinant dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase-1 activity and nitrite production in RAW264.7 macrophages. Proceedings of the British Pharmacological Society. 10 (4).

Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA): bacterial cellulose composites for biomedical applications
Basnett, P., Smith, C.L., Boccaccini, A.R., Knowles, J.C., Keshavarz, T. and Roy, I. 2011. Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA): bacterial cellulose composites for biomedical applications. European Society of Biomaterials. Dublin, Ireland Sept 2011

Immunohistochemical assessment of intrinsic and extrinsic markers of hypoxia in reproductive tissue: differential expression of HIF1α and HIF2α in rat oviduct and endometrium
Gillies, R.M., Robinson, S.P., McPhail, L.D., Carter, N.D. and Murray, J.F. 2011. Immunohistochemical assessment of intrinsic and extrinsic markers of hypoxia in reproductive tissue: differential expression of HIF1α and HIF2α in rat oviduct and endometrium. Journal of Molecular Histology. 42 (4), pp. 341-354.

Influence of estrogens on GH-cell network dynamics in females: a live in situ imaging approach
Schaeffer, M., Hodson, D.J., Meunier, A.C., Lafont, C., Birkenstock, J., Carmignac, D., Murray, J.F., Gavois, E., Robinson, I.C., Le Tissier, P. and Mollard, P. 2011. Influence of estrogens on GH-cell network dynamics in females: a live in situ imaging approach. Endocrinology. 152 (12), pp. 4789-4799.

Synchronization of the sheep oestrous cycle
Murray, J.F. 2011. Synchronization of the sheep oestrous cycle. Animal Technology and Welfare. 10, pp. 205-208.

Total pituitary hormone content in wild type and MC3 null male and female mice
Dowejko, M.M., Smith, C.L., Getting, S.J., Perretti, M., Le Tissier, P. and Murray, J.F. 2011. Total pituitary hormone content in wild type and MC3 null male and female mice. British Society for Neuroendocrinology. Cambridge 3rd - 5th July 2011

Comparison between the total pituitary hormone content in wild type and melanocortin 3 receptor (MC3) null male and female mice
Dowejko, M.M., Smith, C.L., Getting, S.J., Perretti, M., Le Tissier, P. and Murray, J.F. 2011. Comparison between the total pituitary hormone content in wild type and melanocortin 3 receptor (MC3) null male and female mice. Society for Reproduction and Fertility. Brighton 11th - 13th July 2011

Do soup preloads reduce total calorific intake in overweight and obese subjects outside the laboratory? A pilot study
Bailey, J. and Murray, J.F. 2011. Do soup preloads reduce total calorific intake in overweight and obese subjects outside the laboratory? A pilot study. International Journal of Food, Nutrition and Public Health. 4 (2), pp. 147-166.

Activation of testicular melanocortin 3 receptors (MC3-R) inhibits LH-stimulated testosterone production
Akindele, K., Horanin, M.M., Getting, S.J., Smith, C.L. and Murray, J.F. 2010. Activation of testicular melanocortin 3 receptors (MC3-R) inhibits LH-stimulated testosterone production. Society for Endocrinology BES 2010. Manchester 15th - 18th March 2010

Circulating melanin concentrating hormone (MCH) concentrations in the menstrual cycle
Naufahu, J., Cunliffe, A. and Murray, J.F. 2010. Circulating melanin concentrating hormone (MCH) concentrations in the menstrual cycle. Society for Reproduction and Fertility. Sutton Bonnington 11th - 13th July 2010

Expression of endogenous and exogenous hypoxic markers in sheep preovulatory antral follicles
Murray, J.F., Gillies, R.M., Carter, N.D. and Robinson, S.P. 2010. Expression of endogenous and exogenous hypoxic markers in sheep preovulatory antral follicles. Society for Reproduction and Fertility. Sutton Bonnington 11th - 13th July 2010

Testicular LH-stimulated testosterone production is inhibited by activation of melanocortin 3 receptors (MC3)
Akindele, K., Horanin, M.M., Getting, S.J., Smith, C.L. and Murray, J.F. 2010. Testicular LH-stimulated testosterone production is inhibited by activation of melanocortin 3 receptors (MC3). Society for Reproduction and Fertility. Sutton Bonnington 11th - 13th July 2010

