Chrysanthemum species used as food and medicine: Understanding quality differences on the global market

Gu, J., Scotti, F., Reich, E., Kirchhoff, R., Booker, A. and Heinrich, P.M. 2022. Chrysanthemum species used as food and medicine: Understanding quality differences on the global market. South African Journal of Botany. 148, pp. 123-134. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sajb.2022.04.009

TitleChrysanthemum species used as food and medicine: Understanding quality differences on the global market
TypeJournal article
AuthorsGu, J., Scotti, F., Reich, E., Kirchhoff, R., Booker, A. and Heinrich, P.M.
Abstract

Background

Chrysanthemum flowers [Ch. x morifolium (Ramat.) Hemsl. and Ch. indicum L.] are a globally used and pharmacologically interesting botanical drug, however, with variable product quality.

Objective

We aim at understanding the chemical variability of primary material available commercially based on different origins and associated quality problems like contamination with heavy metals. This needs to be assessed in the context of the current regulations for this botanical drug and associated problems.

Material and Methods

15 C. indicum L. and 50 C. x morifolium (Ramat.) Hemsl., including a range of geographical cultivars recognized in China, samples from the USA, Europe and China were analyzed using High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) to compare their general chemical profile. Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) was used to quantify heavy metal contamination.

Results

The: HPTLC fingerprints of C. indicum samples are clearly distinguishable from C. x morifolium. Fingerprints of samples from the same cultivars collected from markets in different countries (USA and China) show different patterns. Large variance of fingerprints within each cultivar group was observed. The heavy metal analysis showed excessive amounts of some harmful heavy metal in some commercial products with excessive cadmium being the most frequent problem.

Conclusions

The Chinese medicinal cultivars vary. Differences between samples sourced from the USA and China might be ascribable to geographical factors (e.g. soil composition), degradation during transport/storage or adulteration, but geographical differences should also be taken into account. Importantly, a much more detailed definition of the drug are needed for better quality control. In addition, with continuous contamination problem observed, a more widespread regulation is an essential requirement for better quality.

KeywordsChrysanthemum flower
Quality assurance
Global market
Cadmium
Quality control
TCM
JournalSouth African Journal of Botany
Journal citation148, pp. 123-134
ISSN0254-6299
Year2022
PublisherElsevier
Publisher's version
License
CC BY 4.0
File Access Level
Open (open metadata and files)
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sajb.2022.04.009
Web address (URL)https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0254629922001697
Publication dates
Published in printAug 2022
Published online23 Apr 2022

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