Tis impossible to be sure of anything but death and taxes (Christopher Bullock in the Cobbler of Preston, 1716). We are inclined to agree with Bullock concerning the certainly of death and in this context, aging is ubiquitous amongst humans which results in a deterioration of physiological function and an inevitable march towards death. However, physical activity and exercise are known to exert positive effects on health and wider physiological function via multiple complex and interacting mechanisms (that have not yet been completely defined).
In volume II of this Research Topic, 10 articles covered the interplay between exercise and aging, utilizing approaches that spanned molecular, physiological, and population scale approaches, in both healthy older populations and certain disease subsets. This work builds on our previous work Exercise as a Countermeasure to Human Aging, Volume I and it is a pleasure to note continued progress in this field, and the range of methodological approaches authors have used.