Utilising mitochondrial DNA markers to identify insects for forensic applications: an investigation into how the preservation and storage of insect tissue can affect mtDNA yield
Thompson, A., Tinworth, L. and Smith, C.L. 2009. Utilising mitochondrial DNA markers to identify insects for forensic applications: an investigation into how the preservation and storage of insect tissue can affect mtDNA yield. in: Proceedings of the 5th National FORREST Conference 2009 (FORensic RESearch and Teaching), 30th June – 1st July 2009, Liverpool John Moores University Forensic Institute Research Network and The Higher Education Academy Physical Sciences Centre. pp. 45

The antrums of ovine ovarian preovulatory follicles are severely hypoxic
Murray, J.F., Gillies, R.M., Carter, N.D. and Robinson, S.P. 2009. The antrums of ovine ovarian preovulatory follicles are severely hypoxic. Proceedings of the Society For Reproduction and Fertility Annual Conference. Oxford 12-14 July 2009 pp. 38

Identification of a sub-population of pituitary lactotroph cells in mice required for the normal luteotrophic function of prolactin
Jaubert, A., Fernadez-Fuente, M., Carmignac, D., Murray, J.F., Christain, H. and Le Tissier, P. 2009. Identification of a sub-population of pituitary lactotroph cells in mice required for the normal luteotrophic function of prolactin. ENDO2009. Washington 10-13 June 2009

Molecular characterization of the melanocortin 3 receptor in the testes of mice
Horanin, M.M., Akindele, K., Getting, S.J., Smith, C.L. and Murray, J.F. 2009. Molecular characterization of the melanocortin 3 receptor in the testes of mice. pA2 Online. From the Queen Elizabeth II Conference Centre London, Winter 2009 Meeting: Proceedings of the British Pharmacological Society. 7 (4).

Intraovarian changes associated with hypoxia during the rat oestrous cycle
Gillies, R.M., Carter, N.D., Robinson, S.P., McPhail, L.D. and Murray, J.F. 2009. Intraovarian changes associated with hypoxia during the rat oestrous cycle. National Ovarian Workshop. Fitzwilliam College, Cambridge 12-13 September 2009.

Inflamed phenotype of the mesenteric microcirculation of melanocortin type 3 receptor-null mice after ischemia-reperfusion
Leoni, G., Patel, H.B., Sampaio, A.L.F., Gavins, F.N.E., Murray, J.F., Grieco, P., Getting, S.J. and Perretti, M. 2008. Inflamed phenotype of the mesenteric microcirculation of melanocortin type 3 receptor-null mice after ischemia-reperfusion. FASEB Journal. 22 (12), pp. 4228-4238.

Ratio of 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin to 7,8-dihydrobiopterin in endothelial cells determines glucose-elicited changes in NO vs. Superoxide production by eNOS
Crabtree, M.J., Smith, C.L., Lam, G., Goligorsky, M.S. and Gross, S.S. 2008. Ratio of 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin to 7,8-dihydrobiopterin in endothelial cells determines glucose-elicited changes in NO vs. Superoxide production by eNOS. American Journal of Physiology: Heart and Circulatory Physiology. 294 (4), pp. H1530-H1540.

Melanocortin 3 receptor in the testes of mice
Yogarajah, S., Lynch, S., Smith, C.L., Getting, S.J., Perretti, M. and Murray, J.F. 2008. Melanocortin 3 receptor in the testes of mice. Society for Reproduction and Fertility. Edinburgh 29 Jun - 01 Jul 2008 pp. Abstract P80

Melanocortin 3 receptor in the testes of mice
Wotherspoon, G., Yogarajah, S., Lynch, S., Smith, C.L., Getting, S.J., Perretti, M. and Murray, J.F. 2008. Melanocortin 3 receptor in the testes of mice. pA2 Online. From the University of Brighton, Winter 2008 Meeting: Proceedings of the British Pharmacological Society. 6 (4), p. P008.

Asymmetric dimethylarginine negatively influences osteoblast differentiation in vitro
Stenbeck, G., Joseph, J., Getting, S.J. and Smith, C.L. 2008. Asymmetric dimethylarginine negatively influences osteoblast differentiation in vitro. pA2 Online. From the University of Brighton, Winter 2008 Meeting: Proceedings of the British Pharmacological Society. 6 (4), p. C041.

