Increasingly, transport is perceived as having important environmental consequences, which are proving even harder to resolve than in other sectors of production and consumption. For example, within the European Union, CO 2 emissions from manufacturing are in decline, but emissions from transport stubbornly refuse to fall. On a global level, transportation energy use continues to increase dramatically (Woodcock et al. 2009 ). This is due to the increasing movement both of people and of goods. While hopes have been raised that this might be offset by the increasing movement of information, so far the evidence for this is limited. Transport is a major and growing contributor to global CO 2 emissions, but is also implicated in a range of other environmental problems, including (but not limited to) air pollution, noise pollution, light pollution, resource depletion, community severance, decreasing biodiversity and soil erosion.