Disruption of methylarginine metabolism impairs vascular homeostasis
Leiper, J.M., Nandi, M., Torondel, B., Murray-Rust, J., Malaki, M., O'Hara, B., Rossiter, S., Anthony, S., Madhani, M., Selwood, D.L., Smith, C.L., Wojciak-Stothard, B., Rudiger, A., Stidwill, R., McDonald, N.Q. and Vallance, P. 2007. Disruption of methylarginine metabolism impairs vascular homeostasis. Nature Medicine. 13 (2), pp. 198-203.

C-reactive protein and asymmetric dimethylarginine: markers or mediators in cardiovascular disorders?
Smith, C.L. 2007. C-reactive protein and asymmetric dimethylarginine: markers or mediators in cardiovascular disorders? Current Pharmaceutical Design. 13 (16), pp. 1619-1629.

Evidence for a stimulatory action of melanin-concentrating hormone on luteinising hormone release involving MCH1 and melanocortin-5 receptors
Murray, J.F., Hahn, J.D., Kennedy, A.R., Small, C.J., Bloom, S.R., Haskell-Luevano, C., Coen, C.W. and Wilson, C.A. 2006. Evidence for a stimulatory action of melanin-concentrating hormone on luteinising hormone release involving MCH1 and melanocortin-5 receptors. Journal of Neuroendocrinology. 18 (3), pp. 157-167.

Effects of maternal undernutrition during early pregnancy on apoptosis regulators in the ovine fetal ovary
Lea, R.G., Andrade, L.P., Rae, M.T., Hannah, L.T., Kyle, C.E., Murray, J.F., Rhind, S.M. and Miller, D.W. 2006. Effects of maternal undernutrition during early pregnancy on apoptosis regulators in the ovine fetal ovary. Reproduction. 131, pp. 113-124.

Effects of ADMA upon gene expression: an insight into the pathophysiological significance of raised plasma ADMA
Smith, C.L., Anthony, S., Hubank, M., Leiper, J.M. and Vallance, P. 2005. Effects of ADMA upon gene expression: an insight into the pathophysiological significance of raised plasma ADMA. PLoS Medicine. 2 (10), pp. 1031-1043.

Cardiovascular tests: use & limits of biochemical markers - therapeutic measurements of ADMA involved in cardiovascular disorders
Smith, C.L. and Vallance, P. 2005. Cardiovascular tests: use & limits of biochemical markers - therapeutic measurements of ADMA involved in cardiovascular disorders. Current Pharmaceutical Design. 11 (17), pp. 2177-2185.

Selective substrate-based inhibitors of mammalian dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase
Rossiter, S., Smith, C.L., Malaki, M., Nandi, M., Gill, H., Leiper, J.M., Vallance, P. and Selwood, D.L. 2005. Selective substrate-based inhibitors of mammalian dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 48 (14), pp. 1670-1678.

Developmental indices of nutritionally induced placental growth restriction in the adolescent sheep
Lea, R.G., Hannah, L.T., Redmer, D.A., Aitken, R.P., Milne, J.S., Fowler, P.A., Murray, J.F. and Wallace, J.M. 2005. Developmental indices of nutritionally induced placental growth restriction in the adolescent sheep. Pediatric Research. 57 (4), pp. 599-604.

Pathophysiological concentrations of ADMA alter human coronary artery endothelial cell gene expression: an insight into the pathophysiological significance of raised plasma ADMA levels
Smith, C.L., Anthony, S., Malaki, M., Hubank, M., Leiper, J.M. and Vallance, P. 2005. Pathophysiological concentrations of ADMA alter human coronary artery endothelial cell gene expression: an insight into the pathophysiological significance of raised plasma ADMA levels. in: Boger, R., Fleming, I. and Waltenberger, J. (ed.) Vascular Biology and Medicine: 3rd European Meeting, Hamburg, September 2005, abstracts Germany Karger.

Potential therapeutic benefit of novel DDAH inhibitors for the treatment of endotoxemia
Nandi, M., Rossiter, S., Torondel, B., Malaki, M., Smith, C.L., Stidwill, R., Leiper, J.M. and Vallance, P. 2005. Potential therapeutic benefit of novel DDAH inhibitors for the treatment of endotoxemia. in: Boger, R., Fleming, I. and Waltenberger, J. (ed.) Vascular Biology and Medicine: 3rd European Meeting, Hamburg, September 2005, abstracts Germany Karger.

Evidence of systemic and pulmonary endothelial dysfunction in the Dimethylarginine Dimethylaminohydrolase I (DDAH I+/-) heterozygous knockout mouse
Malaki, M., Nandi, M., Madhani, M., Gill, H., Smith, C.L., Leiper, J.M. and Vallance, P. 2005. Evidence of systemic and pulmonary endothelial dysfunction in the Dimethylarginine Dimethylaminohydrolase I (DDAH I+/-) heterozygous knockout mouse. in: Boger, R., Fleming, I. and Waltenberger, J. (ed.) Vascular Biology and Medicine: 3rd European Meeting, Hamburg, September 2005, abstracts Germany Karger.

Dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase I (DDAH I) heterozygous knockout mice display a cardiovascular phenotype consisting of pulmonary and systemic endothelial dysfunction
Malaki, M., Nandi, M., Madhani, M., Gill, H., Smith, C.L., Leiper, J.M. and Vallance, P. 2005. Dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase I (DDAH I) heterozygous knockout mice display a cardiovascular phenotype consisting of pulmonary and systemic endothelial dysfunction. British Pharmaceutical Society Summer Meeting. Cambridge, UK 06-08 Jul 2005

Leptin expression in the fetus and placenta during mouse pregnancy
Malik, N.M., Carter, N.D., Wilson, C.A., Scaramuzzi, R.J., Stock, M.J. and Murray, J.F. 2005. Leptin expression in the fetus and placenta during mouse pregnancy. Placenta. 26 (1), pp. 47-52.

Effects of low dose ADMA on gene expression in human coronary artery endothelial cells
Smith, C.L., Leiper, J.M. and Vallance, P. 2004. Effects of low dose ADMA on gene expression in human coronary artery endothelial cells. Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry. 11 (1), p. 59.

Restoration of nitric oxide production by N-hydroxy-L-arginine in endothelial cells with NO deficiency triggered by elevated glucose
Crabtree, M.J., Smith, C.L. and Gross, S.S. 2004. Restoration of nitric oxide production by N-hydroxy-L-arginine in endothelial cells with NO deficiency triggered by elevated glucose. Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry. 11 (1), p. 65.

Overexpression of dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase enhances tumour hypoxia: an insight into the relationship of hypoxia and angiogenesis In vivo
Kostourou, V., Troy, H., Murray, J.F., Cullis, E.R., Whitley, G.S.J., Griffiths, J.R. and Robinson, S. 2004. Overexpression of dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase enhances tumour hypoxia: an insight into the relationship of hypoxia and angiogenesis In vivo. NeoPlasia. 6 (4), pp. 401-411.

Effects of low dose ADMA on gene expression in human coronary artery endothelial cells
Smith, C.L., Leiper, J.M. and Vallance, P. 2004. Effects of low dose ADMA on gene expression in human coronary artery endothelial cells. 3rd International Conference on the Biology, Chemistry and Therapeutic Applications of Nitric Oxide: 4th Anuual Scientific Meeting of the Nitric Oxide Society of Japan. Nara, Japan 24-28 May 2004

Restoration of nitric oxide production by N-hydroxyarginine in endothelial cells with NO deficiency triggered by elevated glucose
Crabtree, M.J., Smith, C.L. and Gross, S.S. 2004. Restoration of nitric oxide production by N-hydroxyarginine in endothelial cells with NO deficiency triggered by elevated glucose. 3rd International Conference on the Biology, Chemistry and Therapeutic Applications of Nitric Oxide: 4th Anuual Scientific Meeting of the Nitric Oxide Society of Japan. Nara, Japan 24-28 May 2004

Neonatal 5HT activity antagonizes the masculinizing effect of testosterone on the luteinizing hormone release response to gonadal steroids and on brain structures in rats
Murray, J.F., Dakin, C.L., Siddiqui, A., Pellatt, L.J., Ahmed, S., Ormerod, L.J.A., Swan, A.V., Davies, D.C. and Wilson, C.A. 2004. Neonatal 5HT activity antagonizes the masculinizing effect of testosterone on the luteinizing hormone release response to gonadal steroids and on brain structures in rats. European Journal of Neuroscience. 19 (2), pp. 387-395.

Dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase activity modulates ADMA levels, VEGF expression, and cell phenotype
Smith, C.L., Birdsey, G.M., Anthony, S., Arrigoni, F.I., Leiper, J.M. and Vallance, P. 2003. Dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase activity modulates ADMA levels, VEGF expression, and cell phenotype. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 308 (4), pp. 984-989.

Central orexin A has site-specific effects on luteinizing hormone release in female rats
Small, C.J., Goubillon, M.L., Murray, J.F., Siddiqui, A., Grimshaw, S.E., Young, H., Sivanesan, V., Kalamatianos, T., Kennedy, A.R., Coen, C.W., Bloom, S.R. and Wilson, C.A. 2003. Central orexin A has site-specific effects on luteinizing hormone release in female rats. Endocrinology. 144 (7), pp. 3225-3236.

Measurement of cardiac troponin I in striated muscle using three experimental methods
Fredericks, S., Bainbridge, K., Murray, J.F., Collinson, P.O., Carter, N.D. and Holt, D.W. 2003. Measurement of cardiac troponin I in striated muscle using three experimental methods. Annals of Clinical Biochemistry. 40 (3), pp. 244-248.

Cardiac troponin T and creatine kinase MB content in skeletal muscle of the uremic rat
Fredericks, S., Murray, J.F., Carter, N.D., Chesser, A.M.S., Papachristou, S., Yaqoob, M.M., Collinson, P.O., Gaze, D. and Holt, D.W. 2002. Cardiac troponin T and creatine kinase MB content in skeletal muscle of the uremic rat. Clinical Chemistry. 48 (6), pp. 859-868.

The redox status of bound pterin cofactor determines whether eNOS produces NO or superoxide anion: [3H] - BH4 binding studies provide insights into vascular pathophysiology
Jones, C.L., Vasquez-Vivar, J., Kalyanaraman, B., Griscavage-Ennis, J.M., Gross, S.S. and Smith, C.L. 2002. The redox status of bound pterin cofactor determines whether eNOS produces NO or superoxide anion: [3H] - BH4 binding studies provide insights into vascular pathophysiology. in: Milstien, S., Kapatos, G., Levine, R.A. and Shane, B. (ed.) Chemistry and biology of pteridines and folates: proceedings of the 12th International Symposium on Pteridines and Folates, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, M.D. Boston, USA Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 271-276

Activation and inactivation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase: characterization of Ca2+-dependent [125I]Calmodulin binding
Weissman, B.A., Jones, C.L., Liu, Q., Gross, S.S. and Smith, C.L. 2002. Activation and inactivation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase: characterization of Ca2+-dependent [125I]Calmodulin binding. European Journal of Pharmacology. 435 (1), pp. 9-18.

Leptin requirement for conception, implantation, and gestation in the mouse
Malik, N.M., Carter, N.D., Murray, J.F., Scaramuzzi, R.J., Wilson, C.A. and Stock, M.J. 2001. Leptin requirement for conception, implantation, and gestation in the mouse. Endocrinology. 142 (12), pp. 5198-5202.

Cardiac troponin T and creatine kinase MB are not increased in exterior oblique muscle of patients with renal failure
Fredericks, S., Murray, J.F., Bewick, M., Chang, R., Collinson, P.O., Carter, N.D. and Holt, D.W. 2001. Cardiac troponin T and creatine kinase MB are not increased in exterior oblique muscle of patients with renal failure. Clinical Chemistry. 47 (6), pp. 1023-1030.

An autoinhibitory control element defines calcium-regulated isoforms of nitric oxide synthase
Salerno, J.C., Harris, D.E., Irizarry, K., Patel, B., Morales, A.J., Smith, S.M.E., Martasek, P., Roman, L.J., Masters, B.S.S., Jones, C.L., Weissman, B.A., Lane, P., Liu, Q., Gross, S.S. and Smith, C.L. 1997. An autoinhibitory control element defines calcium-regulated isoforms of nitric oxide synthase. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 272 (47), pp. 29769-29777.

Permalink - https://westminsterresearch.westminster.ac.uk/item/9z7x7/effect-of-age-and-pregnancy-on-the-expression-of-melanocortin-receptors-4-and-5-in-the-mouse-female-reproductive-axis


Share this
Tweet
Email